Assignment 1:
A manager’s role is very crucial in an organization. The success of organization depends upon manager’s abil...
Spokesperson: In spokesperson role the manager represents his organization or unit with interacting with outsiders.
These ...
Decentralization is the process of moving decision-making powers down the chain of command. In a highly
decentralized orga...
Figure 1
Line-and-Staff Organization
Although a marketing executive does not actually produce the product or service, he o...
directly assists the Chief Operating Officer (COO) on all strategic and tactical matters as they
relate to budget manageme...
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assignment 1 management accounting by Dr. ZackZaki

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assignment 1 management accounting by Dr. ZackZaki

  1. 1. Assignment 1: A manager’s role is very crucial in an organization. The success of organization depends upon manager’s ability in utilizing the resources for achieving the pre determined goals. Henry Mintzberg suggested three areas where a manger has to work. Interpersonal Role Informational Role Decisional Role Interpersonal Role Interpersonal roles of a manger are concerned with his interacting with people both inside the organization and outsiders. There are three types of interpersonal roles. Figure Head: In figure head role manager performs activities which are ceremonial and symbolic nature. These include greeting the visitors attending the social functions involving employees, handing out merit certificates and other awards to outstanding employees. Leader: Manager’s leader role involves leading his subordinates and motivating them for willing contributions. Manager is responsible for activities of his subordinates. He has to set example of hard work and dedication so that subordinate follow his directions with respect. Liaison Role: In liaison role manager serves as a connecting link between his and outsiders or between his unit and other organizational units. Informational Role Informational role involves receiving collecting of information and distributing them as required. It is of three types Monitor: In monitoring role manager collects the information which can affect the organizational activities by reading magazines and periodicals, reports from the departments, talking with others to learn changes in the public’s taste. Disseminator: In disseminator role manger distribute the information to his subordinates and superiors by sending circulars, holding meetings and making phone calls.
  2. 2. Spokesperson: In spokesperson role the manager represents his organization or unit with interacting with outsiders. These may customer, financer, govt. suppliers or other agencies in society. It can be done by attending press conferences, meetings and by issuing notices. Decisional Role: It is very important role. Manager has to take decisions daily. In decisional role he performs four roles. Entrepreneur: As an entrepreneur the manger assumes certain risks which can affect the organization. He has to take decisions like expansion or diversification, initiation of new projects, development of older procedures etc. As a Conflict Handler: As a conflict handler he has to take care of certain disturbance in organization such as resolving employee disputes and strikes etc. Resource Allocator: As a resource allocator managers fulfill the demand of various units in terms of human physical and financial. He tries to utilize these resources in such way that no department suffers for their inadequacy. Negotiator: As negotiator manager has to take decisions regarding prices with suppliers and customers. He also deals with trade unions and negotiates with them regarding working conditions and wage fixation. What Is Decentralizing? By Mark Holtzman from Managerial Accounting For Dummies
  3. 3. Decentralization is the process of moving decision-making powers down the chain of command. In a highly decentralized organization, frontline managers and staff often make important decisions. On the other hand, in a highly centralized organization, senior managers at the top of the organization chart make the decisions. Decentralization offers several benefits: Large corporations may need to oversee many diverse subsidiaries, making it impossible for a top-level manager to call all the shots. Frontline employees usually have closer access to the information needed to make decisions, enabling them to respond more quickly than senior managers can. Decentralization empowers employers to make more independent decisions with less red tape from senior managers, often improving employee morale. It facilitates speedy customer service because it doesn’t require employees to wait for supervisor approvals. As an example of decentralization, many discount stores train and empower service desk employees to decide which customer returns to accept and which to reject. After all, those folks should best know which returns appear reasonable, and anyway, the dollar value of each return is low. A more centralized organization would impose stricter requirements on which returns a service desk employee can or can’t accept, leaving very little to the employee’s own judgment. That said, decentralization has some problems, so it isn’t for every organization. Decentralized organizations often must devote duplicate assets and duplicate efforts to get things done. Furthermore, decentralization can make it difficult for senior managers to fully monitor and control a large number of frontline employees making decisions. As such, poor or self-interested decisions may lead to errors or even fraud. For example, when issuing home mortgages, most banks require that a central department approve every mortgage applicant. Although this process delays the application process (and damages the perception of customer service), it also reduces the proportion of bad loans. LINE-AND-STAFF POSITIONS A wide variety of positions exist within a line-and-staff organization. Some positions are primary to the company's mission, whereas others are secondary—in the form of support and indirect contribution. Although positions within a line-and-staff organization can be differentiated in several ways, the simplest approach classifies them as being either line or staff. A line position is directly involved in the day-to-day operations of the organization, such as producing or selling a product or service. Line positions are occupied by line personnel and line managers. Line personnel carry out the primary activities of a business and are considered essential to the basic functioning of the organization. Line managers make the majority of the decisions and direct line personnel to achieve company goals. An example of a line manager is a marketing executive.
  4. 4. Figure 1 Line-and-Staff Organization Although a marketing executive does not actually produce the product or service, he or she directly contributes to the firm's overall objectives through market forecasting and generating product or service demand. Therefore, line positions, whether they are personnel or managers, engage in activities that are functionally and directly related to the principal workflow of an organization. Staff positions serve the organization by indirectly supporting line functions. Staff positions consist of staff personnel and staff managers. Staff personnel use their technical expertise to assist line personnel and aid top management in various business activities. Staff managers provide support, advice, and knowledge to other individuals in the chain of command. Although staff managers are not part of the chain of command related to direct production of products or services, they do have authority over personnel. An example of a staff manager is a legal adviser. He or she does not actively engage in profit-making activities, but does provide legal support to those who do. Therefore, staff positions, whether personnel or managers, engage in activities that are supportive to line personnel. The chief financial officer (CFO) or chief financial and operating officer (CFOO) is a corporate officer primarily responsible for managing the financial risks of the corporation. This officer is also responsible for financial planning and record-keeping, as well as financial reporting to higher management. In some sectors the CFO is also responsible for analysis of data. The title is equivalent to finance director, a common title in the United Kingdom. The CFO typically reports to the chief executive officer and to the board of directors, and may additionally sit on the board. The CFO supervises the finance unit and is the chief financial spokesperson for the organization. The CFO reports directly to the President/Chief Executive Officer (CEO) and
  5. 5. directly assists the Chief Operating Officer (COO) on all strategic and tactical matters as they relate to budget management, cost benefit analysis, forecasting needs and the securing of new funding.

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