Using Knowledge-based Processes to Improve Enterprise System ...
Using Knowledge-based Processes to Improve Enterprise
Sanjay Mathrani Dennis Viehland
Navman NZ Limited Massey University
A significant investment in resources is required for implementation of integrated enterprise
systems while the effectiveness of these systems to achieve business benefits remains unclear
and empirically largely unexplored. Organizations are realizing that it’s not enough to put
in an enterprise system and expect an automatic improvement. The business benefits can be
achieved from improvements through transformation of enterprise system data into
knowledge by applying analytic and decision making processes. This study explores a model
of transforming enterprise system data into knowledge and results, through a case study that
examines the impact of enterprise systems information on organizational functions and
processes leading to business benefits.
Enterprise systems (ES), enterprise resource planning (ERP), effectiveness, data, knowledge
creation, knowledge management, business benefits
Enterprise systems (ES) also called enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems have an
organizational impact and in most cases are implemented to improve organizational
effectiveness (Davenport, 1998, 2000; Markus & Tanis, 2000). These are software
applications that connect and manage information flows across complex organizations,
allowing managers to make decisions based on information that accurately reflects the
current state of their business (Davenport, Harris, & Cantrell, 2002).
These systems are implemented to bring about definite business benefits which justify the
investment. Return on investment (ROI) comes from process improvements ES supports and
not from just the new ES software. The difference is that ES software alone, no matter how
good it is, makes little impact on improving business performance. If organizations continue
to follow the same pre-ES business processes after implementation, they can expect the same
or possibly worse performance. ES software can however, enable and support many new
processes but not without the organization deciding what those process are and accepting
their use. Positive ROI can come from changing the way business was performed in the past
to more streamlined, faster and lower cost processes that better serve the needs of the
customer and if that is done well, it will be a winner (Donovan, 2003).
One of the key mistakes most companies make is that they view an ES project as completed
when the system goes live, which greatly limits their ability to achieve benefit. They view
the output of the system as a set of information transactions and do not take advantage of the
information to manage the business differently. ES do a good job of automating many
business transactions from taking orders to paying suppliers; however there is another set of
potential benefits that can be captured by the utilization of the high quality information that
is available (Davenport, Harris, & Cantrell, 2004).
2. Research Approach
The focus of this paper is to better understand the effectiveness of enterprise systems
technology in an organizational setting, by the creation and utilization of ES knowledge
leading to business benefits.
A field study is conducted in a large manufacturing organization that has implemented an
ES, in order to understand one company’s experience in achieving growth by leveraging data
from its ES investment. This organization had aggressive growth plans with an objective to
achieve better penetration capability into the competitive market by improving its
operations. In this study, a qualitative research methodology is used to explore the
application of knowledge processes on ES data, and by applying qualitative data analysis
techniques, the observations and inferences have been documented.
3. Business Intelligence and Knowledge Management
Information technology plays a central role in today’s knowledge intensive business
environment. IT systems must be able to integrate disparate organizational systems to
provide seamless and consistent data flow, connecting individual processes so that data are
useful for decision-making throughout the entire business system. Information systems
effectiveness is therefore defined as the perceptions of decision makers’ of the usefulness of
information available to them which meets their “business intelligence” requirements
In the information processing view of knowledge, two technologies have been key to
improving the quantitative and qualitative value of knowledge available: business
intelligence and knowledge management.
Business intelligence (BI) is an activity that supports business strategy. It is described as a
rational approach to management, which is fact-based and analysis-based, converting data
into information, and empowering organizations to make better decisions faster (Vitt,
Luckevich, & Misner, 2002). It creates needs for collecting, analyzing, and reporting on data
at the interface between internal and external activities in an organization’s supply chain
Knowledge management is the ability to selectively capture, archive, and access the best
practices of work-related knowledge and decision making from employees and managers for
both individual and group behaviors (Bergeron, 2003). Knowledge management processes
are necessary to transform information – in this study ES data – into beneficial outcomes for
There is a driving need for businesses to collect information, analyze results, predict future
trends and make well informed knowledgeable business decisions. These decisions affect a
myriad of corporate subjects, from customers to products to suppliers and distributors, for a
wide range of industries (Moncla & Consulting, 2000). Data warehouses help to combine
and aggregate valuable data from multiple sources (Mathrani, 2004). Organizations therefore
deploy enterprise systems to create data sources which provide valuable information to meet
their business intelligence and knowledge requirements (Vitt et al., 2002).
4. Enterprise System Benefits
The justification for adopting ES centers on their business benefits. To receive benefit from
ES, there must be no misunderstanding of what it is about and its usability and even more
importantly, organizational decision makers must have the background and temperament for
this type of decision making coupled with the right quality of information (Donovan, 1998).
Many researchers have evaluated benefits from ES investments (e.g. Cooke & Peterson,
1998; Davenport et al., 2002; Deloitte, 1998; Donovan, 1998, 2001; Hedman & Borell,
2002; Ittner & Larcker, 2003; Jenson & Johnson, 2002; Markus & Tanis, 2000; Robey,
Ross, & Boudreau, 2002; Shang & Seddon, 2000; Shanks et al., 2000; Soh, Kien, & Tay-
Yap, 2000; Yang & Seddon, 2004). ES’s are designed to help manage organizational
resources in an integrated manner. The level of integration that is promoted across functions
in an enterprise closely relates to the primary benefits that are expected as a result from their
implementation. The types of benefits that companies might anticipate from their ES and to
the extent organizations had actually attained those benefits on a post-implementation basis
are an area being proactively pursued by professional literature. After adoption, expectations
for improved business performance may result from both operational and strategic benefits
(Irving, 1999; Jenson & Johnson, 2002; Nicolaou, 2004b).
In a study of 85 global companies (Deloitte, 1998) tangible benefits (e.g. cost savings, faster
processing) and intangible benefits (e.g. improved information visibility, new/improved
processes, and improved customer responsiveness) were reported (Deloitte, 1998; Yang &
Seddon, 2004). In a survey of 163 large firms (Davenport et al., 2002) key benefits realized
by organizations adopting enterprise systems have been reported such as better management
decision making, improved customer service and retention, ease of expansion/growth,
increased flexibility, faster, more accurate transactions, cost reduction, and increased
revenue (Davenport et al., 2002; Yang & Seddon, 2004).
In another study (Jenson & Johnson, 2002) some cases of achieved benefits have been
compiled: Fujitsu, after a successful 10-month installation of SAP, reported 90 percent
reduction of cycle time, 60 to 85 percent improved on-time delivery, and 50 percent
reduction for financial closing times. Separately, Boeing officials commented: “BaaN forced
us to look for ways to simplify our processes, and because the software is integrated, end
users must now work together to solve problems within the internal supply chain” (Jenson &
Johnson, 2002 pp. 28). However, some companies have difficulty in identifying any
measurable benefits or business process improvements (Donovan, 2001).
In the past decade, increasing numbers of companies have been measuring customer loyalty,
employee satisfaction, and other performance areas which they believe ultimately affect
profitability. But the reality is that only a few companies realize these benefits because they
fail to identify, analyze, and act on the right non-financial measures to achieve strategic
objectives (Ittner & Larcker, 2003).
A comprehensive framework of business benefits has been presented (Shang & Seddon,
2000) that organizations might be able to achieve from their use of enterprise systems. The
21 enterprise system benefits presented were consolidated across five benefit dimensions, as
illustrated in table 1.
Table 1 - A Framework of Business Benefits
Dimension Subdimension Explanation
1 Operational 1.1 Cost reduction ERP systems automate business
1.2 Cycle time reduction processes and enable process changes.
1.3 Productivity improvement Therefore one would expect ERP
1.4 Quality improvement systems to offer all of these types of
1.5 Customer services improvement benefits.
2 Managerial 2.1 Better resource management With a centralized data base and built-
2.2 Improved decision making and planning in data analysis capabilities, it seems
2.3 Performance improvement likely that ERP systems will provide
informational benefits to management.
3 Strategic 3.1 Support business growth Enterprise systems with their large
3.2 Support business alliance scale business involvement and internal
3.3 Build business innovations and external integration capabilities
3.4 Build cost leadership could assist in achieving these strategic
3.5 Generate product differentiation (including benefits.
3.6 Build external linkages (customers and
3.7 Worldwide expansion
3.8 Enabling e-commerce
4 IT Infrastructure 4.1 Build business flexibility for current and Enterprise systems with their integrated
future changes and standard application architecture
4.2 IT cost reduction provide an infrastructure that could
4.3 Increased IT infrastructure capability support this dimension.
5 Organizational 5.1 Support organizational changes The integrated information processing
5.2 Facilitate business learning capabilities of enterprise systems could
5.3 Empowerment affect the establishment of
5.4 Build common visions organizational capabilities.
5.5 Change employee behavior
5.6 Better employee morale and satisfaction
Source: Adapted from Shang and Seddon (2000)
5. Turning ES Data into Knowledge
A model conceptualized and used by Davenport (2000) and his team of researchers for
turning ES data into ES knowledge is shown in figure 1. The model comprises of three major
steps. The first is the context. This includes the factors that must be present for
transformation of ES data into knowledge and results. The second is the transformation of
ES data into knowledge which takes place when the data are actually analyzed and then used
to support a business decision. The third are the outcomes which are the events that change
as a result of the analysis and implementation of the decisions made.
As per Davenport’s model, the process of ES data transformation into knowledge, leads into
organizational changes. The most basic potential outcome of this process is the changes in
behaviors of individual managers, employees, customers, suppliers, and all stakeholders in
the value chain. Another outcome from the decisions or results of behavioral changes may be
new initiatives to bring about improvements in business or make changes in existing
projects. The results of decisions can also include process changes, which may also be the
result of many small initiatives or behavioral changes. On determining that an existing
process is not working effectively can lead to changes in the existing process or design and
implementation of an entirely new process.
Figure 1: A Model of How ES Data are Transformed into Knowledge and Results
Context Transformation Outcomes
Knowledge creation and
and Cultural Initiatives
Skills and Process Making Process
Source: Adapted from Davenport (2000)
The ultimate results of all these activities are the business benefits which lead to financial
impacts in the organization. “Decisions lead to new behaviors, new initiatives, and
processes, which do not matter unless they improve the bottom line and the return to share
holders” (Davenport, 2000 p. 225).
It may be difficult to draw a direct chain of influence from prerequisites to transformation to
non-financial outcomes to financial results, but establishing that linkage should be the
objective of an organization that invests effort and resources in ES data transformation
(Davenport, 2000) and is the focus of this study.
6. Leveraging ES Information: A Case Study
This case study is about understanding a company’s experience in achieving growth by
leveraging data from its ES investment through knowledge creation and management
processes. The case also illustrates Davenport’s conceptual framework (see figure 1) that
managers can use to evaluate their own situation and identify areas that need special
attention to make sure their organization’s ES investment enables improvement in how the
business is managed.
6.1 Company Overview
Growel Limited1 is a US$1 billion forging manufacturing company and is one of the world’s
largest manufacturer and exporter of automotive engine and suspension components. It has
A pseudonym. The name was chosen to symbolize growth
the world’s largest single-location forging capacity and is the second largest and most
technologically advanced commercial forge shops in the world.
Growel has been a publicly traded company whose stock has appreciated more than 200
percent. With manufacturing facilities in India and Germany, the company manufactures a
wide range of forgings and machined components for the automotive, diesel engine, railway,
earthmoving, cement, sugar, steel, coal, ship building, and oilfield industries. An ISO
9001:2000, ISO/TS 16949:2002 accredited company, Growel is internationally reputed for
its cutting edge technology, established quality processes, and capabilities to meet the
exacting standards of the most demanding customers in the world. Growel Limited is a
global corporation with world class engineering capabilities, state-of-the-art manufacturing
facilities, and a global customer base that includes General Motors, Toyota, Ford, Daimler
Chrysler, Honda, Renault, Volvo, Caterpillar - Perkins, Cummins, Arvin Meritor, Mitsubishi
Motor Corporation, Dana Corporation, and several others. It is the largest manufacturer of
axle components for heavy trucks with a 35% global market share, with a 10% global market
share in engine components.
6.2.1 Strategic Context
Growel’s journey towards becoming an international player began in the late 1990’s. The
company wanted to grow exports; widen its global footprint and secure new customers. It
wanted to become the world’s largest manufacturer of axle components for heavy trucks and
one of the key global players for engine components. Growel undertook the process of
doubling its manufacturing capacity by implementing a major capacity expansion program,
to be completed in 8-10 months. On completion, Growel would have augmented its forging
capacity to over 350,000 tones per annum and the crankshaft machining capacity in excess
of 650,000 crankshafts per annum. However, this involved large investments and risks. The
company had no other options but to resort to major cost controls, improve operational
efficiencies and optimize its business processes to counter the adverse financial effects of the
Senior managers in the company chose to pursue a strategy to achieve operational
excellence. The company historically lacked integration between its order-to-cash, shipping,
and accounts receivable processes. There were disputes on invoices, and purchase orders
relating to price, and terms of business with customers and suppliers. There was a lack of
visibility into finished goods inventory and overall accuracy of inventory was poor.
Visibility of material requirements and inventory throughout the value chain was inadequate
and did not provide decision support at all stages of operations. The company had not
integrated the design and development practices with the operational systems; therefore the
time lag between development and marketing of products was large and resulted in poor
customer service and dissatisfaction.
Human resource services also needed improvement. The information on internal work
efficiencies of workmen and the process efficiencies was insufficient. Product quality was
another aspect which required attention along with smoothening of the pre-production
approval process. Capabilities for design and validation of components were inadequate and
needed improvements which would allow the company to interactively participate with its
customers at the early stages of product development avoiding rework at a later stage.
The product forecasting process also required improvements. Managers only discovered that
they had shortage of manufacturing capacity when the line ran out. On the sales side,
management had limited visibility of who its most and least profitable customers and
products were. They also did not have information on whether they were buying in the most
cost effective manner. In general, the management lacked the detailed understanding of its
business and needed to improve operations. The management team recognized what types of
decisions had to be made to support their strategic objectives but could not utilize the
operational data. The company had to improve its operations in order to achieve better
penetration capability into the export market, which was their prime objective.
6.2.2 Organizational and Cultural Context
A company is as good as its people and Growel has the privilege of having a highly qualified
and motivated manpower base. Since its inception, Growel has attached great significance to
“people power” and considers its employees as the most important of all factors of
production. Even in the present times, when path-breaking technological developments are
the order of the day, Growel has not budged an inch from its philosophy of “people first”, for
people are without a doubt, the single most precious assets that a company can have. Growel
enjoys the enviable reputation of being one of the few corporates that has successfully
maintained harmonious industrial relations year after year and the credit for this goes to all
its employees who have always been open to and welcomed change. With interactive
communications at all levels, Growel continues to provide a congenial and peaceful working
atmosphere to its employees.
The organizational and cultural elements were aligned to support the use of transaction data
at Growel. All the major areas of the company including the sales and customer service
departments have their own set of dedicated analysts who work closely with the
management, using SAP data to support decision making. Management understands the
complexity of the problems requiring analytic support. More complex issues, requiring
sophisticated modelling and data analysis, are better served when analysts and decision
makers are closely linked. The compensation system was also changed to reward sales
people for sales volume and profit. The company created a congenial atmosphere within the
organization which fostered orientation to change. The organization also adopted a data-
oriented culture and pushed hard to develop norms that would encourage employees to
behave as members of a data-driven organization. The quality of management reviews
improved dramatically because executives were now much more reliant on numbers in
explaining their performance. This behaviour trickled down throughout the organization.
6.2.3 Skills and Knowledge
Growel has a high quality, motivated work force. The company employs about two thousand
workmen of which over four hundred are engineers with a high ability to learn and
implement modern manufacturing methods using high tech equipment. No non-skilled
worker has been hired in the last fifteen years. The company provides extensive training
both in house and externally, including overseas exposure. Within the group of knowledge
workers and analysts, the skills include detailed knowledge of the organization’s underlying
business processes. They possess extensive skills for interpreting the SAP data, including
understanding how key elements relate and their limitations for analysis. They also have a
thorough working knowledge of several analytic and data presentation software packages,
along with strong interpersonal skills to train and support end users.
6.2.4 Data Context
Quality of data plays an important role for decision making to achieve good results. Some of
the factors which required controlling were data integrity, synthesizing data from other
sources, completeness of data, timely data extracts, and housekeeping of data to maintain
accuracy and currency of information. Issues of data quality were less at Growel, where
transaction data captured in the SAP system were created internally based on all transactions
from sales orders to shipping invoices. Monitoring and updating of data was a regular
feature and the transaction data was made available in a timely fashion to support decision
6.2.5 Technology Context
Growel had historically been using a home-grown legacy system which provided disparate
information which lacked proper integration and utilization. However, this lack of
operational data to support decision making changed with the implementation of SAP’s R/3
in 2000-01. The modules implemented were financial, sales and distribution, material
management, production management, and human resources. The company now had
unprecedented visibility into its operations and customer base. Microsoft’s Access and Excel
were used as tools to analyze the data and put it in a format that managers would understand.
The transformation process at Growel was a result of putting core activities into action. How
this happened is explained below.
The value creation process in its context and time was initially described in detail. A general
framework with subject area was created as a guideline. The measures for these processes
of business focused on the critical success factors for each functional area, including
additional parameters for measuring the broader strategies, goals, and objectives of the
company as a whole. A strong linkage between departmental performance indicators and
top-level metrics for gauging the effectiveness of company strategy was put in place. Task
groups within each functional area were assigned and the general framework was translated
into team-specific programs to leverage innovations for achieving strategic goals and plans.
The model was shared with all the relevant team-players. On the basis of this model the
decision rights were partitioned and allocated. Descriptive indicators of the improvement
and corrective-action plans were identified to facilitate decision-making. The
implementation plans for these decisions to achieve the desired results along with the steps
to create the results were identified. Forms were designed to describe these plans and their
measures. The indicators were documented choosing the reference for benchmarking and
external validation along with time-line.
The SAP data, required for each of the indicators were identified, extracted, and interpreted,
to create useful information for monitoring the progress for achieving the objectives. The
signals and messages coming from each indicator were analyzed and evaluated to support
decision-making. The analytical process involved the means by which ES data became
knowledge. These were statistical and numeral analyses, which involved a combination of
simple, straightforward reports with insightful observations and judgments by humans. The
decision-making process was based on high-quality, well-analyzed ES data on a multitude of
other factors. There was a definite link between data, decisions, and actions. Some key areas
where ES data were utilized for improvements were customer and product profitability
analysis, price/volume analysis, market and customer segment analysis, sales forecasting and
operations planning analysis, theory of constraints in manufacturing analysis, raw material
cost analysis, inventory analysis, activity-based costing, headcount analysis, salary
forecasting, new product development analysis, process efficiency analysis, and design and
validation analysis. All actions likely to improve the likelihood that the result will be
coherent with the strategic intent were identified evaluated, and implemented.
6.4.1 Changing Behaviors
One of the major outcomes from the above initiatives was changing behaviors. Improved
information sharing, transparency, and openness with customers, suppliers, employees, and
all stake holders resulted in improved inter-personal and business relations. Having easy
access to invoice and purchase order data and a clear transaction history enabled Growel to
improve price synchronization with customers and suppliers. The earlier disputes on
invoices and purchase orders relating to price and terms of business diminished. The online
visibility of demand and supplies with customers and suppliers through the integrated supply
chain management (SCM) system led to less volatility in sudden spurts of demand which
existed earlier. This resulted in more streamlined supplies and a dramatic change in customer
and supplier behavior since Growel could react better to change orders now and was able to
be more flexible in the manufacturing environment. "We have reduced our lead times by
providing good, quality information to the talented people that make our products; we are
now able to change orders quickly and efficiently so we can get shipments out the door in
time to meet our customer demand. Our delivery performance has reached nearly 100
percentile and has completely changed our customers’ outlook towards us. We look forward
to continuing the success we have already seen”– Production Control Manager.
6.4.2 New Initiatives
With the ability to analyze customer and product profitability came a new initiative of value
engineering to improve or change the design to make the product more profitable. Decisions
on product price increases or reduction of business with customers identified as unprofitable
could be taken. This resulted in the elimination of 20 percent of the division’s product line,
which analysis had shown as unprofitable and which was replaced by more profitable new
product lines. New initiatives towards implementing just-in-time inventory systems were
undertaken which decreased inventory costs substantially.
6.4.3 Process Changes
Growel recognized that the SAP data created opportunities for redesigning some business
processes which could create entirely new sets of decisions. Growel is moving at full speed
to re-design some business processes and build e-commerce applications with SAP as a
backbone for their legacy systems and other collaborative software like SCM (Supply Chain
Management), and PLM (Product Lifecycle Management). SAP also provides in-built
capabilities such as CRP (Capacity Resource Planning), and BPR (Business Process Re-
engineering), and thus offers a powerful link between the entire value chain extending from
the customers to the suppliers. The company has also set up an integrated supply chain
management system which enables real-time visibility of material requirements and
inventory throughout the value chain and provides decision support at all stages of
operations. It also assists the company in awarding contracts to vendors on current and
competitive terms and ensures better execution of contracts. A majority of the company’s
suppliers have been logged into its supply chain and with Growel e-enabled with its
customers; the company has a real time total demand management system in place. A virtual
private marketplace has been created for Growel through which the company engages in e-
procurement and reverse auctions. The company has already started selling scrap online.
In a development that will substantially reduce product development time and bring the
company closer to its customer, Growel is in the process of implementing a Collaborative
Product Commerce (CPC) module. CPC will enable the company to work online with its
customers in designing and developing products and share information and knowledge with
the customer. This will result in reducing product development time and costs and, more
importantly, forge close ties with the customer from an early stage. Use of information
technology has led to smoothening of the pre-production approval process and is bringing
Growel closer to its customers. Growel has also created capabilities for design and validation
of components using finite element analysis and validation testing. This further enables the
company to interactively participate with its customers at the early stages of product
Growel has also put in place an online Human Resource Management System to personalize
HR services and reduce process time, thus improving employee satisfaction and internal
work efficiency. The company is also aggressively using information technology to drive
process efficiency. In 2000-01, the company installed a three-dimensional, hot forming,
metal flow software that enables simulation of the entire design and production process. This
has led to significant time and cost reduction and, more importantly, getting the process
right, the first time.
As stated by one of the senior managers in the company, “Growel has been effectively
leveraging information technology as an important tool for reducing costs by enhancing
efficiency, reducing product development time, and creating a responsive and nimble
organization. The net result has been better customer service, improved quality, reduced
time lag between development and marketing of products, and better penetration capability
into the export market”.
By improving processes, the key successes achieved by Growel are as follows:
• Fastest product development time of around three weeks as compared to six months
to one year taken by other manufacturers
• 100 percent on-time delivery
• 80 percent improvement in inventory levels
• 50 percent improvement in cost efficiency
• Much improved relations with customers and suppliers
• Highly motivated human resources
6.4.4 Financial Impacts
Decisions led to new behaviors, new initiatives and process changes, and the ultimate result
were in the improvement in the bottom line and the return to share holders. The Financial
outcomes of Growel as a result of all of these along with witnessing accelerated growth on
the back of strong global demand are:
Last year’s financial outcomes as on January 15, 2005
• Total revenues up 46%
• Exports up 76% ; contributes 48% of total revenue
• Profit before tax up 37%
• Profit after tax up 26%
• Growel has surpassed the last full year’s total revenue and exports in the first nine
Today, Growel has achieved the distinguished position as the largest manufacturer of axle
components for heavy trucks world wide and one of the key global players for engine
7. Conclusion and Future Research
This case illustrated Davenport’s conceptual framework of how business benefits are
achieved from ES data transformation into knowledge through the process of analysis and
decision making. It explained the effectiveness of enterprise systems by creation and
utilization of knowledge. However, it is important to note that such successful cases may
only be possible when management demonstrates the political will to act and follow through
in applying the new insights and capabilities made possible by better ES data. Business
results follow only in a culture that supports bold, proactive decision makers.
This study has highlighted that in order to succeed in today’s competitive world businesses
must now shift their focus from improving efficiencies to increasing effectiveness.
Integrated access to pertinent information captured by ES must be available so that effective
decisions can be made towards successfully implementing strategies, optimizing business
performance, and adding value for customers. Knowledge is a key factor in this process.
Success or failure is often attributed to enterprise systems or their implementation process.
However, it is evident from this study that enterprise systems provide a platform of
functionalities and information to an organization. The ability of an organization to extract
value from data, distribute results from analysis, apply knowledge, and establish decisions
for strategic organizational benefits will lead the path towards business success which would
eventually emerge from the process of ongoing transformations over a period of time.
Further research should evaluate and prioritize the critical effectiveness constructs of an
organization that will benefit the long term development of the organization. In relation to
the growing need for organizational transformation, future research should emphasize and
broaden understanding of how different IT and knowledge management initiatives can
maximize potential and leverage growth.
The authors acknowledge review and valuable comments by Dr. Mohammad Rashid,
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