SECOND WORLD WAR

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SECOND WORLD WAR

  1. 1. Material de apoyo 4ºESO Sección bilingüe UNIT 10 THE SECOND WORLD WAR
  2. 2.  Punto culminante de la crisis arrastrada desde la IGM.  Conflicto marcado por fascismos que buscaban reparar por la vía militar la “humillación de sus pueblos”.  Frente al fascismo lucharon las democracias y la Unión Soviética.  Hubo dos guerras paralelas: una en Europa y la otra en el Pacífico.  Se produjeron dos de los mayores horrores que ha contemplado la Humanidad:  Campos de exterminio nazis  Bomba atómica empleada por Estados Unidos  La IIGM provocó la aparición de un nuevo orden mundial: Europa pasó a tener un papel secundario a la sombra de las dos grandes potencias, EEUU y la URSS. WHAT IS THE IMPORTANCE OF WWII?
  3. 3. • The failure of the League of Nations • The Consequences of the Peace Treaties of WWI: The Treaty of Versailles • The Great Depression: protectionism • Totalitarisms and Expansionism • The failure of the appeasement policies THE ORIGINS OF THE SECOND WORLD WAR
  4. 4.  Page 165 During the Paris Peace Conference, President Wilson proposed the establishment of the League of Nations: an international organisation that would guarantee peace and prevent future wars. However, the defeated Central Powers were not allowed to join the League at first. In contrast, the League of Nations was unable to prevent the Second World War, because of the problems created by political and economic factors by the late 1930s. THE FAILURE OF THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS
  5. 5.  How did the League of Nations work? (Page 201) Sanctions Expelling countries from the League. THE FAILURE OF THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS
  6. 6.  The peace treaties signed after the First World War imposed harsh conditions on the defeated powers, including the payment of reparations.  These treaties led to feelings of resentment, especially in Germany.  THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES  In Germany, people resented the Treaty of Versailles.  Hitler had promised to destroy it.  Hitler broke its conditions:  By rebuilding Germany´s armed forces.  In 1935 Germany recovered the Sahr after a Referendum.  In 1936 Hitler reoccupied the Rhineland, and important industrial region which had been made a demilitarised zone by the treaty. THE PEACE TREATIES AFTER WWI
  7. 7. THE PEACE TREATIES AFTER WWI
  8. 8.  The Great Depression of the 1930s resulted in high unemployment and growing poverty in both the United states and Europe.  The situation was especially severe in Germany, which had to continue paying reparations until 1932.  PROTECTIONISM During the Great Depression, many countries implemented protectionist policies to reduce competition from imports. These measures forced countries to find new markets for their products. In some cases, this led to expansionist foreign policies. THE GREAT DEPRESSION
  9. 9. Source: http://www.slideshare.net/slideshow/embed_code/30972185?hostedIn =slideshare&referer=http://www.slideshare.net/rrobrady
  10. 10.  During the 1920s and 1930s, authoritarian regimes had come to power in Italy and Germany.  Once in power, these governments pursued expansionist foreign policies, annexing and invading other countries.  Democratic countries such as Great Britain and France did little to oppose this expansionism.  Authoritarian regimes in Germany, Italy and Japan felt that they needed to expand the territory under their control in order to acquire more raw materials and establish new markets for their exports.  They also aimed to increase their international power and influence through a strong nationalism. TOTALITARISMS AND EXPANSIONISM
  11. 11.  In order to keep the peace and avoid another war, democracies such as Great Britain supported a policy of appeasement.  As a result, they did not use military force to prevent Japanese, German and Italian expansionism in the 1930s.  During the 1930s, Japan, Italy and Germany took advantage of appeasement and proceeded to annex or invade other countries. THE APPEASEMENT POLICIES
  12. 12. 1931 – The Japanese army invaded Manchuria, a region in northeast China. INCREASING TENSIONS
  13. 13. 1935 – Italy invaded Abyssinia (Etiopía). Objective: increase its colonial territory. The League of Nations sanctioned Ityaly. Italy refused to accept the sanction => Italy was expelled fo the League of Nations. INCREASING TENSIONS
  14. 14. Cooperation among Fascist countries Italy cooperated with the Nazi Germany because they recognised the Italian conquer of Abyssinia. 1936 => the beginning of the Spanish Civil War: The relationships between Italy and Germany strenghthened: Axis Rome-Berlin Italy and Germany supported Franco. 1936 => Germany signed with Japan an Pact Antikomintern against USSR. Italy joined later. INCREASING TENSIONS
  15. 15. COOPERATION AMONG FASCIST GOVERNMENTS Franco y Mussolini Franco y Hitler Hitler y Mussolini Firma del Pacto Antikomintern (Alemania y Japón)
  16. 16.  1938 - GERMANY European powers accepted German´s demands in order to avoid a new war. THE FAILURE OF THE APPEASEMENT POLICIES Caricatura británica sobre el papel de Hitler en la política europea: un gigante entre enanos. Tras estudiar la agresiva política exterior alemana ante la que las potencias europeas decidieron practicar la política de apaciguamiento propuesta por Chaberlain, podéis comprender bien esta caricatura.
  17. 17.  1938: Germany annexed Austria and occupied the Sudetenland region of Czechoslovakia. THE FAILURE OF THE APPEASEMENT POLICIES • In september 1938 Hitler and Chamberlain, the British Prime Minister, met. • Great Britain accepted the cession of the Sudetenland if Hitler did not demand any more territories.
  18. 18. March 1939: Germany invaded and occupied the rest of Czechoslovakia. THE FAILURE OF THE APPEASEMENT POLICIES
  19. 19.  Conference of Munich: Chamberlain (Great Britain), Dadalier (France), Hitler (Germany) and Mussolini (Italy).  Great Britain and Italy accepted Hitler´s demands and gave him Czechoslovakia, which was annexed in March 1939. THE FAILURE OF THE APPEASEMENT POLICIES
  20. 20.  Hitler wanted another territory: POLAND  Germany hadn´t accepted the lost of Posen and the question of Danzig. THE FAILURE OF THE APPEASEMENT POLICIES
  21. 21.  But POLAND was protected by :  a defensive alliance with France  and an assistance pact with Great Britain, which guaranteed its dependence. THE FAILURE OF THE APPEASEMENT POLICIES
  22. 22. THE TRIGGER: THE INVASION OF POLAND  Germany prepares the invasion:  On 23 August 1939, Hitler and Stalin signed the Nazi-Soviet Pact, in which they agreed not to attack each other.  Germany got the neutrality of USSR.  USSR opposed to Democratic States. THE OUTBREAK OF WAR
  23. 23.  They also decided to invade Poland and divide the country between them: THE OUTBREAK OF WAR • Germany: Posen and Danzig • USSR: Finland and the Baltic States.
  24. 24.  In response to the Nazi-Soviet Pact, on 25 August, Great Britain joined France and Poland in an alliance of mutual protection. THE OUTBREAK OF WAR
  25. 25.  Finally, Hitler asked Poland to give Danzig back to Germany but Poland refused.  On 1 September 1939 Germany invaded Poland.  On 3 September 1939, Great Britain and France declared war on Germany, because of the alliance of mutual protection with Poland. THE OUTBREAK OF WAR Un Camarógrafo de Guerra Alemán inmortaliza el mítico instante en el que un grupo de soldados alemanes rompe la Barrera del Puesto Fronterizo Polaco para permitir el paso de las tropas. Acaba de estallar la Segunda Guerra Mundial. Fuente: http://www.1y2gm.com/t2384-batalla-de-mokra-panzers- contra-caballos
  26. 26. THE PHASES OF THE SECOND WORLD WAR
  27. 27. THE WAR´S PARTICIPANTS https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lm5SxG 68KSM
  28. 28. THE WAR´S PARTICIPANTS
  29. 29.  German word meaning «lightning war».  Military strategy based on a series of rapid surprise attacks by land and air. THE «BLIZKRIEG» STRATEGY
  30. 30. FIRST PHASE: AXIS OFFENSIVES 1939-1941
  31. 31. WESTERN FRONT POLAND, DENMARK, NORWAY, THE NETEHRLANDS, BELGIUM, LUXEMBURG AND FRANCE
  32. 32. WESTERN FRONT POLAND, DENMARK, NORWAY, THE NETEHRLANDS, BELGIUM, LUXEMBURG AND FRANCE
  33. 33. THE BATTLE OF BRITAIN The French defeat cause the dimission of Chamberlain. Wiston Churchill became the new British Prime Minister.
  34. 34. AXIS ALLIES AXIS INVASIONS (GREECE) AND AXIS ALLIES (HUNGARY, ROMANIA, SLOVAKIA AND BULGARIA)
  35. 35. EASTERN FRONT GERMANY ATTACKED USSR, WHICH JOINED THE ALLIED POWERS
  36. 36. AFRICA ITALY ATTACKED BRITISH MILITARY POSITIONS IN EGYPT
  37. 37. ASIA AND OCEANIA Emperor HiroHito General Tojo
  38. 38. THE JAPANESE INVASIONS
  39. 39. THE JAPANESE INVASIONS: PEARL HARBOR. THE ENTRANCE OF USA PEARL HARBOR
  40. 40. SECOND PHASE: ALLIED VICTORIES 1942 - 1943
  41. 41. THIRD REICH IN 1942
  42. 42. In 1942 the AXIS POWERS suffered a series of successive defeats: Defeat in Stalingrad: the bloodiest. Defeat in El Alamein: the end of the Afrika Korps. Defeat in Midway: Allied offensive over Japan. DECISIVE YEAR: 1942
  43. 43.  Objetive: to control the river Volga and the access to the oil in the Caucasus.  Result: the defeat of the Germans. EUROPE: THE BATTLE OF STALINGRAD
  44. 44.  Aim: to control the oil of the Middle East.  Result: Great Britain defeated German forces in 1942, with the aid of Allied reinforcements from India and Australia. THE BATTLE OF EL ALAMEIN
  45. 45.  The USA defeated Japanese forces.  The Allied powers controlled the Pacific. THE BATTLE OF MIDWAY, 1942
  46. 46.  The Allied powers stopped the Japaneses.  The General Mac Arthur applied the “leapfrog” tactic:  Creation of military bases which allowed to give the next “leap”.  Aisle the enemy bases. THE BATTLE OF GUADALCANAL 1942-1943
  47. 47. THIRD PHASE: FINAL ALLIED ADVANCES 1943 - 1945
  48. 48.  AFRICA:  Geman and Italian forces were defeated in Libya in 1943.  This followed the Allies to cross the Mediterranean and invade Italy. AFRICA AND THE INVASION OF ITALY
  49. 49.  1944: USSR achieved Germany through the Balkans. EUROPE: THE NORMANDY LANDINGS 1944
  50. 50.  On 6 June 1944, the Normandy Landings took place in France.  Allied troops landed on the beaches of Normandy to arrive to Germany earlier than the USSR.  Result:  They liberated France, Belgium and the Netherlands from German control. EUROPE: THE NORMANDY LANDINGS 1944
  51. 51.  After the Normandy Landings, the Allies attacked Germany in three directions:  From France  From Italy  From USSR THE FINAL ATTACKS OF THE ALLIES OVER GERMANY
  52. 52.  STRATEGIC BOMBIMG CAMPAIGN AGAINST GERMAN CITIES  Indiscriminated bombing on civilians.  BOMBING OF DRESDEN: more than 150,000 deads in 2 days. THE FINAL ATTACKS OF THE ALLIES OVER GERMANY Thousands of people were burned to death Were the Western leaders better than Hitler or Stalin?.
  53. 53.  30 April 1945: Hitler killed himself.  2 May 1945:  Berlin was conquered by the Allied powers.  The German Army surrendered in Italy and Mussolini was assassinated.  THE END OF THE WAR IN EUROPE THE FINAL ATTACKS OF THE ALLIES OVER GERMANY
  54. 54.  The Allies were making important advances, but Japan refused to surrender.  USA advanced over Iwo Jima and Okinawa. THE FINAL ALLIED ADVANCES OVER ASIA AND OCEANIA, 1945
  55. 55.  On 8 August 1945, the USA dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.  As a result, Japan surrendered on 2 September 1945.  THE END OF THE SECOND WORLD WAR THE FINAL ALLIED ADVANCES OVER ASIA AND OCEANIA, 1945
  56. 56. Sólo en Hiroshima, que tenía una población de 200.000 habitantes, hubo 100.000 muertos, 60.000 heridos y 68.000 viviendas destruidas. ¿Podemos considerar a los lideres occidentales mas benignos que Hitler o Stalin?.
  57. 57. PEACE AND ITS CONSQUENCES
  58. 58.  In 1945, there were several meetings between the Allied leaders to discuss how they would deal with the defeated Axis Powers. THE PEACE AGREEMENTS Peace Conferences The Yalta Conference The Postdam Conference
  59. 59. THE YALTA CONFERENCE THE PEACE AGREEMENTS February, 1945
  60. 60. THE YALTA CONFERENCE  They discussed the situation of Europe after being liberated from the Nazis. THE PEACE AGREEMENTS • Agreements: • The Allies would occupy Germany and Japan. • The Soviet Union would receive part of Eastern Poland.
  61. 61. What happened in Eastern Europe?  Eastern Europe fell on the orbit of the USSR, because it was liberated from the Nazis by the Soviet army.  Stalin promised to hold democratic free elections, but rejected Western supervision.  In Eastern Europe the popular democracies (socialist states) were installed. THE PEACE AGREEMENTS
  62. 62. THE YALTA CONFERENCE They also agreed on the creation of a new international organisation to guarantee peace: THE UNITED NATIONS (UN)  To prevent or resolve conflicts between countries.  To defend basic human rights, including the right of a national self-determination.  One of the UN´s first mesasures was to adopt the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. THE PEACE AGREEMENTS A blue-beret soldier
  63. 63. THE POSTDAM CONFERENCE THE PEACE AGREEMENTS August, 1945
  64. 64. THE POSTDAM CONFERENCE What would happen with Germany? Germany would be disarmed. Germany would be divided into four zones, each one occupied and administrated by one of the major Allied powers: Great Britain, USA, USSR and France. THE PEACE AGREEMENTS Berlin Germany
  65. 65. New democratic government were established in both Italy and Japan. Germany was occupied by the Allies. New democratic governments were established in both Italy and Japan. Great Britain and France were weakened due to the war´s impact, and lost much of their status as global powers. The USA and the USSR became the world´s new superpowers. POLITICAL CONSEQUENCES
  66. 66. POLITICAL CONSEQUENCES The USA and the USSR became the world´s new superpowers.
  67. 67. POLITICAL CONSEQUENCES: TWO MAIN SPHERES OF INFLUENCE The USA and the USSR became the world´s new superpowers.
  68. 68.  After the war, the defeated countries lost land (mainly to either Poland or the Soviet Union) and Germany was divided into four zones of occupation. TERRITORIAL CONSEQUENCES
  69. 69.  Isabel Aguña  Profesora de Geografía e Historia. Sección bilingüe.

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