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Competency based interviews


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Allows you to build competency based behavioural interviews

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Competency based interviews

  1. 1. Competency Based Approach to Recruitment and Selection Presented by: Ahmad Hatoum
  2. 2. Competency Based-Behavioral Interviewing (CBBI) <ul><li>By the end of this session you will be able to: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Understand Competencies and their Benefits to our Business. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Implement TSC job-specific competencies for all roles up to senior manager level. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adopt a new based-behavioural approach when interviewing and assessing candidates against selection criteria. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Apply the Competency Based-Behavioural Interviewing (CBBI) Model and make effective hiring decisions. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. PROGRAME OUTLINE <ul><li>Understanding Competencies </li></ul><ul><li>TSC Core Competencies </li></ul><ul><li>Competency – Based Behavioral Interviewing (CBBI) </li></ul><ul><li>Structuring CBBI Interviews </li></ul>
  4. 4. Understanding Competencies <ul><li>Historic Preview </li></ul><ul><li>Definition </li></ul><ul><li>The Iceberg Model </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits </li></ul>
  5. 5. Historic Preview <ul><li>The Occupational Competence movement was initiated by Dr. David McClelland ( Harvard Business School Professor of Psychology) in the late 1960’s. </li></ul><ul><li>Since then and during the early 70’s, leading organizations have been using competencies to help recruit, select and manage their outstanding performers after McClelland found that traditional tests such as academic aptitude and knowledge tests, did not predict success in the job. </li></ul><ul><li>A supporting research conducted by McClelland has proven that students who did poor in Universities (as long as they passed) did just as well in life as the top students which proves the notion that super performance is not always measured by test scores but rather related to hidden traits and qualitative behaviours. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Definition <ul><li>Competencies are underlying characteristics that lead to superior performance. They include qualities , skills, attributes and traits that help people become successful. They are behaviors that outstanding performers exhibit more often than typical performers at a higher level of complexity. </li></ul><ul><li>Types of Competencies: </li></ul><ul><li>Technical : Specialized knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>(easily tested and measured) </li></ul><ul><li>Behavioral </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Deep-seated qualities (i.e. leadership, interpersonal understanding etc.) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They are not the “what “but rather the “how”. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hard to measure but could be developed. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can be: Job Specific , Job Family Specific and Organization Specific </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Competencies Business Development Director Business Development Officer Job Specific Develop Effective Relationships with diverse landlords Use innovation and Creativity to create Business opportunities Develop effective relations with Business unit Heads through on going support and dedication Be aware and stay connected to the community Job Family Specific Develop Knowledge Transfer belief within own team. Delegate innovation and Creativity to Team members Willingly share real estate market information with team mates. Takes initiative to support team members within Areas of Expertise Organization Specific Focus on Set goals and demonstrable results in all activities Be entrepreneurial, take action and show initiative Value every person regardless of circumstances Demonstrate self awareness and be reflective
  8. 8. What could a Competency be? <ul><li>Skill A learned ability; how to do the “ what you do” </li></ul><ul><li>(e.g. making an effective presentation) </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge H ow you a cquire information in a particular field; </li></ul><ul><li>(e.g. Using Data based presentation) </li></ul><ul><li>Self – Image H ow you see yourself </li></ul><ul><li>(e.g. Public Speaker-Confidence) </li></ul><ul><li>Values W hat you consider as important </li></ul><ul><li>(e.g. achieving excellence/ ambition) </li></ul><ul><li>Traits R elatively enduring characteristics; why and how do we behave </li></ul><ul><li>in a certain way </li></ul><ul><li>(e.g. self-controlled “big picture” thinking) </li></ul><ul><li>Motives T he Psychological/Physiological factors that drive your behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Maslow Pyramid of needs </li></ul><ul><li>(Insert Maslow Pyramid of needs) </li></ul>
  9. 10. THE ICEBERG MODEL Acquired/ Learned Capabilities Necessary but not sufficient Distinguish effective performance Deeply seated traits and motives Skill Knowledge Self-Image Values Traits Motives
  10. 11. Benefits <ul><li>Micro Benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Identify & prioritize skills, knowledge & personal attributes required for the job </li></ul><ul><li>Use past and Current Behavior to Predict Future Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure consistency and fairness of Selection Process </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain job clarity by probing into both role and personal requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Provide consistent basis for making recruitment decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Minimize Hiring Risks </li></ul><ul><li>Communicate clear expected behaviors to job holders for becoming superior performers </li></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><li>Macro Benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Set core organizational capabilities </li></ul><ul><li>Align aggregate behaviors to vision, strategies, priorities & goals </li></ul><ul><li>Promote Positive behavioral change </li></ul><ul><li>Introduce high performance qualities (Job Specific, Job Family Specific </li></ul><ul><li>& Organization Specific) </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage workforce society to strengthen behavioral weaknesses </li></ul><ul><li>Standardize/ Integrate HR measurement systems (speak one behavioral performance related language). </li></ul>
  12. 14. TSC Core Competencies <ul><li>Competency Groups </li></ul><ul><li>Definition of Core Competencies </li></ul><ul><li>Competency Levels </li></ul><ul><li>Behavioural Attributes Per Level </li></ul>
  13. 15. TSC Competency Groups <ul><li>Group 1 ( Delivering Value) </li></ul><ul><li>Customer Service Orientation : to understand issues from the Customer’s perspective and provide a consistently high level of service to meet their needs. </li></ul>
  14. 16. <ul><li>Group 2/ Drive </li></ul><ul><li>Results Orientation: the drive to accomplish challenging objectives, even in the face of obstacles and take calculated risks to achieve key business results. </li></ul><ul><li>Initiative: to proactively seek out opportunities and resolve issues through timely action. </li></ul><ul><li>Self Confidence: the capability to assert clear views, even in risky situations, and demonstrate a sense of right and wrong with decisions and choice of alternatives. </li></ul>
  15. 17. <ul><li>Group 3: Head </li></ul><ul><li>Analytical Thinking : to understand component parts and logical sequences in order to develop plans, identify priorities, anticipate consequences and reach conclusions. </li></ul><ul><li>Being Thorough: to control quality, accuracy and progress in a methodical manner </li></ul><ul><li>Conceptual Thinking: the use of experience and knowledge in looking broadly at issues, making complex issues simple and creating new ways of looking at things. </li></ul>
  16. 18. <ul><li>Group 4: Antennae </li></ul><ul><li>Impact & Influence: to utilize a range of techniques and tactics to persuade, convince, impress or influence others to follow a course of action. </li></ul><ul><li>Information Seeking: to go beyond the obvious information and proactively seek out and identify different sources of information for planning, monitoring and exploiting opportunities. </li></ul><ul><li>Interpersonal Understanding: the ability to accurately understand people’s feelings, concerns and needs, predict people’s reactions. </li></ul>
  17. 19. <ul><li>Group 5: People </li></ul><ul><li>Team Leadership: to positively impact team performance and ensure that efforts of the team are focused effectively on addressing business priorities and objectives. </li></ul><ul><li>Developing Others: the concern and action to foster the long-term learning and development of others in order to build organizational capacity and capability. </li></ul><ul><li>Focusing on Performance: the setting of clear standards of performance, quality and behaviour which holds people accountable for achieving the long-term goals and vision of the organization. </li></ul>
  18. 20. <ul><li>Group 5: People (Continued) </li></ul><ul><li>Teamwork and Co-Operation: to facilitate the operation of a team to work collaboratively with one another and achieve collective results as common goals. </li></ul>
  19. 22. Competency Levels <ul><li>A scale range between 1 to 6 indicate levels of attainment for each competency within each Job Profile depending on the frequency of each Competency on the candidate’s day-to-day behavior (Job specific, Job Family Specific, Organization Specific). </li></ul><ul><li>Such levels are hierarchical in nature where behaviors at each level are qualitatively different from those of other levels. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Behaviors at Level “0” are considered as lack of a competency / Show stoppers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Behaviors at Level “1” Reflect basic display/practice of a Certain competency. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Behaviors at Level “ 2” Reflect intermediate display/practice of a Certain competency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Behaviors at Level “ 3” Reflect Advanced display/practice of a Certain competency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Behaviors at Level “4,5 and 6” Reflect more complex and sophisticated demonstrations depending on each Competency. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavioral attributes per level please check attached : TSC Competency Level Guide.xls </li></ul></ul>
  20. 23. COMPETENCY - BASED BEHAVIOURAL INTERVIEWING (CBBI) <ul><li>Benefits </li></ul><ul><li>CBBI Structuring (Questions/ Probing) </li></ul><ul><li>Spotting Answers to CBBI Questions </li></ul><ul><li>Defining Competency Level </li></ul>
  21. 24. Benefits <ul><li>Systematic, non-discriminatory technique that helps interviewers get the right information from applicants and make right hiring decisions. </li></ul>Tell me about your past experience with female managers Well , hmmm for me a manager is a manager ..
  22. 25. <ul><li>It takes into consideration past behaviours of relevant role to best predict future behaviour on similar or higher role. </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminates assumptions about candidate’s core capabilities and behaviours . </li></ul><ul><li>Prevents biased and subjective hiring decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Limits the possibility of candidates “faking it” with vague generalization. </li></ul>B E N E F I T S
  23. 26. <ul><li>First read the lead question for the first Competency and proceed to obtain an overview of the event. </li></ul><ul><li>The event’s overview is the road map to structure how the candidate will provide the information. It provides high-level overview of 1) Situation/Tasks , 2) Actions and 3) Results of the Candidate’s involvement. </li></ul><ul><li>Here are 7 Standard/ Generic questions designed to obtain the overview in the most effective manner. These Questions are applicable for all of the competencies: </li></ul>CBBI Structuring (Questions/ Probing)
  24. 27. <ul><li>Begin with a caption or heading that describes the candidate’s role in the event </li></ul><ul><li>In two sentences, what is the event about? </li></ul><ul><li>Who else was involved, what was his/her/their role? </li></ul><ul><li>What was your function (Position, title)? </li></ul><ul><li>Why is this event a good example of a time when you (rephrase the questions that was asked)? </li></ul><ul><li>What were the major milestones, ask for 3 to 5 key actions “bullets” to describe the steps the candidate took </li></ul><ul><li>What was the outcome? </li></ul>Generic CBBI Questions
  25. 28. Creating Probing Questions <ul><li>Once the overview is obtained, the interviewers can go back and probe specific milestones or steps undertaken by the candidate to explore behaviors in more details. </li></ul><ul><li>Typical Probing Questions: </li></ul><ul><li>What event led up to the situation? </li></ul><ul><li>What did you actually do? or Say? </li></ul><ul><li>What was your intent in doing so, saying that, etc..? </li></ul><ul><li>What were you thinking? Feeling? (Explain your reaction to the situation? </li></ul><ul><li>What happened next? </li></ul><ul><li>What was the outcome of doing this, or saying that? </li></ul><ul><li>How did others react? How do you know this? </li></ul>
  26. 29. SPOTTING ANSWERS TO CBBI QUESTIONS <ul><li>Situation or Task </li></ul><ul><li>Action </li></ul><ul><li>Result </li></ul>S T A R
  27. 30. SITUATION/TASK <ul><li>It explains the background or context of the event/situation and what role the candidate played under a certain situation or task. </li></ul><ul><li>What is the event/situation about? </li></ul><ul><li>What was your Role/function (Position, title)? </li></ul>
  28. 31. ACTIONS <ul><li>It details what the candidate did or said in response to the SITUATION/ TASK. This is the “meat” of the candidate’s response as it tells us about the candidate’s behaviour. </li></ul><ul><li>What were the major milestones/ key actions “bullets” to describe the steps the candidate took </li></ul>
  29. 32. RESULTS <ul><li>It details the outcome achieved/ reached as a result of the candidate’s actions under a given situation or task. </li></ul><ul><li>What was the outcome? </li></ul>
  30. 33. TRUE VERSUS INCOMPLETE STARS <ul><li>TRUE STAR – A ll components; Situation/Task, Actions taken and the Results are clearly identified </li></ul><ul><li>INCOMPLETE STAR – Also known as FALSE STAR, where one or more of the components of A TRUE STAR is missing. This will require that you dig deeper when probing and transform Incomplete stars to complete stars. </li></ul><ul><li>Remember : Select with fairness and reject for a reason </li></ul>
  31. 34. INCOMPLETE STAR <ul><li>VAGUE STATEMENTS – might sound good but don’t provide any specifics about what the candidate actually did. </li></ul><ul><li>OPINIONS – Candidate’s personal beliefs or views, how they feel about something but does not provide information about what they actually did. </li></ul><ul><li>THEORETICAL/FUTURE ORIENTED STATEMENTS – the candidate says what they “should”, “would”, or “could” do or “would have liked to do” but not on what he/she actually did. </li></ul>
  32. 35. TIPS FOR INTERPRETING ANSWERS <ul><li>Actions can also be taken as inaction – what the person did not say or do in a certain situation. </li></ul><ul><li>You can get STAR in any order – RATS, ARTS </li></ul><ul><li>Watch out for words like “we”, “the team”, “our unit” – you need to establish what the candidate’s role was. </li></ul><ul><li>Watch out for words like “would”, “should”, “could” – strong indication that they have not actually done. </li></ul><ul><li>Words like “typically”, “usually”, “generally”, is an indication that they could be giving you FALSE STAR </li></ul><ul><li>Using the past tense is a good indication that they are giving you a TRUE STAR. Using present tense is a good indication that they have not done it yet. </li></ul>
  33. 36. Case Scenario: Hiring a Restaurant Manager <ul><li>Prior to any Interview: </li></ul><ul><li>1- Read and Analyze : CV, Relevant Certifications, Pre-Employment Requirements (Please take notes) </li></ul><ul><li>2- Carefully Read the Relevant Job Profile and Circle Areas on the CV that helps you structure your CBBI session </li></ul><ul><li>3-Tailor your CBBI questions in line with Job Profile competency levels </li></ul><ul><li>( Refer to CB Question Bank for supporting examples) </li></ul>
  34. 37. Interview In Action <ul><li>Foulan CV.doc </li></ul><ul><li>Restaurant Manager JP.xls </li></ul><ul><li>TSC Competency Level Guide.xls </li></ul><ul><li>HR Interview Template revised final.doc </li></ul><ul><li>Target Competency Level on Customer Service Orientation= 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Behavioral Indicator ( Works On the Underlying Needs) </li></ul><ul><li>• Makes self fully available to resolve customer issues and maximize potential opportunities. </li></ul><ul><li>• Goes beyond the immediate issue with questions and analysis to find alternatives which satisfy customers. </li></ul>
  35. 38. Example on Customer Service Orientation Int.: Tell me about a time when you were insulted by a customer or a colleague? Cand.: Well, this happened when I misunderstood a customer complaint and reacted for the interest of the company. “S” Judgement: Could happen to any one, honesty in revealing it Int. : In two sentences, what was the event about? Cand. : It was about customer refusing to pay the bill due to a small delay in his order. I was trying to explain that this will be deducted from my salary and the delay was not that much long. Judg.= (didn’t ask questions to satisfy customers , needs further probing) Int. : Who else was involved, what was his/her/their role? Cand. : The operations manager was involved and had the situation under control to convince the customer that is unfair Judg.= (not fully available to resolve customer issues, needs further probing) Int. : What was your function (Position, title)? Cand.: I was operating as a Restaurant Manager
  36. 39. Example on Customer Service Orientation Int. : Why is this event a good example of a time when you were insulted by a customer? Cand. : yes since it was of an importance to explain the time factor to other customers that I served lately. “A” Judg.= (created an alternatives to satisfy customers) Int. : What were the major actions you took to avoid the above situation with future customers? Cand. : I have included the time response of food serving and emphasized its importance to my staff. Judg.= ( maximized potential opportunities) “A” Int. : What was the outcome of the actions you took ? Cand. : It helped me and my team a lot to focus on food serving time factor and avoid similar situations with delicate customers Judg.= ( went beyond by analysing issues to satisfy other customers) “R”
  37. 40. Probing to determine Competency Level and to Complete STARS <ul><li>Cand. : It was about customer refusing to pay the bill due to a small delay in his order. I was trying to explain that this will be deducted from my salary and the delay was not that much long. </li></ul><ul><li>Judg.= (didn’t ask questions to satisfy customers , needs further probing) </li></ul><ul><li>Probing: </li></ul><ul><li>Int. : What was your intent in saying that to the customer? </li></ul><ul><li>Cand .: Before I said that I have asked the customer if there could be other ways to satisfy him, like a reasonable discount or a complimentary order and promising not to have him under a similar situation in the future. </li></ul><ul><li>Judg.= (Tried all possible means to satisfy the customer , capable to find alternatives and conduct situational analysis ) </li></ul>
  38. 41. Some Interviewing Tips <ul><ul><li>Physical setting should be both private and comfortable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mental setting should be one of rapport </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Start by welcoming the candidate and introducing </li></ul><ul><li>any other interviewers who may be present </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interviewer should possess and demonstrate a basic liking and respect for people; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Questions should be asked in a manner that encourages the interviewee to talk; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Listen attentively </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Follow the CBBI Model and Recruitment & Selection Process Maps </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interviewer should make some overt signs to indicate the end of the interview </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Express gratitude </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inform the candidate on next steps </li></ul></ul>Setting welcoming Attitude Closing Systematic
  39. 42. <ul><li>Thank You </li></ul><ul><li>Your Questions Please </li></ul>