Why was Head Start created? • To stop juvenile delinquency.Experts who studied the way to stop juvenile delinquencybelieved the answer was, Stop poverty, stop juveniledelinquency. Poverty= juvenile delinquency Thus began The War on Poverty and Head Start.
One of the answers to resolving juvenile delinquency was the development of Head Start• 1965, nearly half of the nation’s poor where young children. The Johnson Administration’s Child development experts had found that early intervention programs could significantly affect: cognitive development socio-emotional development
What is Head Start…•Federal program for preschool children from low-incomefamilies.•The Head Start program is operated by local non-profitorganizations in almost every county in the country.•Children who attend Head Start participate in a variety ofeducational activities. Services are offered to meet the specialneeds of children with disabilities as well as low income families.
In the Beginning:O Head Start began as an eight-week summer program.O Within the first few years, many of these summer programs became nine-month, half-day programs.O Head Start is part of the Office of Child Development in the Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare. (These offices were later named the Administration on Children, Youth and Families within DHS).O NORWESCAP is the name given to the Early Head Start services provided to Hunterdon, Sussex and Warren Counties of New Jersey.
The Services that both NORWESCAP/ EarlyHead Start and Head Start Provide: Most of the Children in • Educational NORWESCAP are infants to • Free medical toddlers . But also includes • Dental care Prenatal Care. • Healthy meals and snacks • Financial services Most children in Head Start • Prenatal services are between the ages of 3 • Infant services and 5 years old. • Toddlers services
Northwest New Jersey Community Action Partnership
MissionHelping families find pathways out of povertyto reach their goals and attain self sufficiency
Head Start focal Points in helping the community Health Nutrition EducationSocial ServicesParent involvement
Head Start CurriculumHead Starts Curriculum must follow the requirements of the Head Start Program PerformanceStandards and based on sound child development principles.Head Start defines this Performance Standard as the following a written plan which includes:•Goals for childrens development and learning;•Experiences through which they will achieve the goals;•Roles for staff and parents to help children to achieve these goals; and•Materials needed to support the implementation of a curriculum.•Curriculum in Head Start is also based on the Program Performance Standards and SoundChild Development Principles..
Faculty CredentialEarly Head Start teachers must have:•Minimum of a child development associate (CDA) credential•Trained (or have completed equivalent coursework) in earlychildhood development•Early Head Start teachers must be trained (or havecompleted equivalent coursework) in early childhooddevelopment with a focus on infant and toddler development.
Parent Involvement• Parents can participate in the planning of their childs program.• Guidance for parents to help provide for their child in all the necessary ways.• Classes for parents to talk about their common concerns with their children, such as growth, development and discipline.
Funding for Head Start Over the Years• Federal and State Funding:• Then~1965- $96.4 million budget and served 561,000 children in summer programs.• Now~$85 million over FY 2012, to maintain services for the 962,000 children currently participating in the program.• Funding also comes private companies and businesses that donate to the program to help Head Starts mission.
Pros• Educational Benefits• Health Benefits• Economic Benefits• Law Enforcement Benefits• Parental Skills
Cons• Their has not been a noticeable difference in children performance after first grade• Teacher Qualifications• Taxpayers annual investment of over $ 8 billion dollars
ConclusionHead Start has shown benefits in children ages 3 - 4yrs. old in their cognitive, health, parenting domainsas well as social-emotional domain/behaviors. Theprogram leads in some cases to improve parent -children relationships. It has long term effects withchildren as they progress to higher grades. Theprogram also helps with their school skills and theirability to progress.
The Head Start programs allow students/children togrow socially as well as educationally. It allows forchildren to start the learning process at an early ageand provides programs to parents to further enrich thelives of their children.Head Start faces many obstacles in the future andimprovement is needed. But it is an essential part ofthe educational system of the United States and itscontribution should not be minimized.
The following are testimonials and one of the manysuccessful stories of Head Start:OYou Tube From Head Start to HarvardOYou Tube Clemesia/Marcus Whitmoreand Marvastine Whitmore-SoutheastArkansas Community ActionCorporation
The work begins anew.The hope rises again. And the dreamlives on….~Senator Edward M. Kennedy
Bibliography• Kipnis, F. & Whitebook M. (August 2012). Mapping Current Professional Preparation and Professional Development Opportunities for New Jersey’s Early Learning Workforce. Berkeley, CA: Center for the Study of Child Care Employment, University of California at Berkeley• http://www.norwescap.org/index.php• www.nhsa.org/services/find_a_head_start_program• www.nj.gov/education/ece/hs/curriculum.pdf• princeton.edu/futureofchildren/.../head-start-to-cut-or-not-to- c...• www.washingtonpost.com ›Discuss• eclkc.ohs.acf.hhs.gov/hslc/tta.../fiscal_pub_00207_091905.ht ml