Eilon Adar
Zuckerberg Institute for Water Research
J.B. Institutes for Desrt Research
Ben Gurion University of the Negev
e...
Water in the
Middle East
is a scarce commodity
Demand and the actual consumption of water is far beyond
the annual rate of...
All major water resources
in the region are
transboundary –
Cross-Borders Water
Resources
The Goal: Bridging Over Water Shortage
Securing Sufficient & Adequate Water Supply by
implementing novel
water innovations...
Agriculture: past and present
1958
1963-1975
1985-2010
Open field cultivation- History!
Colombia 2013
• Elevating Water Use Efficiency:
• Eliminate soil water evaporation.
• Sub-surface drip irrigation; Pulse-response irriga...
Avoiding soil water evaporation and top soil salinity
Water use efficiency on the farm scale
Isolated confined "soil
root zone”
Developing plant species that can tolerate relatively wide range of
water & soil quality under variable micro-climate cond...
Salt resisting shoots grafted with Merlot
Colombia 2013
New Mango plantation on sandy salty soil in the Arava Valley.
Olive plantation in the Southern Arava ValleyOlive plantation in the Southern Arava Valley
Grafted plants
Commercial varieties
Salt tolerant species
Colombia 2013
BGU Grafted Melons
Tolerate Salty Water
Mini Watermelon
Tolerate Salty Water
Colombia 2013
Will the conventional policy of Water Saving & Increasing Water-Use Efficiency
enable humanity to avoid water shortages an...
One cannot sustain the water
and food supply with a
diminishing amount of water
and a continuously growing
population.
One...
Sub-Surface Water Saving Account:
Enhanced Groundwater Recharge
Exposed Groundwater in the Arava (Timna Mine)
Groundwater in the Arava Valley
Hatzeva Reservoir19.1.2010
‫צילום‬:‫אלבטרוס‬
Attenuation of Floods along the Arava Wash
SKY VIEW
Infiltration Lagoons
Ein Yahav Village
Groundwater production wells
Water release from Nekarot Reservoir to enhan...
RAS
Sludge
Treatment
The AGAR® Technology
• Advanced Biomass Carriers
• Increased effective surface area
• Unique aeration...
Cotton plantations
Drip Irrigation with treated effluents
In
Judea Lowland Plateau
Israel:
82% Reclaimed Effluents = 68% o...
Reverse Osmosis Desalination
Production of Alternative New Water
On Sept 2006 completed first 100 Million m3/year
Creating New Water: seawater, groundwater &
treated sewage desalination
B...
0
36
100
130 145 160
280 305
405
505
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Development of sea water desalinati...
Colombia 2013
Gypsum crystals
Mag x100
Calcium crystals
Mag x800
Avoid sealing & damaging of membranes by minerals
deposition
Gypsum cry...
Bio-fouling
Extracellular Material
(Polysaccharides, Proteins)
Benefits of antimicrobial peptides:
•Active against wide range of microorganisms
•Bacteria do not acquire resistance to it...
In-Land RO Desalination Plant
Colombia 2013
Colombia 2013
Toward Zero Liquid Discharge
Wind Aided Intensified Evaporation
From a Prototype to Alfa Model and Beta site
Prototype
Alf...
WAIV Projects Around the Globe
The client: Mekorot – Israel’s national water company
Location: Ketziot – Israel
Applicatio...
WAIV Projects Around the Globe
The client: Dead Sea Works
Location: Israel
Application: Minerals production
Colombia 2013
WAIV Projects Around the Globe
The client: General Motors
Location: Ramos Arizpe – Mexico
Application: BW Desalination bri...
The Main Challenge:
Safe Discharge of Surplus Flow back/Produced Water Generated During
Production
Large volumes
Improper ...
Water Reuse Practices and Brine Management Alternatives
Why Reuse?
• Potential to reduce discharges
• Minimize underground...
Increasing water saving and eliminating groundwater contamination
associated with leaching and tailing of mining industry
...
Real time monitoring of the heap hydraulic and chemical properties
Colombia 2013
The tailing dumps, the piles of waste material, and the superficial channels of effluents
increase the rate of contaminati...
Methodology
In order to face the aforementioned objectives one has to determine the following
parameters:
• Developing of ...
Optimization of heap leach productivity while reducing
environmental pollution
The concept
Forming HYDRAULIC CONNECTIVITY between the SOIL WATER and the sampler
Direct contact Vadose zone Sampling Ports
Colombia 2013
Real time monitoring of the heap hydraulic and chemical properties
Colombia 2013
Colombia 2013
Chloride concentration in soil water extracts (right hand profile), water samples
collected by the VSP (left hand four pro...
Colombia 2013
Tortolas Area – Sources of Groundwater Recharge
X
?
Groundwater BarrierGroundwater Barrier
Mountain-Front Recharge ?
Colom...
Moavian
Desert
Dead Sea
Negev
Desert
Sedom
The Arava Valley
A complex hydrogeological systems with scarce hydrological inf...
Colombia 2013
Exposed Groundwater in the Arava (Timna Mine)
dt
dp
dp
d
V
dt
d
dt
dp
dp
d
V nn





  







=)(
dt
d
V nnn
n
)(
111
nnnnn
R
r
rnr
J
j
njn
I
i
ini
d...
nCnk
C4k
nCIk
C2k
C1k
C3k
C3k
CIIk
CIIIk
CR4k
CR3k
CR2k
CR1k
Cnk
Mass balance expression for every "k" dissolved species
d...
The Mixing Cells Modeling (MCM) concept
Water Balance Expression
0
11 1
)1(     
n
J
j
nj
R
r
I
i
inrn WQQS
nn n...
Mass Balance Expression
nk
I
i
J
j
nnjnkinink
r
rnrnk WQCQCSC
nR






    1 11
)3(
rnrkQC
inkC
inkC
nkC
...
N
ALMATY
GARKENT
TALDYKORGAN
I
l
y
STUDY
AREA
StorageWater
BALKHASH
South-East Kazakhstan
Sand dune terrain
Illi River
Irr...
52 11
{
{
O1
O2 {
{
O3
O4
22 00
40 0
20 0
20 00
18 00
16 00
14 00
12 00
10 00
80 0
60 0
gQII-III
5-7-3.5
6.1 -7 .1
apQII
a...
Colombia 2013
5 cell
interflow between cells
interflow between levels
outflow
streambed infiltration
source of pollution
mountain front ...
Mulde coal mining area, Germany.
Colombia 2013
Colombia 2013
Contaminated lakes in the flooded mining pits.
Colombia 2013
Concerns: contaminated subsurface groundwater trajectories
and
polluted shallow water flow paths!!!
Colombia 2013
4.525.000 4.530.000 4.535.000 4.540.000 4.545.0004.520.000
5.725.000
5.720.000
5.730.000
5.735.000
5.740.000
5.745.000
5.7...
The groundwater flow pattern and connectivity among sub-
aquifer units in the Mulde groundwater basin
Colombia 2013
Basic Assumptions for the Transient Mixing Cell Model (MCMtr)
The spatial structure, geometry, size and volume of the cel...
Groundwater and surface water resources combined with the
anthropogenic impact (industry and agriculture), create a comple...
Objectives
Identifying active sources of recharge: fresh water &
pollutants;
Quantifying the amount of deep percolation ...
Future implementation:
The impact of mining on the quality of
groundwater reservoirs Colombia 2013
Heap
Leaching
Piles
Evaporation
Lagoons
Deep percolation from processing
And
Tailing water
Colombia 2013
Sources of Groundwater Recharge and Possible Pollutants
Into the downstream Basin
Colombia 2013
Surface reclamation does not eliminate subsurface
downstream leachate and leakage!
Colombia 2013
Summary
The MCM is aimed for complex hydro-geological basins with lack of hydrological
information that eliminate the poss...
Innovation In Water:
The Origins are Already In the Bible!
Water needs care & attention
Thank you
The Israeli Innovations for Overcoming Water Scarcity by Novel  Water Technologies
The Israeli Innovations for Overcoming Water Scarcity by Novel  Water Technologies
The Israeli Innovations for Overcoming Water Scarcity by Novel  Water Technologies
The Israeli Innovations for Overcoming Water Scarcity by Novel  Water Technologies
The Israeli Innovations for Overcoming Water Scarcity by Novel  Water Technologies
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The Israeli Innovations for Overcoming Water Scarcity by Novel Water Technologies

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Eilon Adar. Zuckerberg Institute for Water Research. J.B. Institutes for Desrt Research. Ben Gurion University of the Negev. Foro "Promoviendo una Minería Sostenible"

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The Israeli Innovations for Overcoming Water Scarcity by Novel Water Technologies

  1. 1. Eilon Adar Zuckerberg Institute for Water Research J.B. Institutes for Desrt Research Ben Gurion University of the Negev eilon@bgu.ac.il Colombia 2013
  2. 2. Water in the Middle East is a scarce commodity Demand and the actual consumption of water is far beyond the annual rate of replenishment, exceeding the safe yield. Annual renewable amount to about 1,400 m3 per person per year - less than 20% of the global average. Closing the Gap between Water Availability (Supply) and Demand .
  3. 3. All major water resources in the region are transboundary – Cross-Borders Water Resources
  4. 4. The Goal: Bridging Over Water Shortage Securing Sufficient & Adequate Water Supply by implementing novel water innovations and technologies 1. Improving Water utilization efficiency: irrigation & water application; water reuse; water management: supply and quality 2. New Water: Reclaimed treated sewage & Seawater and groundwater desalination Simultaneously performed !
  5. 5. Agriculture: past and present 1958 1963-1975 1985-2010 Open field cultivation- History! Colombia 2013
  6. 6. • Elevating Water Use Efficiency: • Eliminate soil water evaporation. • Sub-surface drip irrigation; Pulse-response irrigation; • Sequential use of water. Protected cultivation Net houses & Green Houses
  7. 7. Avoiding soil water evaporation and top soil salinity
  8. 8. Water use efficiency on the farm scale Isolated confined "soil root zone”
  9. 9. Developing plant species that can tolerate relatively wide range of water & soil quality under variable micro-climate conditions Colombia 2013
  10. 10. Salt resisting shoots grafted with Merlot Colombia 2013
  11. 11. New Mango plantation on sandy salty soil in the Arava Valley.
  12. 12. Olive plantation in the Southern Arava ValleyOlive plantation in the Southern Arava Valley
  13. 13. Grafted plants Commercial varieties Salt tolerant species Colombia 2013
  14. 14. BGU Grafted Melons Tolerate Salty Water
  15. 15. Mini Watermelon Tolerate Salty Water Colombia 2013
  16. 16. Will the conventional policy of Water Saving & Increasing Water-Use Efficiency enable humanity to avoid water shortages and provide water security? Will the conventional policy of Water Saving & Increasing Water-Use Efficiency enable humanity to avoid water shortages and provide water security? At most, only temporarily mitigate water scarcity!At most, only temporarily mitigate water scarcity! We shall not be able to meet the increasing demand for water (and food) by simply improving water-use efficiency. We shall not be able to meet the increasing demand for water (and food) by simply improving water-use efficiency.
  17. 17. One cannot sustain the water and food supply with a diminishing amount of water and a continuously growing population. One cannot sustain the water and food supply with a diminishing amount of water and a continuously growing population. Colombia 2013
  18. 18. Sub-Surface Water Saving Account: Enhanced Groundwater Recharge
  19. 19. Exposed Groundwater in the Arava (Timna Mine) Groundwater in the Arava Valley
  20. 20. Hatzeva Reservoir19.1.2010 ‫צילום‬:‫אלבטרוס‬ Attenuation of Floods along the Arava Wash
  21. 21. SKY VIEW Infiltration Lagoons Ein Yahav Village Groundwater production wells Water release from Nekarot Reservoir to enhance groundwater recharge
  22. 22. RAS Sludge Treatment The AGAR® Technology • Advanced Biomass Carriers • Increased effective surface area • Unique aeration design (airlift double role)
  23. 23. Cotton plantations Drip Irrigation with treated effluents In Judea Lowland Plateau Israel: 82% Reclaimed Effluents = 68% of the water used by the agriculture Sector Israel: 82% Reclaimed Effluents = 68% of the water used by the agriculture Sector
  24. 24. Reverse Osmosis Desalination Production of Alternative New Water
  25. 25. On Sept 2006 completed first 100 Million m3/year Creating New Water: seawater, groundwater & treated sewage desalination By May 2010 - 150 Million m3/year Ashkelon Plant Hadera – 2010 Desalination plant 160 million M3/y 96”Concretepipe Two 64”HDPE Intakepipe, 1,300 m 64”HDPE outfallpipe, 800m 96”Concretepipe Palmachim 85 Mm3/y. April 2010
  26. 26. 0 36 100 130 145 160 280 305 405 505 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 Development of sea water desalination plants in Israel along the national system (60)30 (100) (135) 100 Hadera Palmachim Ashdod Ashkelon Full production Since 12/05 Construction phase. Production at 10/09 Shafdan (100) Full production Since 9/07 Sea Water Desalination Cost : 0.60- 0.70 US $/m3 Sea water desalination plant Saline water desalination plant (150M/y) 605 Mm3/y in 2015! Colombia 2013
  27. 27. Colombia 2013
  28. 28. Gypsum crystals Mag x100 Calcium crystals Mag x800 Avoid sealing & damaging of membranes by minerals deposition Gypsum crystals Mag x100 Avoid sealing & damaging of membranes by minerals deposition
  29. 29. Bio-fouling Extracellular Material (Polysaccharides, Proteins)
  30. 30. Benefits of antimicrobial peptides: •Active against wide range of microorganisms •Bacteria do not acquire resistance to it; •Non toxic to humans Peptide Peptide Peptide Peptide Reverseosmosis membranesurface Covalent immobilization of peptides on RO membranes through long linkers Antimicrobial peptides kill bacteria by permeabilization of bacterial cell membrane Colombia 2013
  31. 31. In-Land RO Desalination Plant Colombia 2013
  32. 32. Colombia 2013
  33. 33. Toward Zero Liquid Discharge Wind Aided Intensified Evaporation From a Prototype to Alfa Model and Beta site Prototype Alfa Model Colombia 2013
  34. 34. WAIV Projects Around the Globe The client: Mekorot – Israel’s national water company Location: Ketziot – Israel Application: Brackish water desalination brine Colombia 2013
  35. 35. WAIV Projects Around the Globe The client: Dead Sea Works Location: Israel Application: Minerals production Colombia 2013
  36. 36. WAIV Projects Around the Globe The client: General Motors Location: Ramos Arizpe – Mexico Application: BW Desalination brine Colombia 2013
  37. 37. The Main Challenge: Safe Discharge of Surplus Flow back/Produced Water Generated During Production Large volumes Improper configuration of sewage treatment plants (STP’s) Only a small fraction of the flow back can be cut into a new frac without significant treatment to remove TDS On-site capacity limitations frequently require producers to truck excess water to alternative commercial disposal facilities which can be a major expense and risk (Hazmat spills)
  38. 38. Water Reuse Practices and Brine Management Alternatives Why Reuse? • Potential to reduce discharges • Minimize underground injection of wastewater • Conserve water resources Byproduct Brine • For now, evaporation or discharge into drainage systems are still the most common methods in North America (reuse of treated water is growing in Australia). Hence, brine minimization solution is of critical need! Colombia 2013
  39. 39. Increasing water saving and eliminating groundwater contamination associated with leaching and tailing of mining industry Eilon M. Adar & Ofer Dahan Zuckerberg Institute for Water Research at the Blaustein Institutes for Desert Research Ben-Gurion University of the Negev Sede Boqer Campus Colombia 2013
  40. 40. Real time monitoring of the heap hydraulic and chemical properties Colombia 2013
  41. 41. The tailing dumps, the piles of waste material, and the superficial channels of effluents increase the rate of contamination of the aquifers, affecting all the downstream rivers and groundwater reservoirs with negative impact on agricultural activities that take place downstream. Objectives Increasing water use efficiency for saving on water application by the mining industry. Eliminating deep percolation of polluted water to protect local aquifers and eliminating further contamination of downstream groundwater reservoirs. The goals are: Introducing an efficient water application method that decreases losses by evaporation and eliminates un-necessary deep percolation; Improving leaching efficiency in the heap-leaching production processes; Containing the already polluted groundwater to avoid further contamination of the downstream aquifers; Assessing the hydro-chemical evolution of the percolating water along the vadose zone; Assessing the hydro-chemical evolution within the sub-aquifer unites along the groundwater flow trajectories. Colombia 2013
  42. 42. Methodology In order to face the aforementioned objectives one has to determine the following parameters: • Developing of combined under-cover high-low pressure sprinkling-dripping water application system; • Identifying the precise subsurface flow paths within the unsaturated (vadose) zone from the on-surface treatment heap leaching piles and floatation and tailing lagoons down to the local aquifers; • Identifying the groundwater flow trajectories within and in-between sub-aquifer units; • Identifying the hydraulic connectivity among the water bearing formations and the neighboring aquifers; • Quantify the water fluxes across the vadose (unsaturated) zone; • Quantify the groundwater fluxes within and in-between sub-aquifer units. Colombia 2013
  43. 43. Optimization of heap leach productivity while reducing environmental pollution
  44. 44. The concept Forming HYDRAULIC CONNECTIVITY between the SOIL WATER and the sampler
  45. 45. Direct contact Vadose zone Sampling Ports
  46. 46. Colombia 2013
  47. 47. Real time monitoring of the heap hydraulic and chemical properties Colombia 2013
  48. 48. Colombia 2013
  49. 49. Chloride concentration in soil water extracts (right hand profile), water samples collected by the VSP (left hand four profiles), and in shallow groundwater under a natural sand dune overlying the Coastal Aquifer, Israel. Colombia 2013
  50. 50. Colombia 2013
  51. 51. Tortolas Area – Sources of Groundwater Recharge X ? Groundwater BarrierGroundwater Barrier Mountain-Front Recharge ? Colombia 2013
  52. 52. Moavian Desert Dead Sea Negev Desert Sedom The Arava Valley A complex hydrogeological systems with scarce hydrological information Yotvata Ya’alon UOA 2013 Tucson, 10, 2013
  53. 53. Colombia 2013
  54. 54. Exposed Groundwater in the Arava (Timna Mine)
  55. 55. dt dp dp d V dt d dt dp dp d V nn                =)( dt d V nnn n )( 111 nnnnn R r rnr J j njn I i ini dt d VWQqq     Water Balance Expression for Cell n dt dh SWQqq nn R r rn J j nj I i in     111 The Mathematical Description dt dh g dt dp ghp   dt dh dp d gV dt dp dp d V nn     2 nnn =)( dt d V  n n nn dp d gVS  * dt dh Sn  * nnn =)( dt d V Colombia 2013
  56. 56. nCnk C4k nCIk C2k C1k C3k C3k CIIk CIIIk CR4k CR3k CR2k CR1k Cnk Mass balance expression for every "k" dissolved species dt dc dt d cc nkVnV=)( dt d V nnnknnknn     dt dc dt dh c nk* nVn* nS nknnkrn R 1r rknj J 1j nkin I 1i ik WcQc)q(c)q(c   (k=1,2,3,...,Kn) )c( dt d VWcQc)q(c)q(c nknnnnkrn R 1r rknj J 1j nkin I 1i ik   dt dc dt n dp dp d cc nkVnV=)( dt d V nnnknnknn     dt dh g dt dp ghp   dt dc dt n dh dp d cc g nkVnV=)( dt d V nnnknnknn      n n nn dp d gVS  * nnn VV * Colombia 2013
  57. 57. The Mixing Cells Modeling (MCM) concept Water Balance Expression 0 11 1 )1(      n J j nj R r I i inrn WQQS nn n All potential sources are identified nn J j nj R r I i inrn WQQS nn n      11 1 )2( Leakage from the clay & marls formations Wn Colombia 2013
  58. 58. Mass Balance Expression nk I i J j nnjnkinink r rnrnk WQCQCSC nR           1 11 )3( rnrkQC inkC inkC nkC Every source is designated by a unique hydro-chemical composition
  59. 59. N ALMATY GARKENT TALDYKORGAN I l y STUDY AREA StorageWater BALKHASH South-East Kazakhstan Sand dune terrain Illi River Irrigated RICE fields Colombia 2013
  60. 60. 52 11 { { O1 O2 { { O3 O4 22 00 40 0 20 0 20 00 18 00 16 00 14 00 12 00 10 00 80 0 60 0 gQII-III 5-7-3.5 6.1 -7 .1 apQII apQIV 33 17 30 8 0.0 5-65 N2il 52 06 0.3 10 00 90 0 80 0 70 0 60 0 20 0 10 0 Qo u t 0.2 -1 4 40 .8-33 .3 apQI N2il 0.4 apQII 0.4 -9 0.3 01 03 04 02 0.2 -1 5 45 .1-64 .2 49 .1-35 30 -2 2.6 0.5 0.2 apQIII 83 .1 S S Qo u t 58 -3 .2 0.2 0.3 -1 1 50 36 36 1 apQIII S 0.1 +4 0.2 R 20 0 40 0 60 0 80 0 10 00 B C C 70 0 60 0 20 0 10 0 50 0 40 0 30 0 S +1 6.5 A 50 33 30 1 S R +2 4.8 35 8 50 0 40 0 30 0 0.3 -1 0 48 .8-44 VESNOVKA River 0.1 14 .8-23 .7 SCA LE : HORIZONTAL 1: 2 00 0 00 VERTICA L 1 : 20 0 00 05 05 R R R 13 18 50 19 50 20 50 21 Qo u t Pm Pm Almaty Basin, Kazakhstan Colombia 2013
  61. 61. Colombia 2013
  62. 62. 5 cell interflow between cells interflow between levels outflow streambed infiltration source of pollution mountain front recharge pumpage 1 2 5 36 4 Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 Level 5 1 6 2 3 4 5 7 1 4 6 5 2 3 300 43 134200 51 0 75 24 403 48251071 7 8 7 3600045000 50600 29300 57800 423007932 39713 17546 49447 11621 0 0 6205 56241 0 17670 500 17900 22000 5870 12300 1440011400 9848 20484 1578917345 254611338 62567 20000 0 0 0 7035 0 31900 Simplified Flow Pattern And Calculated Fluxes in Almaty Basin Colombia 2013
  63. 63. Mulde coal mining area, Germany. Colombia 2013
  64. 64. Colombia 2013
  65. 65. Contaminated lakes in the flooded mining pits. Colombia 2013
  66. 66. Concerns: contaminated subsurface groundwater trajectories and polluted shallow water flow paths!!! Colombia 2013
  67. 67. 4.525.000 4.530.000 4.535.000 4.540.000 4.545.0004.520.000 5.725.000 5.720.000 5.730.000 5.735.000 5.740.000 5.745.000 5.715.000 Goit37587 Goit211 Goit455 Goit385 Goit432 HyO37/69up HyO36/69up HyJ23E/2.2 Grob880 HyO27/69 Germany Level 1-2 Cells configuration I II III VI V IV VII VIII IX X XI S-2 S-2 S-2 S-1 S-2 S-3 S-2 S-4 S-5 S-3 S-4 S-5 S-6 S-5 S-6 S-5 External source Intermediate flow Pumping rate(%) 662 894 618 650 644 620 660 772 877 570 894 EC (S/cm) OUTFLOW 552 Colombia 2013
  68. 68. The groundwater flow pattern and connectivity among sub- aquifer units in the Mulde groundwater basin Colombia 2013
  69. 69. Basic Assumptions for the Transient Mixing Cell Model (MCMtr) The spatial structure, geometry, size and volume of the cells remain constant along the entire duration of the model; The isotopes and the dissolved minerals are inert and do not compose any chemical reactions within the aquifer; The dissolved ions are in pseudo-equilibrium with the rocks and soil minerals; All potential unknown fluxes (groundwater fluxes between compartments of the system and discharge of external contributors to the compartments) have been identified in terms of its hydrochemical and isotopic composition. Spatial and temporal variations in chemical and isotopic composition within the aquifer is exclusively due to 1) variable mixing ratios among the recharge components, and 2) dilution and mixing along the groundwater flow-paths. Complete mixing of all dissolved constituents within the designated cells; No gradients of hydraulic heads, isotopic and chemical compositions are allowed within the cells, only across the cell's boundaries.
  70. 70. Groundwater and surface water resources combined with the anthropogenic impact (industry and agriculture), create a complex hydrological and hydro-chemical flow system. The spatial distribution of various sources of pollutants along rivers and within lakes is closely related to the relative contribution of each of the active sources. complex hydrological and hydrochemical flow system Diffused sources. Colombia 2013
  71. 71. Objectives Identifying active sources of recharge: fresh water & pollutants; Quantifying the amount of deep percolation into each sub- aquifer unit along every segment of the aquifer; Quantifying the groundwater fluxes within and along every water bearing sub-aquifer unit; Colombia 2013
  72. 72. Future implementation: The impact of mining on the quality of groundwater reservoirs Colombia 2013
  73. 73. Heap Leaching Piles Evaporation Lagoons
  74. 74. Deep percolation from processing And Tailing water Colombia 2013
  75. 75. Sources of Groundwater Recharge and Possible Pollutants Into the downstream Basin Colombia 2013
  76. 76. Surface reclamation does not eliminate subsurface downstream leachate and leakage! Colombia 2013
  77. 77. Summary The MCM is aimed for complex hydro-geological basins with lack of hydrological information that eliminate the possibility to solve hydrological model based on the continuity equation. The MCM model identifies and provides a quantitative assessment of deep percolation into groundwater from different sources such as mining and agriculture. Colombia 2013
  78. 78. Innovation In Water: The Origins are Already In the Bible!
  79. 79. Water needs care & attention Thank you

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