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  1. 1. Pembentangan oleh:KU MAHANI BT KU MAT DESA Pensyarah: Dr. Jamil Ahmad 1
  2. 2. Journel of Construction Education-Summer 1998, vol 3, No. 2, pp64-66 The Discrepancy Evaluation Model (DEM), developed in 1969 byMalcom Provus to provides information for programme assessment andprogramme improvement. What is the definition of evaluation? He defined evaluation as the process of agreeing upon programstandards, determining whether a discrepancy exists between someaspect of the program and standards governing that aspect of theprogram, and using discrepancy information to identify weaknesses ofthe program. Under the DEM evaluation is defined as the comparison of anACTUAL PERFORMANCE to a DESIRE STANDARD 2
  3. 3.  What is the purpose of evaluation? His stated the purpose of evaluation is to determine whether to improve, maintain or terminate a program (Gredler, 1996). His model is primarily a problem-solving set of procedures that seeks to identify weaknesses (according to selected standards) and to take corrective actions with termination as the option of last resort. With this model, the process of evaluation involves moving through stages and content categories is such a way as to facilitate a comparison of program performance with standards,while at the same time identifying standards to be used for future comparisons. 3
  4. 4.  The Provus method identifies four specific stages ofall programs. The are:  Program Definition Stage  Program Installation Stage  Program Process Stage  Program Product StageStage 1:Program Definition – where the purpose of the evaluation is to assessthe program design by first defining the necessary inputs, processes,and outputs, and then, by evaluating the comprehensiveness andinternal consistency of the design. Evaluation Stage 1 asks the question,“Is the program adequately defined”? 4
  5. 5. Stage 2:Program Installation – where the purpose of the evaluation is to assessthe degree of program installation against Stage 1 program standards.Stage 2 asks, “Is the program installed as defined in Stage 1”?Stage 3:Program Process – where the purpose of the evaluation is to assess therelationship between the variables to be changed and the process usedto effect the change. Stage 3 asks, “Are the resources and techniquesbeing used congruent with the goals of the program?Stage 4:Program Product – where the purpose of the evaluation is to assesswhether the design of the program achieved its major objectives. Finally,in Stage IV the question is asked, “Are the program objectives achievedin the implementation”?Stage 5:Program Comparison 5
  6. 6. Provus Terminology DefinedThe following definitions will be useful in understanding the evaluationwhich follows: Enabling Objectives– intervening behaviors/tasks which students must complete as a necessary basis for terminal outcomes.Terminal Outcomes– the behaviors the clients are expected to demonstrate upon completion of the program.Design Criteria – contains a comprehensive list of program elements (input, process,output) that become the standard of performance in Stage 1. 6
  7. 7.  Manakala Journel of Extansion: September/Oktober, 1998 (pg 10). “ The Provus Discrepancy Model provide a basis for evaluating programme. Provusconsiders discrepancies to be the essential clue in program evaluation. Discrepanciespoint out differences that exist between what program planners think is happening in theprogram and what’s actually happening. Provus recommends that when discrepenciesoccur, either program performance or program design standards be changed” Three important basis phrases in the Provus Model.  Discrepancy : mean differences  Program performances : what Extansion refers to as program implementation, result, and/or accomplishment  Program design standard : means objectives. The Discrepancy Evaluation Model can be visualised as an ongoing cycle, as shown inFigure 1. 7
  8. 8. The Discrepancy Evaluation Model can be visualised as an ongoing cycle, as shown in Figure 1 PROVUS EXTENSIONESE Start here Translate into Start here Establish program design = Specify program standards objectives Plan evaluation using the = Plan evaluation based discrepancy model On objectives Collect information = Collect information on program On performance accomplishments Identify differences between Identify = program objectives and discrepancies program accomplishments Alter performance and/or = Modify programs Alter the standard end here end here or or Recycle to start Recycle to start 8Figure 1: Discrepancy Evaluation Model
  9. 9. To use the Discrepancy Evaluation Model, need to follow these steps. STEP 1: Decide which program to evaluate. This might be: A. A new program just being developed for introduction. B. An ongoing program that may appear to be running out of steam. C. A program that seems to be working just fine, but appears to have switch directions. STEP 2: Determine objectives for the targeted program Question to/be ask A. Are written objectives already available? B. As participants know it? C. The advisory committee? D. If there’s any confusion about program objectives, get them clarified before proceeding. Involve several people and, if nesessary, determine objective now. (Which Pruvos says is okay to do at this time if it hasn’t already been done before) to establish the base against which discrepencies can be measured. 9
  10. 10. To use the Discrepancy Evaluation Model, need to follow these steps. STEP 3: Plan the evaluation Question to/be ask A. What information do you need to know whether and how well objectives are being accomplished. Whatever information is needed must be possible to collect, and reasonable in terms of the work that collection entails. B. How can you get at that, who can help? Specialists often help with developing evaluation plans and usually have advice and experience to share. Don’t try to reinvent the evaluation wheel all by yourself! STEP 4: Follow through by implementing plans to collect information. 10
  11. 11. To use the Discrepancy Evaluation Model, need to follow these steps. STEP 5: Identify discrepancies between program objektives and programaccomplishments. Question to/be ask A. Where do differences exist? B. What have you learned about them – their causes, effect on program, participants, other pertinent information? STEP 6: Plan what to do next.At this point, the Discrepancy Evaluation Model says it’s time for remedial planning.Either the basic program design standard or performance should be revised so thatobjectives abd acconplishments are consistent.Question to/be askA. But which should change? Objectives or implementations? 11
  12. 12. Use of the Provus Discrepancy ModelThe Provus model is most effective under the following circumstances:1. When the type of evaluation desired is formal, and the program is in the formative, rather than summative stages.2. When evaluation is defined as continuous information management addressing program improvement and assessment, and where evaluation is a component of program development.3. Where the purpose of evaluation is to improve, maintain or terminate a program.4. Where the key emphasis of evaluation is program definition and program installation. 12
  13. 13. Use of the Provus Discrepancy Model5.Where the roles of the evaluator are those of facilitator, examiner of standards, observer of actual behaviors, and design expert.6.When at each stage of evaluation program performance is compared with program objectives (standards) to determine discrepancies.7.Where the program evaluation procedure is designed to identify weaknesses and to make determinations about correction or termination.8.Where the theoretical construct is that all stages of programs continuouslyprovide feedback to each other. 13
  14. 14. Use of the Provus Discrepancy Model9. Where the criteria for judging programs includes carefully evaluating whether: a. The program meets established program criteria b. The actual course of action taken can be identified, and c. A course of action can be taken to resolve all discrepancies(Gredler, 1996). 14
  15. 15. CONCLUSION Ralph Waldo Emerson once said that most of the shadows in life are caused by our standing n our room sunshine. Provus Diserepancy Evaluation Model can help us be in the best way to focus more light on the many excellent features extansion programes already have. Thanks for your attention 15
  16. 16. LESSON PLAN Mata Pelajaran : Ekonomi Asas Tajuk: Perdagangan Antarabangsa Objektif = Standard      (P’s DEM)  Selepas P & P pelajar dapat menyenaraikan dengan baik 3 perbezaan diantara PAB dan Perniagaan dalam negeri. Aktiviti: dijalankan Refleksi = Actual      (P’s DEM)  80% pelajar berjaya menyenaraikan dengan baik perbezaan diantara PAB dengan Perdagangan dalam negeri. 16
  17. 17. Purpose of evaluation - (Gedler, 1996) A: To improve B: To maintain C: Terminate – biasanya pilihan terakhir apabila A dan B tidak dapat dijayakan. 17
  18. 18.  Menurut Provus, program ini memiliki kitaran hayat (life-cycle, yang mempunyai langkah-langkah pengembangan mengikut tahap yang berkaitan . Model Evaluasi/Pertenatangan adalah suatu model evaluasi program yang menekankan peri pentingny a pemahaman sistem sebelum membuat sesuatu penilaian. . (Provus, 1971: Dalam Azizi, 2008)TAHAP 1: Tahap definisiFokus kegiatan/aktiviti1. Merumuskan tujuan program diadakan.2. Menyiapkan murid/staf dan kelengkapan keperluan.3. Merumus standard dalam bentuk rumusan pada suatu yang dapat diukur.4. Cth rumusan standard: “ Keberhasilan Program KPSM yang disandarkan adalah 70% warga belajar menngkatkan pendapatannya dan ketrmpilannya. (by Suciptoardi.posted 3 jan 2011.) 18
  19. 19. TAHAP 2: Tahap penetapan kelengkapan  Tahap penetapan kelengkapan program iaitu melihat apakah kelengkapan yang tersedia sudah sesuai dengan yang diperlukan. Dalam tahap ini dilakukan kegiatan:  Meninjau kembali penetapan standard  Meninjau program yang sedang berjalan  Meneliti discrepency yang wujud dalam program actual dan standard 19
  20. 20. TAHAP 3: Tahap Proses Pada tahap proses ini, penilaian difokukan kepada bagaimana memperolehi data tentang kemajuan para peserta program, untuk menentukan apakah perilakunya berubah sesuai dengan yang diharapkan atau tidak. Jika tidak; maka perlu dilakukan perubahan terhdap aktiviti-aktiviti yang terlibat. Tahap ini juga disebut sebagai tahap “Mengumpulkan data dari pelaksanaan program”. 20
  21. 21. TAHAP 4: Tahap Produk Tahap mengadakan analisis data dan menetapkan tingkat output yang diperolehi. Penilaian dilakukan untuk menentukan apakah tujuan akhir program tercapai atau tidak. Provus membedakan antara dampak terminal (immediates outcomes) dan dampak jangka panjang. (long term- outcomes). Dalam tahap ini pertanyaannya adalah “Apakah sasaran program telah dicapai? 21
  22. 22. TAHAP 5: Tahap perbandingan / cost-benefit Iaitu tahap membandingkan hasil yang dicapai dengan tujuan yang telah ditetapkan. Dalam tahap ini penganalisa akan menyenaraikan semua pertentangan (discrepancy) yang wujud. Mengambil keputusan untuk memutuskan kelanjutan dari program tersebut, samada:  Menghentikan program tersebut  Menggantikan  Meneruskan  Memodifikasikan tujuannya. Biar apapun pertentangan yang ditemui, Provus menganjurkan agar pemecahan masalah dlakukan secara kopertif diantara penilai dan penganjur program. Pada tahap ini, Perlu adanya proses kerjasama yang baik antara kedua pihak kerana Menurut Provus penilaian adalah untuk membangunkan program bukan untuk menghakimi sesuatu. (Provus, 1971: Dalam Azizi, 2008) Proses kerjasama yang dilakukan antara lain membincangkan tentang:  Mengapakah wujudnya pertentangan?  Apakah langkah-langkah pembaikkan yang mungkin dilakukan.  Apakah langkah paling baik yang paling baik dilakukan untuk memecah masalah yang dihadapi. 22
  23. 23. TAHAP 5: Tahap perbandingan / cost-benefit Anilisis biaya-manfaat (cost-benefit analysis) , dimana hasil-hasil yang diperolehi dbandingkan dengan biaya yang dikeluarkan. Analisis ini menjadi sangat penting dalam keadaan sumber (biaya) pendidikan yang sangat terbatas (limted resources). -------------------------------------------------------------------- Menurut Provus semua program mempunyai pusingan hayat (life cycle), yang terdiri dari langkah- langkah/tahap-tahap pengembangan: demikian juga dengan P’s DEM, turut mempunyai pusingan hayat. 23