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# Mcitp lec 5

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### Mcitp lec 5

1. 1. TopologyBy: MIHE IT Department
2. 2. Topology∗ The structure or layout of a network is called topology.OR∗ The connectivity of network computer in different shape or layout is called topology.OR∗ The physical layout of computers on a network is called topology. The physical layout of computers, cables, switches routers, and other components of a network.
3. 3. Categories of Topology
4. 4. Bus topology∗ All the nodes (file server, workstations, and peripherals) on a bus topology are connected by one single cable.∗ A bus topology consists of a main run of cable with a terminator at each end. All nodes (file server, workstations, and peripherals) are connected to the linear cable.∗ Popular on LANs because they are inexpensive and easy to install
5. 5. Bus Topology
6. 6. Bus TopologyAdvantages of Bus Topology∗It is Cheap, easy to handle and implement.∗Require less cable∗It is best suited for small networks.Disadvantages of Bus Topology∗The cable length is limited. This limits the number of stationsthat can be connected.∗This network topology can perform well only for a limitednumber of nodes.
7. 7. Ring topology∗ In ring topology all the network computers are connected like a circle ring shape or layout∗ In a ring network, every device has exactly two neighbors for communication purposes.∗ All messages travel through a ring in the same direction.∗ Each device works as a repeater.∗ A failure in any cable or device breaks the loop and can take down the entire network.
8. 8. Ring Topology
9. 9. Ring TopologyAdvantage of Ring Topology∗Very orderly network where every device has access to thetoken and the opportunity to transmit.∗Easier to Manage than a Bus Network∗Good Communication over long distances∗Controls high volume of trafficDisadvantages of Ring Topology∗The failure of a single node of the network can cause theentire network to fail.∗The movement or changes made to network nodes affectsthe performance of the entire network.
10. 10. Star topology∗ In star topology we have a central device called Hub/Switch that each node (file server, workstations, and peripherals) are connected to that device separately.∗ The hub takes a signal that comes from any node and passes it along to all the other nodes in the network.∗ Data on a star network passes through the hub, switch before continuing to its destination.
11. 11. Star topology∗ The hub/switch manages and controls all functions of the network.∗ The star topology reduces the chance of network failure by connecting all of the systems to a central node.
12. 12. Star Topology
13. 13. Star TopologyAdvantages of Star Topology∗Easy to manage∗Easier to expand than a bus or ring topology.∗Easy to install and wire.∗Easy to detect faults and to remove parts.Disadvantages of Star Topology∗Requires more cable length than a linear topology.∗If the hub or Switch fails, nodes attached are disabled.∗More expensive because of the cost of the Switch/Hub.
14. 14. Extended Star Topology∗ Extended star topology is used to connect two or more than two star topology or networks.
15. 15. Mesh topology∗ In mesh topology we do not use a central device and every computer connect separately to every network computer and the number of LAN Card in one PC will be the number computer in the network.∗ Implementing the mesh topology is expensive and difficult.
16. 16. Mesh Topology
17. 17. Mesh TopologyAdvantage of Mesh Topology∗No traffic problem as there are dedicated links.∗It has multiple links, so if one route is blocked then otherroutes can be used for data communication.∗Points to point links make fault identification easy.Disadvantage of Mesh Topology∗There is mesh of wiring which can be difficult to manage.∗Installation is complex as each node is connected to everynode.∗Cabling cost is high.
18. 18. Tree Topology∗ When two or more than two servers connect to each other by some media will create a tree topology.∗ This is particularly helpful for colleges, universities and schools so that each of the connect to the big network in some way.
19. 19. Tree Topology
20. 20. Tree TopologyAdvantages of a Tree Topology∗All the computers have access to the larger and theirimmediate networks.Disadvantages of a Tree Topology∗If the backbone line breaks, the entire segment goes down.∗More difficult to configure and wire than other topologies.
21. 21. Hybrid Topology∗ A combination of any two or more network topologies.∗ A hybrid topology always accrues when two different basic network topologies are connected.∗ It is a mixture of above mentioned topologies
22. 22. Hybrid Topology
23. 23. Hybrid TopologyAdvantages of a Hybrid Topology∗It is extremely flexible.∗It is very reliable.∗Disadvantages of a Hybrid Topology∗• Expensive