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  1. 1. Motivation 1SMU Learning Centre, Alwar LC Code 03034
  2. 2. Successful motivationSuccessful motivation involves:involves: • Getting people to do what you want them to do • When you want them to do it • The way you want them to do it • Because they want to do it
  3. 3. Desire to be an achiever.
  4. 4. RetainedRetained Motivation is the key to finishing your race with success • Do you not know thatDo you not know that those who run in athose who run in a race all run, but onerace all run, but one receives the prize?receives the prize? Run in such a way thatRun in such a way that you may obtain may obtain it.
  5. 5. Motivation through personal growth benefits Some people simply desire to grow or mature and they are motivated by the personal benefits
  6. 6. Motivation through team spirit and loyalty Five of you shall chase a hundred, and a hundred of you shall put ten thousand to fight; your enemies shall fall by the sword before you.
  7. 7. Contents • Introduction • Concepts of motivation • Theories of motivation • Employees and motivation • Motivation techniques • Distinction between morale and motivation 7SMU Learning Centre, Alwar LC Code 03034
  8. 8. What is Motivation • In general we can say that Motivation is a phenomenon which helps in understanding human behavior. • The term motivation is derived from the Latin word movere, which means to move. • Motivation is defined as the set of forces that cause people to behave in certain ways. • Stephen P Robbins defines motivation asStephen P Robbins defines motivation as “The willingness to exert high levels of effort towards Organizational goals, conditioned by the effort’s ability to satisfy some individual need.” • Motivation consists of three interacting and interdependent elements- needs, drives and goals. 8SMU Learning Centre, Alwar LC Code 03034 “The set of forces that cause people to behave in a certain way” (Steers & Porter, 1991
  9. 9. Introduction • The study of human motivation is important in any theory of motivation. • Man is an organic system and not the mechanical one. • The inputs of energy like food and water are converted to outputs of behavior. • Management’s job is to create and maintain an environment for individuals working together to achieve common objectives. • Therefore, a manager must know what motivates people. 9SMU Learning Centre, Alwar LC Code 03034
  10. 10. Learning Objectives After studying this unit, you will be able to • Understand motivation and its concepts • Understand theoretical framework for workplace environment • Understand how theoretical framework for workplace environment is linked to employee morale. 10SMU Learning Centre, Alwar LC Code 03034
  11. 11. Concept of Motivation • Individuals must be motivated to achieve the desired level of performance. • Knowledge of motivational process helps to understand why people do what they do. • Motivation is positively related to the concepts of – Level of aspiration – Degree of commitment – Inclination towards action • Motivation helps to change a person’s ‘ability to do’ into ‘the will to do’. 11SMU Learning Centre, Alwar LC Code 03034
  12. 12. Definitions of Motivation • “Motivation is the act of stimulating someone to get a desired course of action.” ---- Michael Jucius • “Motivation means the phenomena involved in the operations of incentives and drives.” ---- James Drive • “Motivation is the process (a) of arousing or initiating behavior, (b) of sustaining an activity in progress, and (c) of channeling of activity in the given course.” ---- P.T. Young 12SMU Learning Centre, Alwar LC Code 03034
  13. 13. • A person performance depends on his skill and motivation. • Performance = Skill * Motivation • Laboratory experiments have proved that other things being equal, performance level is higher if motivation level is higher. • Motivation can be understood by understanding the meaning and relationship between needs, drives and goals. 13SMU Learning Centre, Alwar LC Code 03034
  14. 14. Motivation Cycle Physiological / Psychological Deficiency Individual Behaves in a certain manner Achieves a particular goal 14SMU Learning Centre, Alwar LC Code 03034
  15. 15. • Needs: The one word definition of a need is efficiency. Needs are created when there is a physiological or psychological imbalance. For example, a need exists when human body is deprived of food and water or when human beings are deprived of their friends. • Drives: Drives are set up to lessen needs. A drive is defined as a deficiency with direction. Drives provide a push towards achieving goals. The examples of the needs for food and water are converted to hunger and thirst drives, and the need for friends become drive for affiliation. • Goals: Goals are at the end of the motivation cycle. A goal lessens a need and reduces a drive. 15SMU Learning Centre, Alwar LC Code 03034
  16. 16. Theories of Motivation • Many theories have been proposed to explain people’s behavior. • These theories explain human motivation through human needs and human nature. • Important theories of motivation are – Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Theory – McGregor’s Theory ‘X’ and Theory ‘Y’ – Herzberg and et all's Motivation-Hygiene Theory 16SMU Learning Centre, Alwar LC Code 03034
  17. 17. Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Theory • According to Maslow, an individual’s motivation depends on the order of needs that he wants to satisfy. • His model of ‘Hierarchy of Needs’ indicates the following aspects of human behavior. – Physiological needs – Safety needs – Social needs – Esteem needs – Self-actualization needs 17SMU Learning Centre, Alwar LC Code 03034
  18. 18. Maslow’sMaslow’s HierarchyHierarchy of Needsof Needs SelfSelf EsteemEsteem SocialSocial SafetySafety PhysiologicalPhysiological Be where you want to be Need for respect from others Need to be in a group, be loved Need for stability and consistency Basic needs like food, water 18SMU Learning Centre, Alwar LC Code 03034
  19. 19. 1.Physiological Needs • These are the basic needs of food, thirst, shelter and companionship. • These needs are independent of each other. • They are cyclic, i.e. satisfied for a very short period. They reappear after a certain time period. 2.Safety Needs • After satisfying physiological needs, needs for protection against danger and threats arise. 3.Social Needs • After satisfying the physiological and safety needs, need for love and affection and belongingness arise. • An individual wants friendly relationships with people and wants to have a respected place in the society. 19SMU Learning Centre, Alwar LC Code 03034
  20. 20. 4.Esteem Needs • Everyone has a need for self-respect. • This produces the desire for strength, confidence, prestige, recognition and appreciation. • These needs are rarely fully satisfied. 5.Self-actualization Needs • The term “self-actualization” was coined by Kurt Goldstein and means, to become what one is good at. • A person may achieve self-actualization in being the ideal fitter, supervisor, mother or an artist. 20SMU Learning Centre, Alwar LC Code 03034
  21. 21. Theory X and Theory Y • The quality of an organization depends on the belief of the management on how to control its human resources. • Professor Douglas McGregor proposed two opposite sets of assumptions about employees. They are represented by Theory X and Theory Y. • Theory X is based on traditional beliefs while Theory Y is based on researches in behavioral science concerned with modern social views on man at work. 21SMU Learning Centre, Alwar LC Code 03034
  22. 22. Assumptions of Theory X------ • It implies that the supervisor has a low opinion of the workers and has low expectations fro his workers. • These beliefs reduce supervisor’s effort to improve work satisfaction. • Workers feel that work is very unpleasant. • Management assumes that employees are lazy and try to avoid work. • Workers need close supervision while they are on work. • Workers give high priority to security and show little ambition. • Theory X assumes that lower order needs lead people. 22SMU Learning Centre, Alwar LC Code 03034
  23. 23. Assumptions of Theory Y------- • Management assumes that employees may be ambitious, self-motivated, accept greater responsibility and are self- controlled and self-directed. • Employees enjoy their work. • If given a chance, employees want to be creative. • Productivity increases when employees are given freedom to work without bounding them by rules. • Theory Y assumes that higher order needs lead people. • It implies that on the job satisfaction is necessary. 23SMU Learning Centre, Alwar LC Code 03034
  24. 24. Herzberg et all's Motivation Hygiene Theory • According to Herzberg and his associates one group of needs consisting of supervision, working conditions, interpersonal relations, salary, status, job security, and personal life are only dissatisfiers and not motivators. They do not lead to motivation but their absence results in dissatisfaction. Hence, their presence is essential. • These are known as maintenance or hygiene factors. • The second group of needs consist of achievement, recognition, challenging work, advancement, and growth in the job. Their presence will give satisfaction. • These are known as job content factors and are real motivators. 24SMU Learning Centre, Alwar LC Code 03034
  25. 25. Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory Motivational FactorsHygiene Factors •Company policies • Quality of supervision • Relations with others • Personal life • Rate of pay • Job security • Working conditions • Achievement • Career advancement • Personal growth • Job interest • Recognition • Responsibility 25SMU Learning Centre, Alwar LC Code 03034
  26. 26. Classes of Motivators • Motivators may be financial or non-financial. • Non-financial motivators may be individual, group, or company. • Individual motivators are people’s basic needs like food, shelter, clothing, etc. • Stimuli that arise due to social interactions are also good motivators. 26SMU Learning Centre, Alwar LC Code 03034
  27. 27. Employees and Motivation • Neither direct pressure nor good treatment can motivate employees to do a job satisfactorily. Factors to be used as guidelines for motivating people are • People are motivated by themselves and are rarely directly motivated by other people. So, there should be no direct manipulation, instead an atmosphere should be created that will help individual to greater achievement. • Motivation of people depends on their image of themselves. A person’s psychological needs affect his self-image. • Achievement is always a result of motivation. 27SMU Learning Centre, Alwar LC Code 03034
  28. 28. Suggestions for developing an atmosphere that is favorable to motivation: •Establish clear objectives and standards. •Evaluate a person’s progress against these standards. •Discuss the progress with him and help him to make necessary adjustments. •Take corrective action when necessary. •Use rewards when results are good. •Encourage and appreciate excellence among people. •Keep your expectations according to the person’s capacity. •Assign intermediate goals so that the person gets a feeling of achievement. •Give difficult challenges occasionally. •Make him understand the organization’s total goals and what he is contributing. 28SMU Learning Centre, Alwar LC Code 03034
  29. 29. Motivation Techniques • According to Michael Jucius, motivating employees consists of two parts: – What is to be done? (Steps in motivation) – How and why it is to be done? (Rules regulating the steps) The steps of motivation are 1. Size up situation requiring motivation: The first step of motivation is to identify motivational needs. All employees need motivation but their reaction to the stimuli is not same. Hence, executives have to make out how much and what kind of motivation is needed by each individual. 29SMU Learning Centre, Alwar LC Code 03034
  30. 30. 2. Prepare a set of motivating tools: After determining the motivational needs of individuals, specific tools of motivation to be used are selected. An executive uses his experience to decide which devices would work with what type of people. 3. Selecting and applying the appropriate motivator: Proper application of motivational plan is important. This includes selection of suitable technique, method of application and timing and location of applications. 4. Follow-up the results of the application: This is the last stage of motivation. The main objective is to know whether the employee has been motivated or not. If not, some other technique should be used. The secondary purpose of follow up is to evaluate motivation plans for future guidance. 30SMU Learning Centre, Alwar LC Code 03034
  31. 31. The motivation process follows certain rules which should be based on the following principles: •Self-interest and motivation: Motivation is built on selfishness. Selfishness is a part of life. The aim should be learn more about selfishness. •Attainability: Motivation must set achievable goals. What is set for a particular person, should be achievable 31SMU Learning Centre, Alwar LC Code 03034
  32. 32. Eight Ways To Motivate Plant Employees According to a study conducted at manufacturing plants of General Electric Company, Sorcher and Meyer have given following ways to improve motivation of employees in routine jobs: 1.Provide assembly line employees with more than minimum training. 2.Create sub-goals to measure what has been achieved. 3.Provide regular feedback on performance. 4.Maintain neat and systematic work area. 5.At the work situation, conversation between employees should be easy or there should be provision for conversation. 32SMU Learning Centre, Alwar LC Code 03034
  33. 33. 6. Increase the number of tasks performed by one employee. It provides the following advantages: – The risk of errors is reduced – Training costs are minimized – Management can hire employees at lower wages. 6. Jobs should be structured so that workers can occasionally move within the work area. Physical movement can also be provided by asking employees to get their tools themselves or by adding work which requires some physical activity. 7. Search for ways to assign greater personal responsibility. One way to increase responsibility is to ask employee to check his own work. 33SMU Learning Centre, Alwar LC Code 03034
  34. 34. Distinction Between Morale and Motivation • Morale and motivation are related terms but don’t mean the same. • Motivation is individualistic while morale is a group character. • Morale is on account of many favorable attitudes and friendly atmosphere in an organization. • Motivation is natural and can be improved by external factors. 34SMU Learning Centre, Alwar LC Code 03034
  35. 35. Morale and Motivation – A Winning Combination • An organization achieves best results when it has both, high morale and high motivation. • Some tips to improve motivation and morale in an organization are: 1. Highlight the positive. Spend time on focusing on good aspects. 2. Reward members and volunteers when their performance is better than expectation. It would make the individual feel good and encourage others. 3. Ask for input from others, get their opinions and suggestions. 4. Provide regular feedback when employees achieve something. 5. Members and volunteers should be made answerable for their performance. 35SMU Learning Centre, Alwar LC Code 03034
  36. 36. 6. Get members’ and volunteers’ opinion about issues and decisions that affect the organization and involve them in such decisions. 7. Give a schedule for completing the tasks. It should be flexible. 8. Give members and volunteers information that they require to complete the task. 9. Set up effective and user-friendly channels of communication. 10. Tell the truth, but the manner of telling the truth should be friendly. 11. As far as possible, use “we” instead of “I”. 12. Always celebrate success. 13. The mix between morale and motivation should be very careful. It can take organization and its members to great heights. 36SMU Learning Centre, Alwar LC Code 03034
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