Building	  the	  Millennium	  Falcon	     A	  Lean	  so5ware	  development	  case	                        study	  
WHO	  AM	  I?	  
XP	  Coach	    Senior	  Engineer	  Your	  story	  teller	  
Agenda	  Lego	  	  Star	  Wars	  	  A	  lean	  approach	  	  	  	  	  
Recap	  on	  Lego	  
Recap	  on	  Star	  Wars	  Episodes	  1-­‐3:	         	  We	  don’t	  really	  talk	  about	  them	  Episode	  4:	        ...
Recap	  on	  Lean	  A	  philosophy	  that	  enables	  moHvated	  people	  to	  build	  the	  right	  stuff	  for	  the	  ri...
Now…	  Witness	  the	  firepower	  of	  this	  fully	  operaHonal	  conference	  talk	  
officeA long time ago, in a galaxy far,far, away…           ^
LeanLego
Episode 4A	  NEW	  BOX	  
300	  double-­‐sided	  pages	  
>	  5000	  pieces	  
James	     Alex	     Seema	     Alex	     Andy	  
The	  science	  bit…	  
A	  Story	  Wall	  
Swim	  lanes	  
Ready	  for	  development	  
A	  burn-­‐up	  chart	  
A	  cumulaHve	  flow	  chart	  
3d               1.5d              0.5d2d              10d              30d     Activity         Activity           Activi...
A	  control	  chart	  
Episode 5THE	  LEGO	  STRIKES	  BACK	  
We	  took	  a	  look	  at	  the	  first	  set	  of	  instrucHons…	  
…	  and	  all	  piled	  in	  to	  the	  box	  
…	  then	  we	  all	  put	  the	  bits	  together	  
It	  went	  really	  slowly…	  
See?	  10 mins                5 mins            1 min Finding  Pieces               Assembling for Step                pie...
Tip	  1	  Understand	  the	  system	  you	  are	           working	  in	  
Turns	  out	  shared	  state	  isn’t	  that	  effecHve	  here…	                                 Pieces being   Pieces being...
Turns	  out	  shared	  state	  isn’t	  that	  effecHve	  here…	                                 Pieces being   Pieces being...
Turns	  out	  shared	  state	  isn’t	  that	  effecHve	  here…	                                 Pieces being   Pieces being...
Turns	  out	  shared	  state	  isn’t	  that	  effecHve	  here…	                                 Pieces being   Pieces being...
Turns	  out	  shared	  state	  isn’t	  that	  effecHve	  here…	                                 Pieces being   Pieces being...
Tip	  2	  Use	  Kanban	  /	  story	  walls	  to	  visualise	                your	  system	  
the	  result	  of	  all	  this?	  
CompleteHalf waythrough   0                                                         Heat       opened    End day   Cows   ...
L	  
Episode 6                  pr  ocessTHE	  RETURN	  OF	  THE	  JEDIS	                               ^
A	  funny	  thing	  happened	  next…	                            Finding                           Pieces          Assembl...
We	  moved	  from	  this:	                          Everybody	                          doing	  this	                     ...
To	  this:	                    Some	  people	              Some	  people	                    doing	  this	               d...
See?	  
The	  constraint	  was	  idenHfied	                         10 mins              5 mins                                    ...
And	  elevated…	  	                                  Pieces being   Pieces being                     Backlog       found  ...
Tip	  3	  Use	  the	  Theory	  of	  Constraints:	        IdenHfy	  and	  Eliminate	  
Remember	  what	  Mary	  Poppendieck	  said	  about	  Queues..?	  
This	  started	  to	  happen…	  
We	  added	  a	  queue	                            Pieces being   Pieces ready   Pieces being                             ...
The	  folks	  assembling	  pieces	  pulled	  from	  the	  queue	                        Pieces being   Pieces ready   Piec...
The	  folks	  finding	  pieces	  pushed	  into	  the	  queue	                         Pieces being   Pieces ready   Pieces ...
Tip	  4	   Introduce	  queued	  states	  into	  your	  system	  to	  help	  visualise	  bohlenecks	  
And	  we	  got	  faster	  
300          266          233          200          166# pages          133          100          66          33          ...
Tip	  5	  Use	  burn-­‐up	  charts	  and	  yesterday’s	         weather	  to	  track	  progress	  	  
But	  it	  didn’t	  stop	  there	  
The	  team	  became	  T-­‐Shaped	                           Breadth of knowledge                                          ...
Specialists	  in	     Specialists	  in	   assembling	           finding	  pieces	  
and	  those	  specialists	  noHced	  this…	                                             9                                 ...
Finding	  a	  piece	  is	  a	  funcHon	  of	  piece	  size	  and	  the	  total	  number	  of	  that	  type	  of	  piece	  ...
so	  we	  did	  this…	  
length of time to find a piece       1                           6           2               3                            ...
Tip	  6	  Use	  control	  charts	  to	  visualise	  variability	           And	  then	  work	  to	  reduce	  it	  
There	  were	  other	  interesHng	     things	  happening	  too	  
We	  used	  defects	  tracking…	  
And	  work	  in	  progress	  limits…	                         Pieces being   Pieces ready   Pieces being                  ...
And	  we	  swarmed	  around	  bohlenecks	                      Pieces being   Pieces ready   Pieces being                 ...
Tip	  7	   Limit	  WiP	  and	  then	  pull	  more	  work	  from	  *up	  stream*	  if	  you	  are	  blocked	  
…	  
300          266          233          200          166# pages          133          100          66          33          ...
J	  
Summary	  Understand	  your	  system	  –	  use	  systems	  thinking	  tools	  Visualise	  work	  using	  kanban	  boards	 ...
And	  finally	  This	  actually	  happened	      We	  spent	  nearly	  6	  weeks	  (on	  and	  off)	      building	  it	  Th...
Thanks!	     jalewis@thoughtworks.com	                                 Bovon.org	                                    @boic...
Lean and lego
Lean and lego
Lean and lego
Lean and lego
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Lean and lego

  1. 1. Building  the  Millennium  Falcon   A  Lean  so5ware  development  case   study  
  2. 2. WHO  AM  I?  
  3. 3. XP  Coach   Senior  Engineer  Your  story  teller  
  4. 4. Agenda  Lego    Star  Wars    A  lean  approach          
  5. 5. Recap  on  Lego  
  6. 6. Recap  on  Star  Wars  Episodes  1-­‐3:    We  don’t  really  talk  about  them  Episode  4:    Boy  realises  he  can  do  magic,  falls  in  love  with  girl,  sHcks  it  to  the  evil  empire  Episode  5:    Boy’s  mate  gets  frozen,  boy  learns  how  to  *do*  magic,  finds  out  his  Dad  runs  the  evil  empire.    Episode  6:    Boy  understands  he  loves  the  girl  as  a  sister  <phew>,  boy  fights  Dad,  Dad  fights  boy,  boy  beats  Dad,  old  cackling  guy  fights  boy.  Dad  beats  old  cackling  dude.  Cut  to  party.    All  clear  now?  
  7. 7. Recap  on  Lean  A  philosophy  that  enables  moHvated  people  to  build  the  right  stuff  for  the  right  customers  at  the  right  Hme    (me)  (Your  definiHon  may  vary)  
  8. 8. Now…  Witness  the  firepower  of  this  fully  operaHonal  conference  talk  
  9. 9. officeA long time ago, in a galaxy far,far, away… ^
  10. 10. LeanLego
  11. 11. Episode 4A  NEW  BOX  
  12. 12. 300  double-­‐sided  pages  
  13. 13. >  5000  pieces  
  14. 14. James   Alex   Seema   Alex   Andy  
  15. 15. The  science  bit…  
  16. 16. A  Story  Wall  
  17. 17. Swim  lanes  
  18. 18. Ready  for  development  
  19. 19. A  burn-­‐up  chart  
  20. 20. A  cumulaHve  flow  chart  
  21. 21. 3d 1.5d 0.5d2d 10d 30d Activity Activity Activity A  value  stream  map  
  22. 22. A  control  chart  
  23. 23. Episode 5THE  LEGO  STRIKES  BACK  
  24. 24. We  took  a  look  at  the  first  set  of  instrucHons…  
  25. 25. …  and  all  piled  in  to  the  box  
  26. 26. …  then  we  all  put  the  bits  together  
  27. 27. It  went  really  slowly…  
  28. 28. See?  10 mins 5 mins 1 min Finding Pieces Assembling for Step pieces
  29. 29. Tip  1  Understand  the  system  you  are   working  in  
  30. 30. Turns  out  shared  state  isn’t  that  effecHve  here…   Pieces being Pieces being Backlog found assembled Done
  31. 31. Turns  out  shared  state  isn’t  that  effecHve  here…   Pieces being Pieces being Backlog found assembled Done
  32. 32. Turns  out  shared  state  isn’t  that  effecHve  here…   Pieces being Pieces being Backlog found assembled Done
  33. 33. Turns  out  shared  state  isn’t  that  effecHve  here…   Pieces being Pieces being Backlog found assembled Done
  34. 34. Turns  out  shared  state  isn’t  that  effecHve  here…   Pieces being Pieces being Backlog found assembled Done
  35. 35. Tip  2  Use  Kanban  /  story  walls  to  visualise   your  system  
  36. 36. the  result  of  all  this?  
  37. 37. CompleteHalf waythrough 0 Heat opened End day Cows hell pigs fly death of the box 1 come freezes the home Universe
  38. 38. L  
  39. 39. Episode 6 pr ocessTHE  RETURN  OF  THE  JEDIS   ^
  40. 40. A  funny  thing  happened  next…   Finding Pieces Assembling for Step pieces
  41. 41. We  moved  from  this:   Everybody   doing  this   Finding Pieces Assembling for Step pieces followed  by  
  42. 42. To  this:   Some  people   Some  people   doing  this   doing  this   Finding Pieces Assembling for Step pieces At  the  same  Hme  as  
  43. 43. See?  
  44. 44. The  constraint  was  idenHfied   10 mins 5 mins 1 min Finding Pieces Assembling for Step pieces
  45. 45. And  elevated…     Pieces being Pieces being Backlog found assembled Done …turns  out  you  can  find  pieces  in  parallel  
  46. 46. Tip  3  Use  the  Theory  of  Constraints:   IdenHfy  and  Eliminate  
  47. 47. Remember  what  Mary  Poppendieck  said  about  Queues..?  
  48. 48. This  started  to  happen…  
  49. 49. We  added  a  queue   Pieces being Pieces ready Pieces being Done Backlog found for assembly assembled based  on  the  pages  in  the  manual  
  50. 50. The  folks  assembling  pieces  pulled  from  the  queue   Pieces being Pieces ready Pieces being Done Backlog found for assembly assembled
  51. 51. The  folks  finding  pieces  pushed  into  the  queue   Pieces being Pieces ready Pieces being Done Backlog found for assembly assembled
  52. 52. Tip  4   Introduce  queued  states  into  your  system  to  help  visualise  bohlenecks  
  53. 53. And  we  got  faster  
  54. 54. 300 266 233 200 166# pages 133 100 66 33 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 # hours
  55. 55. Tip  5  Use  burn-­‐up  charts  and  yesterday’s   weather  to  track  progress    
  56. 56. But  it  didn’t  stop  there  
  57. 57. The  team  became  T-­‐Shaped   Breadth of knowledge Depth of experience
  58. 58. Specialists  in   Specialists  in   assembling   finding  pieces  
  59. 59. and  those  specialists  noHced  this…   9 8 length of time to find a piece 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 time
  60. 60. Finding  a  piece  is  a  funcHon  of  piece  size  and  the  total  number  of  that  type  of  piece  available   than  this   This  takes   longer  
  61. 61. so  we  did  this…  
  62. 62. length of time to find a piece 1 6 2 3 7 4 9 5 8 0time
  63. 63. Tip  6  Use  control  charts  to  visualise  variability   And  then  work  to  reduce  it  
  64. 64. There  were  other  interesHng   things  happening  too  
  65. 65. We  used  defects  tracking…  
  66. 66. And  work  in  progress  limits…   Pieces being Pieces ready Pieces being Done Backlog found for assembly assembled Max  4  
  67. 67. And  we  swarmed  around  bohlenecks   Pieces being Pieces ready Pieces being Done Backlog found for assembly assembled
  68. 68. Tip  7   Limit  WiP  and  then  pull  more  work  from  *up  stream*  if  you  are  blocked  
  69. 69. …  
  70. 70. 300 266 233 200 166# pages 133 100 66 33 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 # hours
  71. 71. J  
  72. 72. Summary  Understand  your  system  –  use  systems  thinking  tools  Visualise  work  using  kanban  boards  /  story  walls  Work  to  eliminate  constraints  in  your  system,  use  the  Theory  of  Constraints  Work  in  Progress,  Swarming  helped  keep  throughput  high  Yesterdays  weather  and  burnup  Use  control  charts  to  idenHfy  and  reduce  variability  
  73. 73. And  finally  This  actually  happened   We  spent  nearly  6  weeks  (on  and  off)   building  it  The  team  was  completely  self-­‐organising   No  one  was  telling  us  how  to  do  this,  it  just   happened  this  way  Why  did  it  happen  this  way?   10,000  hours?   Combined  >  50  years  of  experience  working   with  ‘agile’?  
  74. 74. Thanks!   jalewis@thoughtworks.com   Bovon.org   @boicy  

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