Design the command transmitter and its application which is android application depends on Wi-Fi technologyDesign the core circuit and Peripheral circuitsDesign telecommunication network to connect the task to the destination by Wi-Fi technology
As the world gets more and more technologically advanced, we find new technology coming in deeper and deeper into our personal lives even at home. Home automation is becoming more and more popular around the world and is becoming a common practice.Most advanced home automation systems in existence today require a big and expensive change of infrastructure. This means that it often is not feasible to install a home automation system in an existing building.The Home Automation is a wireless home automation system that is supposed to be implemented in existing home environments, without any changes in the existing infrastructure. Home Automation lets the user to control his home from his or her computer. In the computer program the user can create actions what should happen with electrical devices in the network depending on the sensors sensing surrounding environment.Let's take some examples of Home Automation : using a remote control to turn on a light across the room or unlocking the front door as you pull into the driveway are examples of using home automation, turning on your home sprinkler system with your cell phone or logging in from your computer at work to view your home security cameras are also examples of using home automation. Home automation includes anything that gives you remote or automatic control of the electronics inside it.
Make our home under control, such as (lighting, air-condition, garage and camera ) by single click at android applicationreduce time & effort and make it more secureby controlling temperature and lighting based on the programmed schedules, automation systems reduce the energy bills considerably.
Make our home under control, such as (lighting, air-condition, garage and camera ) by single click at android applicationreduce time & effort and make it more securegive handicapped people ability to serve themselves by themselvesEliminate the use of wires and reducing installation costs.
The flow chart of our project summarized this process: The command transmitted to the access point using the build in Wi-Fi module in smart phone which support 802.11 a\\b\\g.The command that out from smart phone has specific data and signaling information, the data is what the action of the command will be, like light on. On the other hand signaling will be specific source and destination IP.When the TP-Link access point received the commands transmitted from the smart phone, it will route the transmitted commands to the Ethernet port which is connected to the programmed Arduino microcontroller through Ethernet shieldThen the microcontroller will transmit the command wirelessly by ZigBee for far destinations and the destinations that we will not be able to connect it by copper wire because we don’t need to affect on the infrastructure of the home
5.1What is an Android?Android is open source and Google releases the code under the Apache License, allows the software to be freely modified and distributed by device manufacturers, wireless carriers and enthusiast developers. Android relies on Linux version 2.6 for core system services such as security, memory management, process management, network stack, and driver model. Additionally; Android has a large community of developers writing applications ("apps") that extend the functionality of devices, written primarily in a customized version of the Java programming language. 5.2 Development of Android applicationsTo develop Android applications (or any Java applications, for that matter), you need a development environment to write and build applications. Eclipse is a very popular development environment (IDE) for Java and the preferred IDE for Android development. It’s freely available for Windows, Mac, and Linux operating systems. Android also provides Android SDK (Software development kit) which gives you the API libraries and developer tools necessary to build, test, and debug apps for Android.
4.1 Android application We will write android application using java language to send wireless data to the access point ,controlling every device by a button at the android application.The layout of android will be like this :Username &Password First & Second Floor choices main room in each floor some devices that we want to it to be under control like light ,air condition …,etc. 
2.1 What is IP address? An IP address refers to a unique number assigned to each computer on the Internet. The IP number is called an "address" because it serves the same purpose as a home address; it allows each machine on the Internet to be located by a numerical scheme. The current version of the Internet protocol is IPv4, which provides a 32-bit address system. "Example of an IP addresses 192.168.1.1". Every device connected to a network, be it a local area network (LAN) or the Internet, is given an Internet protocol number. This address is used to identify the device uniquely among all other devices connected to the extended network. So in our project we will get the Arduino micro controller a specific IP address in order to reach it from network router that lies in our home and we will design to reach this router wirelessly (IEEE802.11 Wi-Fi) by smart phone to send a command to our home from anywhere. 2.2 What is IEEE 802.11 protocol? Wi-Fi is a short name for Wireless Fidelity. Generally, Wi-Fi refers to any type of IEEE 802.11 Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN). More specifically, Wi-Fi is the industry standard for products as defined by the Wi-Fi alliance and conforming to IEEE802.11. WLANs extend the reach of Local Area Networks (LANs) by providing wireless connectivity. It designed originally for cable replacement in corporate environments; WLANs have become very popular in providing IP connectivity in residential, small office and campus environments. With Wi-Fi, it is possible to create high-speed wireless local area networks, provided that the computer to be connected is not too far from the access point. In practice, Wi-Fi can be used to provide high-speed connections (11 Mbps or greater) and here are three versions of IEEE802.11: Nowadays there are many devices support all these standards together, as you can see above in the table, These type of Wi-Fi standards are different in data rate and coverage area, so in our project we don’t need high bit rate because we don’t need to transfer huge data. The data that we will transfer is just commands, on the other hand we need wide coverage area to cover all parts of our home so the best choice will be 802.11b.
Access PointIn computer networking , a wireless access point (AP) is a device that allows wireless devices to connect to a wired network using Wi-Fi, or related standards. The AP usually connects to a router (via a wired network) if it's a standalone device, or is part of a router itself.Definition: Wireless access points (APs or WAPs) are specially configured nodes on wireless local area networks (WLANs). Access points act as a central transmitter and receiver of WLAN radio signals. Access points used in home or small business networks are generally small, dedicated hardware devices featuring a built-in network adapter, antenna, and radio transmitter. Access points support Wi-Fi wireless communication standards.Although very small WLANs can function without access points in so-called "ad hoc" or peer-to-peer mode, access points support "infrastructure" mode. This mode bridges WLANs with a wired Ethernet LANand also scales the network to support more clients. Older and base model access points allowed a maximum of only 10 or 20 clients; many newer access points support up to 255 clients.
2.3 What is Ethernet 802.11.3?Ethernet is the most widely-installed local area network (LAN) technology. Specified in a standard, IEEE 802.3, Ethernet was originally developed by Xerox from an earlier specification called Alohanet (for the Palo Alto Research Center Aloha network) and then developed further by Xerox, DEC, and Intel. An Ethernet LAN typically uses coaxial cable or special grades of twisted pair wires. Ethernet is also used in wireless LANs. The most commonly installed Ethernet systems are called 10BASE-T and provide transmission speeds up to 10 Mbps. Devices are connected to the cable and compete for access using a Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) protocol.Fast Ethernet or 100BASE-T provides transmission speeds up to 100 megabits per second and is typically used for LAN backbone systems, supporting workstations with 10BASE-T cards.
3.2.1 What is Ethernet Shield Module The Arduino Ethernet Shield allows an Arduino board to connect to the internet. It is based on the Wiznet W5100 Ethernet chip providing a network (IP) stack capable of both Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) andUser Datagram Protocol (UDP). The Arduino Ethernet Shield supports up to four simultaneous socket connections. Use the Ethernet library to write sketches which connect to the internet via a standard RJ45 Ethernet jack using the shield.
3.1 Arduino microcontroller Arduino is an open-source single-board microcontroller, and a software suite for programming it. It's an open-source physical computing platform based on a simple microcontroller board, and a development environment for writing software for the board. Arduino can be used to develop interactive objects, taking inputs from a variety of switches or sensors, and controlling a variety of lights, motors, and other physical outputs. Arduino projects can be stand-alone, or they can be communicating with software running on your computer (e.g. Flash, Processing and Max/MSP.) The boards can be assembled by hand or purchased preassembled; the open-source IDE (integrated development environments) can be downloaded for free.3.1.1 Why Arduino?There are many other microcontrollers and microcontroller platforms available for physical computing. Parallax Basic Stamp.Net-media's BX-24.Phidgets, MIT's Handy-board.PIC- microcontroller. And many others offer similar functionality. All of these tools take the messy details of microcontroller programming and wrap it up in an easy-to-use package. Arduino also simplifies the process of working with microcontrollers, but it offers some advantage for teachers, students, and interested amateurs over other systems:Inexpensive - Arduino boards are relatively inexpensive compared to other microcontroller platforms. Cross-platform - The Arduino software runs on Windows, Macintosh OSX, and Linux operating systems. Most microcontroller systems are limited to Windows.Simple, clear programming environment - The Arduino programming environment is easy-to-use for beginners, yet flexible enough for advanced users to take advantage of as wellOpen source and extensible software- The Arduino software is published as open source tools, available for extension by experienced programmers. The language can be expanded through C++ libraries, and people wanting to understand the technical details can make the leap from Arduino to the AVR C programming language on which it's based.
What is XBEE?XBee is the brand name from Digi International for a family of form factor compatible radio modules. The first XBee radios were introduced under the Max Stream brand in 2005 and were based on the 802.15.4-2003 standard designed for wireless point-to-point and point-to-multipoint communications at baud rates of 250 Kbit/s.They are designed for high-throughput applications requiring low latency and predictable communication timing. XBee modules are ideal for low-power, low-cost applications.The XBee radio family consists of many types for example there is:XBee 802.15.4 (also known as Series 1 hardware) : The initial point-to-point (PTP), point-to-multipoint (PTM) radio running the IEEE 802.15.4 protocolXBee-PRO 802.15.4 (a.k.a. Series 1): A higher power versionXBee ZB (a.k.a. Series 2) : An XBee module that incorporates the ZigBee PRO Feature Set mesh networking protocol3.3.4 Why XBEE 2 (ZigBee)?In our project we will use the XBee ZB (series 2) that used the ZigBee protocol for many reasons that we will discuss here.ZigBee is a specification for a suite of high level communication protocols using small, low-power digital radios based on an IEEE802 standard for personal area networks.Features of series two:Low-cost: The low cost allows the technology to be widely deployed in wireless control and monitoring applications.Low-power: Low power-usage allows longer life with smaller batteries.Wireless mesh network standard: Mesh networking provides high reliability and more extensive range.ZigBee chip vendors typically sell integrated radios and microcontrollers with between 60 KB and 256 KB flash memory.Applications include Home automation, wireless light switches, electrical meters with in-home-displays, traffic management systems, and other consumer and industrial equipment that requires short-range wireless transfer of data at relatively low rates. 22.214.171.124 XBEE 1 Vs XBEE 2
Programming the XBee 2 Module ZigBee defines three difference device types: Coordinator: Start a new personal area network (PAN) by selecting the channel and PAN ID. Allow routers and end devices to join the PAN, transmit and receive RF data transmission and route the data through the mesh network.Router: Transmit and receive RF data transmission, and route data packet through the network.End Device: Cannot assist in routing the data transmission but transmit or receive RF data transmission and intended to be battery powered devices.To make Point to point communication between two XBees, we need to make one of the XBee S2 as Coordinator, another as Router. So, you will need to buy two units in order to get communication up. As mentioned early, XBee S1 and S2 cannot communicate, so you need to have a pair of XBee S2.Plug the XBee S2 module on the breakout board. Mind the polarity. Plug the USB cable to it and computer.In the programming of our XBees we will need to use the X-CTU software.
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procedureWe divide our project into three main parts:• Android application (transmitter)• Core circuit (microcontroller)• Wireless communication
Advantages of home automation• Flexibility & Convenience• Security• Cost Saving• Security• Remote Control
project objectives• Make our home under control• reduce time & effort and make it more secure• give handicapped people ability to serve themselves by themselves• Eliminate the use of wires and reducing installation costs by keep the infrastructure of home without any changes
Wireless communicationName of Name Description.standar d The 802.11a standard (called Wi-Fi 5) allows higher bandwidth (54 Mbps maximum802.11 Wi-Fi5 throughput, 30 Mbps in practice). The 802.11a standard provides 8 radio channels in the 5a GHz frequency band. The 802.11b standard is currently the most widely used one. It offers a maximum802.11 Wi-Fi throughput of 11 Mbps (6 Mbps in practice) and a reach of up to 300 meters in an openb environment. It uses the 2.4 GHz frequency range, with 3 radio channels available. The 802.11g standard offers high bandwidth (54 Mbps maximum throughput, 30 Mbps in802.11 practice) on the 2.4 GHz frequency range. The 802.11g standard is backwards-compatibleg with the 802.11b standard, meaning that devices that support the 802.11g standard can also work with 802.11b. Hypothetical Range Range speed (indoors) (outdoors) 11 Mbit/s 50 m 200 m 5.5 Mbit/s 75 m 300 m 2 Mbit/s 100 m 400 m 1 Mbit/s 150 m 500 m
Ethernet Shield Module• What is Ethernet 802.11.3• Ethernet is the most widely-installed local area network (LAN) technology.• uses coaxial cable or special grades of twisted pair wires.• Ethernet is also used in wireless LANs. The most commonly installed Ethernet systems are called 10BASE-T and provide transmission speeds up to 10 Mbps.
Ethernet Shield Module• What is Ethernet Shield Module
Arduino microcontroller• Arduino is an open-source single-board microcontroller.• Inexpensive.• Simple, clear programming environment .
XBEE Module Feature Series 1 Series 2 s ZigBee Wi-Fi Bluetooth Firmwa 802.15.4 ZigBeeRange 10-100 meters 50-100 10 – 100 meters meters reNetworking TopologyAd-hoc, peer to Point to Ad-hoc, very small Networ Point-to-point, Same as 1 peer, star, or mesh hub networks k peer-to-peer, +MeshOperating Frequency 868 MHz 2.4 and 5 2.4 GHz topologi point-to- Network (Europe) GHz multipoint (star) 900-928 MHz es (NA), 2.4 GHz Indoor/ 100 ft (30 m) / 133 ft (40 (worldwide) Urban 300 ft (90 m) m)Complexity Low High High rangePower Consumption Very low (low High Medium(Battery option and power is a design Outdoo 300 ft (90 m) / 400 ft (120life) goal) r/RF 1 mi (1.6 km) m)Security 128 AES plus 64 and 128 bit line-of- application layer encryption security sightTypical Applications Industrial control Wireless Wireless range and monitoring, LAN connectivity ADC (6) 10-bit ADC (4) 10-bit sensor networks, connectivit between devices inputs, inputs,(8) ADC building y, such as phones, Digital I/O inputs, (10) automation, home broadband PDA, laptops, Digital I/O Digital I/O control and Internet headsets automation, toys, access Serial 1200 - 250000 1200 – 1 games bps Mbps dataConnection Make connection Connection Bluetooth when connection is open at communicates with rate is needed all Transm 1 mW (0 dBm) 1.25 mW other device while so low power it power /60 mW (+18 (+1 dBm) consumption maintaining output dBm) (2 mW (+3 connection So high dBm) boost power consumption mode)
Accomplishment• What we did this semester:1. Attended many of the online courses and read several educational books about the programming of Arduino and Android.2. Read many topics in addition to the data sheet on how to connect the XBees on the same network for the exchange of data wirelessly.3. In the practical side and despite significant delay in the arrival of the electronic parts that we needed in our project, we have done the following:• Transferring of the data between 2 XBees using serial port.• Writing several codes to make sure that we understand the Arduino programming properly.• Start writing Android code to use Smartphone in the transfer of the data wirelessly to the Arduino through a router.
Future work• Continue reading the books, attending learning courses, and expanding Android and Arduino programs.• Writing a whole Arduino code to receive Data from Smartphone which will be to run lights or move the engine or Receive Sensors Data.• Finish writing the Android application in high quality.• Build and connect the electronic parts together.