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3/21/20143/21/2014 1
Power Electronics for Renewable Energy
and High Efficiency Applications
How a New Power Stack Communi...
Overview
• Growing trend toward use of third party Stacks:
– Reduce development time
– Improve lifetime reliability
– Bett...
Control and Communication currently
used in many stack control systems today
3/21/2014 3
CPU Interface
Board
IGBT Driver
B...
Pin Out of a Typical 3-Phase Power Stack Parallel
Ribbon Cable
Pin No Signal Pin No Signal
1 GND 2 BOT-HB1-IN
3 ERROR-HBI-...
Parallel Ribbon Cable is a Communication
Bottleneck Limiting Information Flow to the CPU
Current Control Signals from CPU ...
Inverter Manufacturers Are Demanding Greater
Knowledge About Stack Performance
3/21/2014 6
Pinout of a typical 3 phase Pow...
Key Components of an Improved Interface
Solution
3/21/2014 7
New Power Stack Pinout• Separate Power Supply Connector
– Low...
AgileSwitch Stack
83/21/2014 CONFIDENTIAL (c) 2014 AgileSwitch, LLC PATENTS PENDING
Why a Separate Power Connector?
3/21/2014 9
Pinout of a typical 3 phase Power Stack Parallel Ribbon Cable.• Why put Power ...
New Power Stack Pin Out: Trigger/Signal Lines
3/21/2014 10
Pin # Description Pin # Description
1 BOT-HB1 TRIG (+) 2 BOT-HB...
Key Features of the AgileSwitch Power Stack
3/21/2014 11
New Power Stack Pinout• Differential 3V Trigger Inputs
– Can be s...
Key Features of the Serial Interface
3/21/2014 12
New Power Stack Pinout• 5MB/sec data rate
• Three 14 bit Current sensors...
Bi-directional Serial Communication System
Allows:
3/21/2014 13
• The timing for when the A/D current sampling occurs
can ...
Basic Serial Interface Protocol
3/21/2014 14
• During each sample period the following HB Packet
is transmitted for each H...
Amount of Data needed to Transmit
3/21/2014 15
For Each Half Bridge
• Header Byte for each HB ------------------- 8 bits
•...
Current Sensor Sample and Hold Control
3/21/2014 16
Current Measurement is a key value necessary for the
PWM control syste...
Current Sensor Features
3/21/2014 17CONFIDENTIAL (c) 2014 AgileSwitch, LLC PATENTS PENDING
Temperature and Voltage Sensor Features
3/21/2014 18
• These parameters are sampled at a continuous rate
of 1KHz.
• Transm...
Theory of Operation
3/21/2014 19
• Each Half Bridge (HB) is considered as a separate operational
event.
• When an IGBT tri...
Theory of Operation (cont.)
3/21/2014 20
• If a Receiver error occurs, the host can request a re-
transmission via the Fau...
8 Bits
Timing for an HB Current Sensor
3/21/2014 21
Trigger
Signal
Period
Packet
Header
MSB8 Bits LSB
Status
Byte
Current
...
Fault Management
3/21/2014 22
Each HB has a status word that is sent with the packet
after a trigger event. The status byt...
Fault Recording – Stack BlackBox™
3/21/2014 23
The AgileSwitch Stack continually stores the state of the
system in a buffe...
The Future of Improved Communications
• Data from advanced monitoring, augmented by
predictive analytics, helps pre-empt s...
Conclusion
3/21/2014 25
• The New AgileSwitch Stack marks a major step
toward improving design time and system reliability...
Contact
AgileSwitch, LLC
1650 Arch Street, #1905
Philadelphia, PA 19103 USA
484-483-3256
info@AgileSwitch.com
www.AgileSwi...
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Apec 2014 Presentation by Albert Charpentier

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Albert Charpentier, Chief Technology Officer at AgileSwitch LLC, spoke at the APEC 2014 and presented his paper on the topic “How A New Power Stack Communication System Improves IGBT Reliability and Shortens Development Time” under the IS3.1 High Power Industrial Session chaired by Dr. Krishna Shenai.

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Apec 2014 Presentation by Albert Charpentier

  1. 1. 3/21/20143/21/2014 1 Power Electronics for Renewable Energy and High Efficiency Applications How a New Power Stack Communication System Improves IGBT Reliability and Shortens Development Time APEC 2014 Albert Charpentier, CTO CONFIDENTIAL (c) 2014 AgileSwitch, LLC PATENTS PENDING
  2. 2. Overview • Growing trend toward use of third party Stacks: – Reduce development time – Improve lifetime reliability – Better manage supply chain • Increasing demand for Stacks with deeper monitoring and control capability: – However, parallel communications structures are limited • Requiring a new class of Power Stacks based on a serial communication protocol that enables advanced fault and system monitoring capability. 3/21/2014 2CONFIDENTIAL (c) 2014 AgileSwitch, LLC PATENTS PENDING
  3. 3. Control and Communication currently used in many stack control systems today 3/21/2014 3 CPU Interface Board IGBT Driver Board IGBT Driver Board IGBT Driver Board Ribbon Cable Ribbon Cable Or Fiber CONFIDENTIAL (c) 2014 AgileSwitch, LLC PATENTS PENDING
  4. 4. Pin Out of a Typical 3-Phase Power Stack Parallel Ribbon Cable Pin No Signal Pin No Signal 1 GND 2 BOT-HB1-IN 3 ERROR-HBI-OUT 4 TOP-HB1-IN 5 BOT-HB2-IN 6 ERROR-HB2-OUT 7 TOP-HB2-IN 8 BOT-HB3-IN 9 ERROR-HB3-OUT 10 TOP-HB3-IN 11 OVERTEMP-OUT 12 NC 13 VDC-LINK MONITOR 14 VCC - Supply Voltage 15 VCC - Supply Voltage 16 +15V 17 +15V 18 GND 19 GND 20 TEMP-SENSE-OUT 21 GND 22 I-SENSE1-OUT 23 GND 24 I-SENSE2-OUT 25 GND 26 I-SENSE3-OUT 3/21/2014 4 Only 4 faults and 5 points of monitoring available CONFIDENTIAL (c) 2014 AgileSwitch, LLC PATENTS PENDING
  5. 5. Parallel Ribbon Cable is a Communication Bottleneck Limiting Information Flow to the CPU Current Control Signals from CPU to Interface Board: • Trigger Signals: 2 to 6 • Analog Current Sensors: 1 to 3 • Temperature Sensors: 1 • Voltage Sensors: 1 • Fault/Error Signals: 1 to 4 • Power 3/21/2014 5CONFIDENTIAL (c) 2014 AgileSwitch, LLC PATENTS PENDING
  6. 6. Inverter Manufacturers Are Demanding Greater Knowledge About Stack Performance 3/21/2014 6 Pinout of a typical 3 phase Power Stack Parallel Ribbon Cable.Parallel system with analog signals limit the communication from host CPU to power stack. • More detailed error and fault information is better. • More Temperature data for each HB. • More details about error conditions • Limited ability for future improvement to information flow without redesigning hardware. CONFIDENTIAL (c) 2014 AgileSwitch, LLC PATENTS PENDING
  7. 7. Key Components of an Improved Interface Solution 3/21/2014 7 New Power Stack Pinout• Separate Power Supply Connector – Lower Noise, easier power distribution • Differential Trigger Inputs – Low voltage with better noise immunity and lower EMI • Bi-Directional Serial Interface – Simple interface for fault communication and digital sensor information CONFIDENTIAL (c) 2014 AgileSwitch, LLC PATENTS PENDING
  8. 8. AgileSwitch Stack 83/21/2014 CONFIDENTIAL (c) 2014 AgileSwitch, LLC PATENTS PENDING
  9. 9. Why a Separate Power Connector? 3/21/2014 9 Pinout of a typical 3 phase Power Stack Parallel Ribbon Cable.• Why put Power Supply Voltages on the CPU board and then over to the Power Stack? • Supplying power over the same cable as the signal lines can cause additional noise on the control signals and make EMI shielding more difficult. • The limited number of pins do not allow differential signals for better noise immunity. • Power Supply distribution and isolation is easier to implement with separate power supply connector. CONFIDENTIAL (c) 2014 AgileSwitch, LLC PATENTS PENDING
  10. 10. New Power Stack Pin Out: Trigger/Signal Lines 3/21/2014 10 Pin # Description Pin # Description 1 BOT-HB1 TRIG (+) 2 BOT-HB1 TRIG(-) 3 GND 4 TOP-HB1 TRIG (-) 5 TOP-HB1 TRIG (+) 6 GND 7 BOT-HB2 TRIG (+) 8 BOT-HB2 TRIG (-) 9 GND 10 TOP-HB2 TRIG (-) 11 TOP-HB2 TRIG (+) 12 GND 13 BOT-HB3 TRIG (+) 14 BOT-HB3 TRIG (-) 15 GND 16 TOP-HB3 TRIG (-) 17 TOP-HB3 TRIG (+) 18 GND 19 RESET 20 GND 21 Rx(+) 22 Rx(-) 23 Fault 24 GND 25 Tx(+) 26 Tx(-) 36 unique points of fault controls, monitoring and reporting CONFIDENTIAL (c) 2014 AgileSwitch, LLC PATENTS PENDING
  11. 11. Key Features of the AgileSwitch Power Stack 3/21/2014 11 New Power Stack Pinout• Differential 3V Trigger Inputs – Can be singled ended (positive or negative active) by grounding one side of the signal • Manual Reset controlled by the host • Bi-directional fault line • Differential Bi-directional serial communication system CONFIDENTIAL (c) 2014 AgileSwitch, LLC PATENTS PENDING
  12. 12. Key Features of the Serial Interface 3/21/2014 12 New Power Stack Pinout• 5MB/sec data rate • Three 14 bit Current sensors (200KS/sec) • Three 12 bit Temperature Sensors (1KHz BW) • One 12 bit DC-Link Voltage Sensor (1KHz BW) • Fault Status Byte – with detailed fault information on host request • On board factory set offset and linearity calibration parameters CONFIDENTIAL (c) 2014 AgileSwitch, LLC PATENTS PENDING
  13. 13. Bi-directional Serial Communication System Allows: 3/21/2014 13 • The timing for when the A/D current sampling occurs can be configured for each HB . The timing can either a fixed time after each trigger occurs or initiated by a second pulse on the trigger line. • Temperature and DC-Link Voltage can be sent every sample or on request. • Actions to be taken automatically upon a fault. • In field calibration of current, voltage and temperature sensors. CONFIDENTIAL (c) 2014 AgileSwitch, LLC PATENTS PENDING
  14. 14. Basic Serial Interface Protocol 3/21/2014 14 • During each sample period the following HB Packet is transmitted for each HB that is triggered: – Header Byte – defines the data to follow • The Current measurement for the Half Bridge • Status Byte – Fault condition status for the HB • CRC Error Check sum • Temperature and DC-Link Voltage are transmitted by request with: – Header, Temperature for all three HBs, CRC – Header, DC- Link Voltage, CRC CONFIDENTIAL (c) 2014 AgileSwitch, LLC PATENTS PENDING
  15. 15. Amount of Data needed to Transmit 3/21/2014 15 For Each Half Bridge • Header Byte for each HB ------------------- 8 bits • Current Measurement --------------------- 16 bits • CRC for Current sensors and Fault ------- 16 bits • For all Bridges (X3) ------------------------------------------- 120 bits For Temperature and DC-Link Voltage • Headers, Data, CRC ------------------------------------------- 70 bits For a 10KHz system, with 5MHz data rate, 500 bits times are available; plenty of time for retransmissions CONFIDENTIAL (c) 2014 AgileSwitch, LLC PATENTS PENDING
  16. 16. Current Sensor Sample and Hold Control 3/21/2014 16 Current Measurement is a key value necessary for the PWM control system DSP algorithm. There are two methods for controlling the A/D sample & hold and conversion. 1. Software setup via a control register to start conversion a fixed time (100ns accuracy) after the occurrence of the IGBT trigger. 2. Double Pulse Hardware Trigger control. Trigger Signal IGBT On IGBT Off Start Conversion All pulse widths 2μs min CONFIDENTIAL (c) 2014 AgileSwitch, LLC PATENTS PENDING
  17. 17. Current Sensor Features 3/21/2014 17CONFIDENTIAL (c) 2014 AgileSwitch, LLC PATENTS PENDING
  18. 18. Temperature and Voltage Sensor Features 3/21/2014 18 • These parameters are sampled at a continuous rate of 1KHz. • Transmission can be configured to be sent on request or automatically. • Automatic data transmission occurs upon successful completion of all three HB data packets • The voltage measurement is a singular packet with its own CRC. • All three temperature measurements are transmitted as a single packet with a CRC. CONFIDENTIAL (c) 2014 AgileSwitch, LLC PATENTS PENDING
  19. 19. Theory of Operation 3/21/2014 19 • Each Half Bridge (HB) is considered as a separate operational event. • When an IGBT trigger on event occurs, the A/D conversion will be started: – after the trigger and a user-defined delay, the HB start of packet byte is sent, – followed by 16 bit current measurement, – followed by the fault status byte and the CRC. • If HB triggers occur simultaneously then the order of transmission is HB1, HB2, HB3. CONFIDENTIAL (c) 2014 AgileSwitch, LLC PATENTS PENDING
  20. 20. Theory of Operation (cont.) 3/21/2014 20 • If a Receiver error occurs, the host can request a re- transmission via the Fault signal over the Serial Input. The retransmission will occur after the transmission of the current packet is complete. • Managing each Half Bridge (HB) as a separate operational event with its own data packet minimizes synchronization issues and optimizes bandwidth if transmission errors occur. • The lower speed parameters, temperature and voltage can be requested by the host when needed. CONFIDENTIAL (c) 2014 AgileSwitch, LLC PATENTS PENDING
  21. 21. 8 Bits Timing for an HB Current Sensor 3/21/2014 21 Trigger Signal Period Packet Header MSB8 Bits LSB Status Byte Current 16 bits Check Sum 8 Bits Next HB Total 40 bits at 5MHz = 8μs User config delay CONFIDENTIAL (c) 2014 AgileSwitch, LLC PATENTS PENDING
  22. 22. Fault Management 3/21/2014 22 Each HB has a status word that is sent with the packet after a trigger event. The status byte contains a code to indicate the status of the various faults for that HB. 1. DSAT 2. Overcurrent condition 3. Over Temperature 4. Under Voltage HI Side or Lo Side 5. Overshoot Hi Side or Low Side 6. Crossover error 7. Over Voltage 8. Active Clamping Monitor CONFIDENTIAL (c) 2014 AgileSwitch, LLC PATENTS PENDING
  23. 23. Fault Recording – Stack BlackBox™ 3/21/2014 23 The AgileSwitch Stack continually stores the state of the system in a buffer. In the event of a fault: – The last 8 states are stored in EEPROM. – Each time a fault occurs the data is stored. Up to 1,000 fault occurrences can be stored. – This takes 5ms to store and occurs even with loss of power. – This information can be retrieved for future failure analysis. CONFIDENTIAL (c) 2014 AgileSwitch, LLC PATENTS PENDING
  24. 24. The Future of Improved Communications • Data from advanced monitoring, augmented by predictive analytics, helps pre-empt system failure and adjusts overall system performance accordingly. • These new third party Stacks can increase system lifetime beyond that of conventional systems. • Further, these programmable and hardware configurable Stacks shorten development times and lower supply chain risks and costs through multi- sourcing of IGBTs. 3/21/2014 24CONFIDENTIAL (c) 2014 AgileSwitch, LLC PATENTS PENDING
  25. 25. Conclusion 3/21/2014 25 • The New AgileSwitch Stack marks a major step toward improving design time and system reliability. • We are evolving to a more connected world, with a focus on “the Internet of Things” and Power Stacks need to become more connected. • Our new serial interface can accommodate future improvement and expanded connectivity via IEEE 1588 protocols. • This will allow even simpler wiring with better control, isolation and reliability. CONFIDENTIAL (c) 2014 AgileSwitch, LLC PATENTS PENDING
  26. 26. Contact AgileSwitch, LLC 1650 Arch Street, #1905 Philadelphia, PA 19103 USA 484-483-3256 info@AgileSwitch.com www.AgileSwitch.com 263/21/2014 CONFIDENTIAL (c) 2014 AgileSwitch, LLC PATENTS PENDING

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