Group Leader :
Syed Jarri Abbas
Group Members :
Syed Ahad Ali
INTRODUCTION TO AUTOMOBILE ENGINEERING
• The automobile is a self propelled vehicle that travels
on land – William H Crouse
• An automobile is a wheeled vehicle carrying its
motive power unit – Kirpal Sing.
• Automobile is a vehicle driven by an internal
combustion engine and it is used for transportation
of passengers and goods on the ground. Automobile
can also be defined as a vehicle which can move by
• Examples : Car, jeep, bus, truck, scooter, etc
• The automobile has been around for more than 100 years
• The first car was built by Joseph Cugnot in 1769. It was
powered by a steam engine and was very slow.
• Richard Trevithick improved the steam engine’s design by
making them smaller and lighter.
• In 1801 he put one on wheels. It was the 1st horseless
carriage that could transport passengers.
• Jean Joseph Lenoir was the first to build the one cylinder
engine, internal combustion engine.
• Nikolaus August Otto built the first four cylinder engine.
• Karl Benz, known as one of the founders of Mercedes-Benz,
is the first to build an automobile powered by an internal
combustion engine in 1885.
• In 1886 Gottlieb Daimler designed the first four wheeled
automobile. They also created the first v-slanted engine.
• After 1886, Benz also inveted accelerator for speed
regulation, battery ignition system, spark plug, clutch, gear
shift, and the radiator for cooling the engine.
• With these improvements, he started with production of
the automobile, the first in the world, in the year 1888.
• However in the year 1893 that the first for wheeled
automobile was introduced by him.
• Today, the automobile industry is one of the
biggest in the world.
• In recent years tremendous changes have taken
place in the automobile industry.
• Two powerful forces have been at work
– The challenges of foreign automotive manufacturers
– Federal laws made by the Government covering,
• Automotive air pollution.
• Automotive Safety.
• Automotive fuel economy.
• These two forces have caused the manufacturers
to develop new generations of
• Light weight vehicles
• Fuel efficient vehicles.
• This is an ongoing revolutionary process.
• Each year, automotive manufacturers bring out
new models that improve on fuel efficiency and
performance with less air pollution.
• The competition among manufacturers has
resulted in many innovations that are being
• A few of these innovations include
– Antilock braking system (ABS)
– Traction- Control System (TCS)
– Four- wheel steering
– Four-wheel drive (4WD)
– All- wheel drive (AWD)
– Electronically- controlled and active suspension system
– Supplemental restraint system ( air bags)
– Sequential port fuel injection
– And a host of other innovations
• Engineering design and manufacturing skill have made the
modern motor car simple to operate and economical to
• To achieve utmost simplicity of operation, and thus ensure
greatest utility, engineers have made many design
improvements and have added devices from time to time. E.g.
1. Electric self starter
2. Automotive oil pressure and engine temperature gauges
3. Synchromesh transmission
4. Automatic gear shifting mechanism
• Manufacturing skill, combined with improved
designs, has affected great savings so that
economical transportation has been become
available to many millions.
• At the same time improvements in
manufacturing method have made it possible
to use better material and closer tolerances
so that car life has been tremendously
Components of a four wheeler Automobile
• About 1500 separate parts are put together to
make an automobile.
• These parts are grouped into several systems.
• Each system is made up of two or more parts
that work together to perform a specific job.
• The automotive vehicles are produced in large
variety of sizes and shapes.
• All have the same basic parts and systems.
• The major components of an automobile are.
– An engine (power plant)
– A power train (transmission system)
– A suspension system
– A steeing system
– A braking system
– An electrical system
– A body
• Power plant provides the motive power for all the various
functions which the vehicle or any part of it may be called
upon to perform.
• The power plant generally consists of an I.C engine-spark
• Gas turbines has also been used successfully.
• Electric motors powered by batteries have also been used.
• Combination of an I.C engine and electric motors have also
been successfully employed in hybrid vehicles.
• Solar energy powered systems have also been tried.
• Most promising future power plant is the one based on fuel
An I.C Engine
• The following sub systems supports the I.C
engine for continuous running.
• Fuel system
• Ignition system
• Lubricating and Cooling system
• Exhaust system
• Electrical and electronic system
• Supplies fuel to the engine
• Consists of
– Storage tank,
– Piping work,and,
– An arrangement for mixing with air and spraying into the
• In conventional petrol engines a carburetor is used for mixing the
fuel with air.
• Present, electronic fuel injection (EFI) is used to spray fuel air
• An electronic control module (ECM) control the functions of EFI.
• Function is to supply high voltage surge at the
desired instant and of adequate strength to
produce a spark in the engine.
• Earlier electro mechanical system were used.
• Now days in modern engines electronic
systems are used.
• The lubrication system keeps all moving parts
inside the engine coated with layers of oil.
• This reduces wears on the parts.
• It also allows the parts move freely with little
power lost in making them move.
• Relatively less viscous lubricating oils are used
• Where as heavier oils and greases are used in
the transmission and wheel bearings.
• The cooling system removes just enough heat so the
engine runs smoothly at the proper temperature.
• It maybe of water cooling or oil cooling.
• A water pump circulates coolant between the engine
and the radiator.
• Cooler outside air flows through the radiator and picks
up and carries away the excess heat.
• A thermostat helps the coolant at the proper
• A fan helps keep air moving through the radiator.
• Exhaust system used to vent exhaust gases
with least back pressure.
• It also reduce the engine noise with the help
• Now a days converters are also fitted in the
exhaust pipe to reduce the harmful
constituents in the exhaust gases.
• It consists of storage battery, charging system and
• The battery supplies electricity for starting the
engine, providing energy for spark, and for all
electrical devices in the vehicle.
• The charging system consists of mainly an
alternator and is used to continually charge the
• The starting system consists of starting motor and
is used to start the engine.
Power Train or Transmission System
• The power train carries power from the
engine to the drive wheels.
• Major power train’s parts may include
– Transmission or transaxle
– Transfer case
– Driveshaft, and