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Agua mineral natural en la infancia

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Los expertos recomiendan beber agua mineral natural desde la infancia. En esta etapa de la vida, es especialmente recomendable porque, entre otras muchas ventajas, el agua mineral natural no necesita nunca ser hervida para preparar biberones.

Published in: Health & Medicine
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Agua mineral natural en la infancia

  1. 1. <ul><li>Agua mineral natural, </li></ul><ul><li>bebida recomendable para la infancia </li></ul>Dr. Isidro Vitoria Miñana Pediatra y miembro del Comité Científico del Instituto de Investigación Agua y Salud
  2. 2. Agua mineral natural, bebida recomendable para la infancia 1 Ingesta adecuada de agua En los primeros 6 meses de vida la ingesta adecuada de agua es de 0,7 litros/día (procedente de lactancia materna) Entre los 6-12 meses la ingesta adecuada de agua es de 0,8 l/día (procedente de lactancia materna, alimentación complementaria y bebidas) De 1 a 18 años la ingesta oscilará entre 1,3 litros/día de agua total y 2,3 l./día de agua total (Tabla 1) Institute of Medicine (U.S.). Panel on Dietary Reference Intakes for Electrolytes and Water: DRI, Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate. Washington, DC, National Academies Press, 2004, pp 617 -
  3. 3. Agua mineral natural, bebida recomendable para la infancia 2 <ul><li>¿Por qué el agua mineral natural es la bebida recomendada en la infancia? </li></ul><ul><li>El Comité de Nutrición de la Asociación Española de Pediatría recuerda que “ el agua y la leche deben seguir siendo las bebidas fundamentales del niño y el adolescente ” (2) </li></ul><ul><li>Es conveniente que las comidas del niño se acompañen con agua mineral natural: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- Estudios epidemiológicos demuestran que un mayor consumo de agua se asocia a una menor densidad energética de los alimentos (3) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Este aspecto reivindicativo del agua mineral debe extenderse también a la escuela: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interesantes trabajos demuestran que el consumo de más agua en colegios en el curso escolar se acompaña de un descenso del 31% del riesgo de sobrepeso (4) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>(2) Comité de Nutrición de la Asociación española de Pediatría. Consumo de zumos de frutas y de bebidas refrescantes por niños y adolescentes en España. Implicaciones para la edad de su mal uso y abuso. An Esp Pediatr 2003;58:584-93 </li></ul><ul><li>(3) Stahl A, Kroke A, Bolzenius K, Manz F. Relation between hydration status in children and their dietary profile - results from the DONALD study.Eur J Clin Nutr. 2007;61:1386-92 </li></ul><ul><li>(4) Muckelbauer R, Libuda L, Clausen K, Toschke AM, Reinehr T et al.Promotion and provision of drinking water in schools for overweight prevention: randomized, controlled cluster trial. Pediatrics. 2009;123:e661-7. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Agua mineral natural, bebida recomendable para la infancia 3 <ul><li>Características de las aguas minerales naturales </li></ul><ul><li>Las aguas minerales naturales son aguas sanas desde su origen, la Naturaleza. </li></ul><ul><li>Las aguas minerales se distinguen de las aguas potables: </li></ul><ul><li>Por su naturaleza , caracterizada por su contenido en minerales, oligoelementos y otros componentes y, en ocasiones, por determinados efectos saludables. </li></ul><ul><li>Por su pureza en origen, lo que hace que no necesiten ningún tratamiento químico previo para su consumo, siendo pues un agua que llega al consumidor de forma intacta, tal cual se encuentra en la naturaleza. </li></ul><ul><li>- </li></ul>
  5. 5. Agua mineral natural, bebida recomendable para la infancia 5 <ul><li>¿Qué ventajas presenta el agua mineral natural para la infancia? </li></ul><ul><li>Composición constante y conocida : </li></ul><ul><li>El agua mineral natural tiene una composición en minerales siempre invariable en el tiempo , de la cual se informa en la etiqueta del envase. </li></ul><ul><li>Al ser su composición conocida, el pediatra puede recomendar un agua mineral natural determinada en función del contenido en sodio , flúor y calcio fundamentalmente. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Agua mineral natural, bebida recomendable para la infancia 6 <ul><li>¿Qué ventajas presenta el agua mineral natural para la infancia? </li></ul><ul><li>No precisa ser hervida para preparar alimentos infantiles: </li></ul><ul><li>El agua mineral natural es un alimento puro por naturaleza y sin tratamiento químico ni microbiológico alguno. </li></ul><ul><li>Esto permite que pueda ser consumida por el lactante sin necesidad de hervirse. </li></ul><ul><li>Una alternativa al hervido del agua potable es el empleo de agua mineral natural que, por definición, no contiene virus, bacterias ni protozoos. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Agua mineral natural, bebida recomendable para la infancia 7 <ul><li>¿Qué ventajas presenta el agua mineral natural para la infancia? </li></ul><ul><li>Ausencia de riesgo de metahemoglobinemia: </li></ul><ul><li>No debe emplearse agua de bebida con más de 50 mg/l de nitratos en la alimentación del lactante por el riesgo de metahemoglobinemia (valor guía establecido por la OMS (5) . Todas las aguas minerales naturales españolas tienen niveles mucho menores (6) </li></ul><ul><li>Los lactantes pequeños son más susceptibles a la formación de metaHb que los niños mayores o los adultos. (Cuando la hemoglobnina (Hb) se oxida a metaHb, ésta es cual es incapaz de transportar oxígeno en los tejidos) </li></ul><ul><li>Actualmente se siguen publicando casos de metahemoglobinemia por exceso de nitratos en el agua potable de otros países (7) </li></ul><ul><li>(5) World Health Organization.Guidelines for drinking-water quality [electronic resource]: incorporating first addendum. Vol. 1, Recommendations. – 3rd ed. http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/dwq/gdwq0506begin.pdf (disponible 1-4-09) </li></ul><ul><li>(6) Vitoria I.Agua de bebida en el lactante. An Pediatr (Barc) 2004;60:161-9 </li></ul><ul><li>(7) Sadeq M, Moe CL, Attarassi B, Cherkaoui I, Elaouad R et al.Drinking water nitrate and prevalence of methemoglobinemia among infants and children aged 1-7 years in Moroccan areas. Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2008 ;211:546-54 </li></ul>
  8. 8. Agua mineral natural, bebida recomendable para la infancia 8 Pérdidas de agua en el primer año de vida Orina: Las pérdidas por orina suponen más de 40% de las pérdidas de agua. Pérdidas insensibles (piel y pulmones) Estas pérdidas supone un 80% de las pérdidas extrarrenales totales de agua en un lactante normal que vive en condiciones de temperatura ambiental neutra. Sudoración: La sudoración puede ocurrir pronto tras el nacimiento, pero no en todos los niños. En un estudio, el 64% de los nacidos a término excretaban sudor a las pocas horas de nacer si se les exponía a un ambiente de mayor temperatura ambiental en la maternidad (1) Heces: Las pérdidas de agua por heces son de un 5% aprox. Aunque con diarrea las pérdidas pueden llegar a ser hasta 8 veces más. (1) Agren J, Stromberg B, Sedin G. Evaporation rate and skin blood flow in full term infants nursed in a warm environment before and after feeding cold water. Acta Paediatr 1997;86:1085–1089.
  9. 9. Agua mineral natural, bebida recomendable para la infancia 9 <ul><li>Conclusiones </li></ul><ul><li>Agua mineral natural en la infancia </li></ul><ul><li>El niño debe beber una cantidad adecuada de agua diariamente que oscila entre 0,6 litros en el primer año de vida a loas 1,8-26 litros de la adolescencia. </li></ul><ul><li>El agua mineral natural es la bebida que debe acompañar al niño tanto en las comidas como fuera de ellas como estrategia de hábito de vida saludable que previene el sobrepeso. </li></ul><ul><li>El agua mineral natural tiene una composición estable y conocida lo que le permite al pediatra indicar determinadas marcas en función de la concentración de socio, calcio, flúor, fundamentalmente. </li></ul><ul><li>El agua mineral natural no necesita ser hervida para la reconstitución de la fórmula adaptada en el primer año de vida. </li></ul><ul><li>Todas la aguas minerales naturales españolas tienen unos niveles muy bajos de nitratos , por lo que no hay riesgo de metahemoglobinemia. </li></ul>
  10. 10. El Instituto de Investigación Agua y Salud es una entidad de carácter científico y divulgativo, cuyo fin es desarrollar actividades encaminadas a la investigación y la difusión de las características sobre este producto natural y su importancia para la salud. Para ampliar información: www.institutoaguaysalud.es Instituto-Agua- [email_address] Tel.91 745 86 00

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