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  1. 1. Advancement of IT : Enabling Technology Through Freedom of Choice, Open Innovation and Collaborative Computing Professor Dr R Badlishah Ahmad Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP)
  2. 2. Introdution ● ● ● ● IT is advancing and changing at rapid pace because of Internet (TCP/IP) Access to Internet become necessity.. from fiber optic to 3G, 4G, WiMAX etc Everybody is getting connected and make themselves available and accessible anytime and anywhere What are the software technology behind this? Use by giant company such as Google and Facebook Co..
  3. 3. Internet 1965: Two computers at MIT Lincoln Lab communicate with one another using packet-switching technology 1968: Beranek and Newman, Inc. (BBN) unveils the final version of the Interface Message Processor (IMP) specifications. BBN wins ARPANET contract 1972: BBN’s Ray Tomlinson introduces network email. The Internetworking Working Group (INWG) forms to address need for establishing standard protocols 1973: Global networking becomes a reality as the University College of London (England) and Royal Radar Establishment (Norway) connect to ARPANET. The term Internet is born.
  4. 4. Internet 1974: Vinton Cerf and Bob Kahn (Fathers of the Internet) publish "A Protocol for Packet Network Interconnection," which details the design of TCP 1982: TCP and IP, as the protocol suite, commonly known as TCP/IP, emerge as the protocol for ARPANET. (IPv4 to IPv6) 1987: The number of hosts on the Internet exceeds 20,000. Cisco ships its first router 1990: Tim Berners-Lee, develops HyperText Markup Language (HTML) 1991: World Wide Web is introduced to the public INTERNET is based on TCP/IP and the source code is OPEN/Available
  5. 5. Transmission Medium ● coaxial cable, the first broadband transmission medium, invented by AT&T in 1929 for Ethernet: – – ● at 400MHz, Cable Loss 5.5dB/100ft at 20GHz, Loss ~ 100dB/100ft Data Rate of 10-100Mbs
  6. 6. Transmission Medium ● Twisted Pair cabling: – ● Shielded Twisted Pair (STP) & Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) UTP: most popular network cable in data networks for short/medium length (up to 100 meters or 328 feet) BW ~ 1GHz – Data Rate of 40Gbs (50m) – 1 pair of cable – 100Gbs (15m) – 1 pair of cable – 1 Gigabit Ethernet (GE) – 250Mb/s per pair (there are 4 pairs) – 10GE? Heavier, difficult to maintain → Fibre is the best option
  7. 7. Transmission Medium ● Fiber Optic – ● ● BW 1THz, Loss ~ 0.93dB/1km 26 Terabit/s in 1 Wavelength channel at 50km Explosive of mass data! -> Internet of Things
  8. 8. Internet Evolution to Human (Video)
  9. 9. Freedom of Choice and Open Innovation: Technology Availability
  10. 10. Education Gets IT & OPEN ● ● ● Massachusetts Institute of Technology is leading the way MIT OCW shares free lecture notes, exams, and other resources from more than 1,700 courses spanning MIT's entire curriculum 40 million visits from virtually every country on earth 10
  11. 11. Microsoft Commitment ● (Microsoft Malaysia presentation at Malaysian Open Source Conference (MOSC) 2011) – to achieve Openness and Interoperability with OSS – designing products to support OSS – collaboration with OSS vendors to ensure interoperability between products – contributing to OSS projects – releasing some technologies under approved Open Source licenses 11
  12. 12. Important of an Open Standard? Standards, instructions or “blueprints” that are created and maintained in an open manner. Using a democratic approach where no single individual or company controls the standard. Open standards provide choice and interoperability between systems. 12
  13. 13. Open Source Software (OSS) or Free Software (FS)? ● ● OSS == FS A type of software defined by its collaborative development model, accessibility of code and distribution models. – ● Examples are GNU/Linux kernel, gcc, Open Office, Xpdf, GIMP etc. This is in contrast with proprietary software which is only available in a binary or “closed” format and typically carries a license fee. – Examples are Microsoft XP & Vista, Microsoft Visual C/C++, Borland C, MS Office 2007, Adobe Photoshop etc. 13
  14. 14. Binary code: 14
  15. 15. Source code: #include <stdio.h> int main (void) { printf("hello, world!n"); return 0; } 15
  16. 16. Technology Availability “Free Software/Open Source Software (FOSS)” 16
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  18. 18. Unix family tree 1970 1980 2000 1990 FreeBSD BSD family OpenBSD BSD (Berkeley Software Distribution) NetBSD Bill Joy Bill Joy SunOS (Stanford University Network) NextStep Bell Labs (AT&T) GNU Richard Stallman MacOS X GNU / Linux Linus Torvalds Ken Thompson Dennis Ritchie (C language created to implement a portable OS) IRIX (SGI) SRV5 Ritchie, Thompson Time System V family HP­UX Sun Solaris  AIX (IBM)
  19. 19. GNU Project GNU = GNU is Not Unix (a recursive acronym!) Project to implement a completely free Unix-like operating system ● ● ● Started by Richard Stallman in 1984, an MIT researcher, in a time when Unix sources were researcher no longer free. Initial components: C compiler (gcc), make (GNU make), Emacs, C library (glibc), coreutils (ls, cp ...) However, in 1991, the GNU project was still missing a kernel and was running only on proprietary unice, until the invention of Linux kernel!! Richard Stallman 19
  20. 20. Linux Kernel (part of an OS) ● ● Linus Torvald ● ● ● Free Unix-like kernel created in 1991 by Linus Torvalds The whole system uses GNU tools: C library, gcc, binutils, fileutils, make, emacs... So the whole system is called “GNU/Linux” Shared very early as free software (GPL license), which attracted more and more contributors and users Since 1991, growing faster than any other operating system (not only Unix) 20
  21. 21. Linux Kernel Evolution 21
  22. 22. GNU/Linux DISTRIBUTIONS (Distros) 22
  23. 23. Distros... All in 1 Disc!! ● ● ● LibreOffice.org: word processing, spreadsheet & presentation Thunderbird+Lightning: email & calendaring Firefox, Chrome: Web browsing → try the add-ons! ● Pidgin: instant messaging ● Gimp: image manipulation, animations ● Blender: 3D imaging, rendering and animations ● Exaile: music manager and player ● VLC: video & music player ● Much more...
  24. 24. More Sample of FOSS
  25. 25. The GIMP The GNU Image Manipulation Program http://gimp.org ● License: GPL ● Main developers: community ● Extremely powerful image processor Similar to Photoshop ● Platforms: Unix/Linux/MacOS , Windows ● Extensible and scriptable through plugins.
  26. 26. OpenOffice.org Full featured and popular free office suite http://openoffice.org/ ● ● ● License: LGPL (since version 2.0) Main developer: Sun Microsystems, with support from a big community. Business model: selling desktop solutions without Microsoft software. Supported platforms: Unix, Windows, MacOSX
  27. 27. LibreOffice ● Main developer: The Document Foundation ● A fork of OpenOffice.org. ● Support Open Document Format (ODF) to provide freedom ● ● LibreOffice has been downloaded approximately 7.5 million times since its first stable launch in January 2011. Default office suite in many different Linux distributions, such as Fedora, Linux Mint, openSUSE and Ubuntu. ● Google also supports the LibreOffice project ● LibreOffice is licensed under the terms of the LGPLv3 http://www.libreoffice.org/
  28. 28. Inkscape A vector graphics editor http://inkscape.org ● License: GNU GPL ● Developers: community ● ● Supported platforms: Linux/Unix, Windows and MacOS X Competing with Corel Draw and Adobe Illustrator
  29. 29. Mozilla Firefox Today's most advanced and friendly web browser & No 1 browser http://mozilla.org/projects/firefox ● ● ● ● ● License: MPL (copyleft type) Main developers: Mozilla Foundation, community Supported platforms: Unix / Linux, Windows, MacOS X A very serious competitor to Internet Explorer, which development was stopped for years! Market share (March 2007): 24 % in Europe. It even reaches 44% in Slovenia, 41% in Finland and 36% in Germany! More statistics on http://www.xitimonitor.com.
  30. 30. Eclipse ● ● ● Integrated development environment (IDE) comprising a base workspace and an extensible plug-in system for customizing the environment written mostly in Java and able to compile JAVA other programming languages including Ada, C, C++, COBOL, Fortran, Haskell, JavaScript, Lasso, Perl, PHP, Python, R, Ruby (including Ruby on Rails framework), Scala, Clojure, Groovy, Scheme, and Erlang
  31. 31. Scilab ● ● ● ● ● Open Source Scilab is open source software distributed under CeCILL license cross-platform numerical computational package high-level, numerically oriented programming language MATLAB!
  32. 32. KiCAD ● ● software suite for electronic design automation (EDA) integrated environment for all of the stages of the design process: – – PCB layout – ● Schematic Capture Gerber file generation/visualization and library editing cross-platform program, written with wxWidgets to run on – FreeBSD, Linux, Microsoft Windows and Mac OS X
  33. 33. Android ● A Software platform and operating system for mobile devices ● Based on the Linux kernel. ● Found way back in 2003. ● Developed in Palo Alto, California. ● ● Developed by the Andy Rubin, Rich Miner, Nick Sears and Chris White. Purchased by the GOOGLE in AUGUST, 2005 for $50million
  34. 34. Market Share
  35. 35. Android - Open Handset Alliance (OHA) ● ● ● It’s consortium of several companies. This group of companies are allowed to use source code of Android and develop applications. Nokia/Blackberry - not part of OHA.
  36. 36. GNU/Linux alternatives to Proprietary tools Internet Explorer IIS Money MS Office MS Outlook MS Project Nero Photoshop WinAmp W. Media Player Mozilla Firefox Apache GNU Cash OpenOffice Evolution Mr Project (Planner) k3b The GIMP xmms xine mplayer Alternatives to Windows programs: http://linux.ie/newusers/alternatives.php
  37. 37. Why FOSS? Is it because of Cost?
  38. 38. Free Software (Open Source Software) Free Software grants the below 4 freedoms to the user: The freedom to run the program, for any purpose ● The freedom to study how the program works, and adapt it to one's needs ● The freedom to redistribute copies to help others ● The freedom to improve the program, and release one's improvements to the public ● See http://www.gnu.org/philosophy/free-sw.html 38
  39. 39. Proprietary Software Microsoft & EULA (End User License Agreement) ● ● You give up all rights You accept all obligations placed on you for limited benefit ● You may not share the software ● You may not change the software ● You do not own the software ● You may only install the software to one device ● ● We reserve the right to change the license for any reason or purpose at any time You may only run the software as specifically spelled out in the EULA 39
  40. 40. Government Adoption Trends ● ● ● Worldwide, 265 government policy initiatives ranging from pilot projects to preferences (and even mandates) for the use of OSS (Center for Strategic and International Studies – April 2006) Most OSS policy initiatives are in Europe (47%), Asia (27%), LATAM (15%) followed by N. America (9%) Local/state level more likely to be approved by council/legislative action ***Data taken from CSIS Study on Government Open Source Policies 40
  41. 41. It is because of Freedom! 41
  42. 42. Why US Governments move to open source Public sector organizations must cut costs in an environment of software upgrades, security issues and piracy ● The level of acceptance of open source has been raised ● The need to provide increased access for business and people ● To promote a local software industry ● The software can be shared ● 42
  43. 43. U.S. Federal Government OSS users ● U.S. Air Force ● DHS ● DISA ● NOA ● Army ● Census Bureau ● Navy ● DOJ ● Marine Corp ● GSA ● Coast Guard ● Energy ● NASA ● PTO ● FAA ● U.S. Courts 43
  44. 44. Sampling of 5,000+ users in the U.S. ● City of New York DoITT ● Connecticut DoIT ● City of Chicago ● Indiana University ● Penn State University ● Florida EPA ● University of Michigan ● NC DPI ● City of Houston ● Minnesota DOT ● Louisiana Health & Human Services ● Pennsylvania OIT City of Philadelphia ● ● DeKalb County, GA Los Angeles County ● ● NC University System State of North Carolina ITS ● ● Henrico County, VA ● Minnesota Department of Natural Resources City of Seattle ● ● Purdue University ● Arizona State University ● University of Phoenix MIT ● CUNY & SUNY ● Miami-Dade County, FL ● University of Texas ● University of Chicago ● Florida Department of Health ● Massachusetts ITD ● Carnegie Mellon University ● Wisconsin DET ● Baltimore County, MD ● Georgia University System ● Emory University ● NY State Insurance Dept. ● City of Los Angeles ● MD Anderson ● ● ● California DOJ Johns Hopkins University 44
  45. 45. Focus on Brazil's government ● Many ministries have switched to Linux and other OSS – “The number one reason for this change is economic” - Sergio Amadeu, National Institute for Information Technology (BBC, 2005) ● Plan open source when digitizing the Federal court system ● State of Parana – ● “The world of technology is opening up; there are hundreds of thousands of people working to improve free software. The old, closed model must adapt in order to survive.” – ● ● adopting eGroupWare, MySQL solution for its 10,000 users Cerqueira Cesar, Head of IT, Banco do Brasil Many ministries have switched to Linux and other OSS All Schools will be using Linux PC (825,000 installation – 2008), 2009 another 150,000 – LXF Magazine July 2008. 45
  46. 46. Focus on India's government ● State Government of Kerala – – ● ● ● Announced in 2006 it will be a completely FLOSS zone Deploying linux in 12,500 schools Goa, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal using Linux to save costs on e-governance Sam Pitroda, National Knowledge Commission: “... we must actively encourage wherever possible open source software implementations and open standards.” Several national and local government projects to distribute OSS freely in local languages 46
  47. 47. Focus on Malaysia's government ● ● ● ● ● Approved by the Government IT and Internet Committee on 19 th February 2004 Announcement of OSS Master Plan 16th July 2004 Formulated through consultative process involving government agencies, institutions of higher learning, nonprofit organizations Institute of Microelectronic Systems established OS R&D group; maintain Asian Open Source Centre Administration Modernization and Management Planning Unit created Open Source Competency Centre (OSCC) and wrote a government-approved OSS plan – Migration roadmap for e-mail, browsers first, then databases 47
  48. 48. List of Linux adopters in Education - 1/2 Examples of large scale adoption of Linux in education include the following: ● ● The OLPC XO-1 (previously called the MIT $100 laptop and The Children's Machine), is an inexpensive laptop running Linux, which will be distributed to millions of children as part of the One Laptop Per Child project, especially in developing countries. Republic of Macedonia deployed 5,000 Linux desktops running Ubuntu across all 468 public schools and 182 computer labs (December 2005). Later in 2007, another 180,000 Ubuntu thin client computers were deployed. 48
  49. 49. List of Linux adopters in Education - 2/2 ● ● ● ● Schools in Bolzano, Italy, with a student population of 16,000, switched to a custom distribution of Linux, (FUSS Soledad GNU/Linux), in September 2005. Brazil has around 20,000 Linux desktops running in elementary and secondary public schools. Government officials of Kerala, India announced they will use only free software, running on the Linux platform, for computer education, starting with the 2,650 government and government-aided high schools. 22,000 students in the US state of Indiana had access to Linux Workstations at their high schools in 2006. 49
  50. 50. Linux Foundation Report 2010 ● Linux is poised for growth in the coming years (2011): – 77% of companies are planning to add more GNU/Linux servers in the next twelve months – only 41% of respondents are planning to add Windows servers in the next year – while 44% say that they will decreasing or maintaining the number of Windows servers in their organizations over the same time period – over the next five years, 80% of respondents plan on adding more GNU/Linux, relative to other operating systems, compared to only 21% planning on adding more Microsoft servers in the same period.
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  53. 53. Summary FOSS is about Freedom and not Cost!! Internet based on TCP/IP is FOSS.. 53
  54. 54. THE END... “The free software movement is one of the most successful social movements to emerge in the past 25 years, driven by a worldwide community of ethical programmers dedicated to the cause of freedom and sharing. But the ultimate success of the free software movement depends upon teaching our friends, neighbors and work colleagues about the danger of not having software freedom, about the danger of a society losing control over its computing” www.fsf.org 54
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