CIS 2303 LO1: Introduction to System Analysis and Design


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CIS 2303 LO1: Introduction to System Analysis and Design

  1. 1. Systems Analysis and Design CIS 2303 Learning Outcome 1: Describe the evolution of software development with emphasis on the processes that outline different methodologies. - Ch. 1
  2. 2. Learning Objectives 1. Introduction to Information Systems  Discuss the impact of information technology on business strategy and success  Define an information system and describe its components  Explain how profiles and models can represent business functions and operations 2. Systems Development Methods 3. Overview of Structured Analysis and SDLC 4. SDLC MODEL Phases 2
  3. 3. 1. Introduction to Information Systems A. Chapter Introduction Case: Mountain View College Bookstore B. Discuss the impact of information technology on business strategy and success C. What is IT? D. What is Systems analysis and design? E. Define an information system and describe its components F. Explain how profiles and models can represent business functions and operations 3
  4. 4. B. Impact of IT on business strategies • Companies use information as a weapon in the battle to increase productivity, deliver quality products and services, maintain customer loyalty, and make sound decisions • Information technology can mean the difference between success and failure • Figure 1-1 4
  5. 5. C. What is IT?  Information Technology (IT) ◦ Combination of ___________and ___________ products and ___________ that ___________ use to manage, access, communicate, and share ____________ 5 companies hardwar e informatio n softwar e service s
  6. 6. D. Systems Analysis and Design  Systems Analysis and Design  Step-by-step process for developing high- quality information systems  Roles of the Systems Analyst  Plan, develop, and maintain information systems  See the next slides to have a detailed list of the Systems analyst. 6
  7. 7. Roles of the Systems Analyst  The primary objective of any system analyst is to identify the need of the organization by acquiring information by various means and methods.  The system analyst has to coordinate with the: ◦ _________________, ◦ _________________, ◦ ___________________________________ ____________________________________.  Following are the tasks performed by the systems analyst: 7
  8. 8. Tasks Performed By the Systems Analyst Defining Requirement: Prioritizing Requirements Gathering Facts, data and opinions of Users Evaluation and Analysis Drawing Specifications 8
  9. 9. Defining Requirement:  The basic step for any system analyst is to understand the requirements of the users. This is achieved by various fact finding techniques like: ◦ interviewing, ◦ observation, ◦ questionnaire ◦ etc. 9
  10. 10. Prioritizing Requirements  Number of users use the system in the organization, and each one has a different requirement and retrieves different information.  Due to certain limitations in computing capacity it may not be possible to satisfy the needs of all the users.  Hence it is important to create list of priorities according to users requirements. 10
  11. 11. Gathering Facts, data and opinions of Users  After determining the necessary needs and collecting useful information, the analyst starts the development of the system with active cooperation from the users of the system.  Time to time, the users update the analyst with the necessary information for developing the system.  The analyst while developing the system continuously consults the users and acquires their views and opinions. 11
  12. 12. Discussion  As a System’s Analyst, why do you need to continuously consult the users and acquires their views and opinions?
  13. 13. Evaluation and Analysis  The analyst must constantly change and modify the system to make it better and more user friendly for the users 13
  14. 14. Drawing Specifications  The analyst must draw certain specifications which will be useful for the manager.  The analyst should lay the specification which can be easily understood by the manager and they should be purely non-technical.  The specifications must be in detailed and in well presented form 14
  15. 15. E. Information System Components • Information systems have five key components: • hardware, • software, • data, • processes, and • People 15
  16. 16. E. Information System Components –Cont. 1. Hardware ◦ Is the physical layer of the information system ◦ Moore’s Law 2. Software ◦ System software ◦ Application software 16
  17. 17. E. Information System Components –Cont. 3. Data ◦ Tables store data ◦ Linked tables work together to supply data 17
  18. 18. E. Information System Components –Cont. 4. Processes ◦ Describe the tasks and business functions that users, managers, an d IT staff members perform to achieve specific results 5. People ◦ Stakeholders ◦ Users, or end users 18
  19. 19. Information System Components Exercise Microsoft Windows Number of Hours Worked Register a Student Microsoft Excel Storage Server Withdraw Cash System Users Employee No Hardware Software Data Processes People 19
  20. 20. 2. Systems Development Methods  Systems Development Methods ◦ Structured Analysis ◦ Object-Oriented Analysis ◦ Agile/adaptive methods In this course, we will only concentrate on the Structured Analysis. 20
  21. 21. 3. Overview of Structured Analysis and SDLC Model  A traditional systems development technique that is time-tested and easy to understand.  Uses a series of phases, called the systems development life cycle (SDLC ), to plan, analyze, design, implement, and support an information system.  A Predictive approach  Structured analysis is called a process-centered technique 21
  22. 22. 3. Overview of Structured Analysis and SDLC Model –Cont.  In the waterfall model , the result of each phase is called a deliverable , or end product , which flows into the next phase.  Disadvantage in the built-in structure of the SDLC, because the waterfall model does not emphasize interactivity among the phases  This criticism can be valid if the SDLC phases are followed too rigidly  Adjacent phases usually interact  See Figure 1-27 22
  23. 23. 4. SDLC MODEL Phases The SDLC model usually includes five steps 1) Systems planning 2) Systems analysis 3) Systems design 4) Systems implementation 5) Systems support and security See Figure 1-27 in the next slide 23
  24. 24. Figure 1-27: SDLC – The Waterfall Model 24 Phase 1 Systems planning Phase 2 Systems Analysis Phase 3 Systems Design Phase 4 Implementation Phase 5 Operation, Support & Security
  25. 25. Planning and Modeling a Systems Development Project  Systems planning ◦ Systems request ◦ Purpose of this phase is to perform a preliminary investigation whose key part is a feasibility study  Systems Analysis ◦ The purpose is to build a logical model of the new system. ◦ The first step is requirements modeling , where you investigate business processes and document what the new system must do to satisfy users. ◦ Requirements modeling continues the investigation that began during the systems planning phase. ◦ Deliverable is the System requirements document which describes management and Preliminary Investigation Report System Requirements Document
  26. 26. Planning and Modeling a Systems Development Project  Systems Design ◦ The purpose is to create a physical model that will satisfy all documented requirements for the system. ◦ At this stage, you design the user interface and identify necessary outputs, inputs, and processes ◦ Deliverable is system design specification ◦ Management and user involvement is critical  Systems Implementation ◦ New system is constructed ◦ Programs are written, tested, and documented, and the system is installed ◦ The objective is to deliver a completely functioning and documented information system ◦ Final preparations include converting data to the new system's files and training users ◦ This stage also includes an assessment, called a systems evaluation System Design Specs Functional IS
  27. 27. Planning and Modeling a Systems Development Project  Systems Operation, Support, and Security ◦ A well-designed system must be secure, reliable, maintainable, and scalable ◦ After several years of operation, systems need extensive changes ◦ During this phase, the IT staff maintains, enhances, and protects the system ◦ Security controls safeguard the system from both external and internal threats Operational IS
  28. 28.  I am designing the user interface of the system and the database that the system will use to store the user’s data! (______________________)  I am gathering the system requirements of the user through interviews, questionnaires, and observation at work! (______________________)  I am adding more forms and reports to the system that users asked me to add because they have new requirements! (______________________)  I am doing a Preliminary Investigation and a Feasibility Study to investigate the “Worthiness” of the proposed system! (______________________)  I am writing the programming code of the system! (______________________) 28 Which SDLC Model Phase am I in?!
  29. 29. Review Questions (Answer on BB-Learn)  What is IT, and why is it important to a business?  What is the role of the System Analyst?  What are three different Systems Development Methods?  What are the different functions of a business?  What are the phases of the SDLC?  What are the different activities within an IT department?  What is an IS, and what are its components?