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ERP 6 years later - David Acker


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ERP 6 years later - David Acker

  1. 1. Education for Rural People 6 Years Later David Acker Professor and Associate Dean College of Agriculture and Life Sciences Iowa State University, USA November 28, 2007 Rome
  2. 2. Purpose <ul><li>Present a global synthesis of lessons learned since the launch of Education for Rural People in 2002 </li></ul>
  3. 3. Source <ul><li>Education for Rural People: </li></ul><ul><li>What have we learned? </li></ul><ul><li>Acker & Gasperini </li></ul><ul><li>Journal of International Agricultural </li></ul><ul><li>and Extension Education </li></ul><ul><li>Spring 2008 </li></ul>
  4. 4. What is Education for Rural People? <ul><li>ERP: dedicated to bringing about transformation of rural communities through capacity building of rural people. </li></ul><ul><li>Worldwide call to action focusing on education for rural-based children, youth, and adults through formal and non-formal education. </li></ul>
  5. 5. ERP Objectives <ul><li>Improving: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>access to basic education for rural people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>quality of basic education in rural areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>national capacity to implement education programs to address learning needs of rural people </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Overcoming the urban/rural education gap </li></ul>
  6. 6. ERP: A Rich Resource Collection <ul><li>33 books and conference proceedings </li></ul><ul><li>57 virtual publications </li></ul><ul><li>7 published articles </li></ul><ul><li>8 newsletters </li></ul><ul><li>3 theses </li></ul><ul><li>93 featured activities </li></ul><ul><li>ERP Toolkits </li></ul>
  7. 7. History <ul><li>1990: Education For All Declaration and Plan of Action led by UNESCO in Jomtien, Thailand </li></ul>
  8. 8. History <ul><li>2000: World Education Forum, Dakar, Senegal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>early childhood development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>literacy education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>girls education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>education in emergency situations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>school health </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>aids, schools and health </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>teachers and quality of education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>education and disability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>education for rural people </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. History <ul><li>2002: ERP launched at the World Summit for Sustainable Development, Johannesburg </li></ul><ul><li>The majority of poor, food insecure, illiterate adults, and out of school children live in rural areas and suffer from inequitable access to schools, health care, roads, technology, institutional support and markets. </li></ul><ul><li>Addressing the educational needs of this &quot;neglected majority&quot; directly contributes to achieving the MDGs </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dr. Jacques Diouf, Director-General of FAO </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. ERP Contributes to MDGs: <ul><li>1: Eradicating extreme poverty & hunger </li></ul><ul><li>2: Achieving universal primary education </li></ul><ul><li>3: Promoting gender equity, empowering women </li></ul><ul><li>7: Ensuring environmental sustainability </li></ul>
  11. 11. ERP Implementation <ul><li>Policy formation through informed dialogue </li></ul><ul><li>Participatory processes to involve stakeholders </li></ul><ul><li>Decentralization of educational services </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-sectoral approaches to rural development </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunities for donor support </li></ul><ul><li>Educational management </li></ul>
  12. 12. Ministries of Agriculture UNESCO (including IIEP, etc) Ministries of Education Donors NGOs and civil society ADEA FAO
  13. 13. Presentation <ul><li>12 Challenges </li></ul><ul><li>12 Lessons </li></ul>12 Examples
  14. 14. Access to Education <ul><li>Senior level government representatives from 11 African countries reiterated the need to address the gross inequalities that marginalize rural people </li></ul><ul><li>Fees and other costs </li></ul><ul><li>Distance to schools </li></ul>Challenge # 1
  15. 15. Access to Education <ul><li>School attendance in rural areas has improved significantly since 1999 primarily due to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Removal or reduction of school fees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Free access to learning materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>School construction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1999 to 2004: primary school enrolments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>27% increase in Sub-Saharan Africa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>19% increase in South and West Asia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UNESCO, 2007 </li></ul></ul>Lesson # 1
  16. 16. <ul><li>Education for Rural Adults </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Farmer Field Schools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Farmers play an active role in determining training content and in managing training events </li></ul></ul></ul>Example # 1 Access to Education
  17. 17. Quality of Education <ul><li>Quality of education available in rural areas lags behind urban areas </li></ul><ul><li>Quality remains a critical foundational aspect of any advance in ERP </li></ul><ul><li>Atchoarena and Gasperini, 2003 </li></ul><ul><li>Quality depends on </li></ul><ul><ul><li>facilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>teaching </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>evaluation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>leadership </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>curriculum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>links to community </li></ul></ul>Challenge # 2
  18. 18. Quality of Education <ul><li>Critically important link between quality and relevance, vital to increasing the appeal and utility of education for rural people. </li></ul><ul><li>Contextualized learning allows students to study and solve real-life problems and to acquire life skills </li></ul>Lesson # 2
  19. 19. <ul><li>Relevance of learning through school gardening programs </li></ul>Example # 2 Quality of Education
  20. 20. Flexibility & Local Autonomy <ul><li>Centralized curriculum development </li></ul><ul><li>Rigid implementation of curriculum </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of community involvement leads to disenfranchisement </li></ul>Challenge # 3
  21. 21. Flexibility & Local Autonomy <ul><li>Systems that combine national curricular standards with some local content determined through community input processes have proven successful. </li></ul><ul><li>Flexibility in academic schedules to accommodate weather, cropping patterns and the movement of nomadic people. </li></ul>Lesson # 3
  22. 22. Flexibility & Local Autonomy <ul><li>In Thailand, for example, as much as 40% of the curriculum was permitted to be based on community and local needs </li></ul><ul><li>FAO/UNESCO/IIEP, 2002 </li></ul>Example # 3
  23. 23. Parent & Community Involvement <ul><li>Schools are often viewed as impenetrable institutions belonging to the central government </li></ul>Challenge # 4
  24. 24. Parent & Community Involvement <ul><li>Parental and community involvement are key to successful and sustainable schools </li></ul><ul><li>Participatory and community-based approaches have helped to increase educational access and to increase community ownership of schools (FAO/UNESCO/IIEP, 2006). </li></ul><ul><li>Rural families need to see that the education their children receive is relevant. </li></ul>Lesson # 4
  25. 25. Parent & Community Involvement <ul><li>Parent–teacher organizations has a significant impact on resources available to the school </li></ul><ul><li>Improved monitoring of quality, relevance </li></ul><ul><li>School lunch programs </li></ul>Example # 4
  26. 26. Gender Responsive Environments <ul><li>Accommodations must be made to attract and retain school-aged girls and adult women </li></ul>Challenge # 5
  27. 27. G ender Responsive Environments <ul><li>Flexible timetables to accommodate peak labor demand for girls and adult women </li></ul><ul><li>Well-supervised boarding facilities safeguard female children </li></ul><ul><li>School meals for all children </li></ul><ul><li>Take-home rations for female children to compensate for the labor lost when they attend school </li></ul><ul><li>FAO/UNESCO/IIEP, 2006 </li></ul>Lesson # 5
  28. 28. Gender Responsive Environments <ul><li>Half-day long farmer training short courses geared toward women that have responsibilities at home. </li></ul>Example # 5
  29. 29. Organizational Efficiency <ul><li>No single institution can provide all educational services for rural people </li></ul><ul><li>ERP must be approached systemically </li></ul>Challenge # 6
  30. 30. Organizational Efficiency <ul><li>Coordination among extension, schools, non-governmental organizations and the private sector is essential for optimal efficiency </li></ul>Lesson # 6
  31. 31. Organizational Efficiency <ul><li>Rural-based agricultural extension officers are a valuable resource: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>presentations in their subject area at schools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>conducting adult education classes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>organizing farmer field schools with both technical and basic education </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rural-based teachers, if trained in the specific technical subjects, can support extension programs during off hours </li></ul>Example # 6
  32. 32. Non-traditional Learners <ul><li>refugees and displaced persons </li></ul><ul><li>people in inaccessible and remote areas </li></ul><ul><li>nomadic and pastoral communities </li></ul><ul><li>out-of-school youth </li></ul><ul><li>disabled persons </li></ul><ul><li>ethnic minorities </li></ul><ul><li>retired child soldiers </li></ul><ul><li>working children </li></ul>Challenge # 7
  33. 33. Non-traditional Learners <ul><li>Need for multiple educational safety nets to ensure higher participation rates </li></ul><ul><li>Functional adult literacy and alternative basic education programs for those who did not have the opportunity to pursue education earlier in life </li></ul>Lesson # 7
  34. 34. Non-traditional Learners <ul><li>Integrated Intergenerational Literacy Project in Northwest Uganda </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis on both formal literacy and the development of survival skills across all age groups. </li></ul>Example # 7 UNESCO Institute of Life Long Learning
  35. 35. Skills Training for Rural People <ul><ul><li>Skills needed to succeed in global, knowledge economies. </li></ul></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>Challenge # 8
  36. 36. Skills Training for Rural People <ul><li>Life skills </li></ul><ul><li>Food production skills </li></ul><ul><li>Self-employment skills </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriate non-formal skills training for adults and school drop-outs can permit rural people to diversify their skills for a more secure livelihood and greater resiliency during times of stress </li></ul><ul><li>FAO/UNESCO/IIEP, 2006 </li></ul>Lesson # 8
  37. 37. Skills Training for Rural People <ul><li>Junior Farmer Field and Life Schools in Mozambique that deal with agricultural as well as life skills development among young rural citizens </li></ul><ul><li>FAO/UNESCO/IIEP, 2006 </li></ul>Example # 8
  38. 38. Redefining Agricultural Education <ul><li>Agricultural education: sharply focused on the preparation of people for on-farm employment and public sector positions </li></ul>Challenge # 9
  39. 39. Redefining Agricultural Education <ul><li>Crowder, Lindley, Bruening and Doron (1999) redefined traditional agricultural education </li></ul><ul><li>Agricultural education must reflect changes taking place in rural areas: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>technology changes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>global supply chains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>health challenges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>on- and off-farm employment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>global environmental changes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>entrepreneurship and small enterprise development </li></ul></ul>Lesson # 9
  40. 40. Redefining Agricultural Education <ul><li>EARTH University in Costa Rica </li></ul><ul><li>Four pillars: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Social Commitment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental Awareness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Entrepreneurial Mentality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Development of Human Values </li></ul></ul>Example # 9
  41. 41. Teachers and Extension Staff <ul><li>Recruitment and retention of rural teachers and extension staff present significant challenges </li></ul>Challenge # 10
  42. 42. Teachers and Extension Staff <ul><li>Recruitment practices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>by attracting prospective teachers and extension workers who are originally from rural areas </li></ul></ul><ul><li>More attractive deployment policies: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>bonuses and higher salaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>loan forgiveness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>provision of subsidized housing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>access to better health care </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>posting newly qualified staff in pairs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>establishment of career progression options </li></ul></ul>Lesson # 10
  43. 43. Teachers and Extension Staff <ul><li>Malaysia: a package of incentives including a piece of land and training in agriculture was used to encourage teachers to stay in rural areas. </li></ul><ul><li>Lao PDR: profit sharing in school-based income-generating activities is allowed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>both students and teachers benefit financially </li></ul></ul><ul><li>FAO/UNESCO/IIEP, 2002 </li></ul>Example # 10
  44. 44. Infrastructure <ul><li>School facilities represent a significant public investment in rural areas </li></ul>Challenge # 11
  45. 45. Infrastructure <ul><li>School building use optimized through double shift classes and for after-hours adult education </li></ul><ul><li>Satellite schools for the youngest children from remote areas </li></ul><ul><li>ICT has potential for us in rural areas </li></ul>Lesson # 11
  46. 46. Infrastructure XO Computer Example # 11
  47. 47. Effective Pro-rural Policies <ul><li>Motivating major changes in policy and resource allocation to favor rural citizens is difficult to achieve due to the absence of powerful political forces that advocate for rural people. </li></ul>Challenge # 12
  48. 48. Effective Pro-rural Policies <ul><li>National policies and strategies that effectively address ERP recognize the diversity of needs of rural people </li></ul><ul><ul><li>agro-ecological and geographic differences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>socio-economic and cultural differences </li></ul></ul><ul><li>FAO/UNESCO/IIEP, 2006 </li></ul>Lesson # 12
  49. 49. Effective Pro-rural Policies <ul><li>A strategy for Education for Rural People in Kosovo: 2004 - 2009 </li></ul>Example # 12
  50. 50. What Will Success Look Like? <ul><li>A systemic needs-based approach that fosters education (including extension) by expanding access and improving quality for all children, youth and adults. </li></ul><ul><li>Rural people engaged in knowledge-based economies </li></ul><ul><li>Rural people prepared to learn in order to adapt to globalization, climate change, and other forces </li></ul>
  51. 51. Action at the National Level <ul><li>National people-centered and rights-based and justice-oriented strategies and sustainable rural livelihoods approaches </li></ul><ul><li>Given an unequivocal association between primary education for rural people and food security, s trong multi-sectoral cooperation is required. </li></ul>Burchi and De Muro, 2007
  52. 52. Action at the International Level <ul><li>ERP needs to become a commitment of all UN agencies and plans, bilateral donors, NGOs, private sector and others. </li></ul><ul><li>ERP is a complement to programs in food security, poverty alleviation and sustainable natural resources management and could be combined with such programs to increase efficiency. </li></ul>
  53. 53. Action: Role of Donors <ul><li>Investments in the educational aspects of agriculture and rural development are needed. </li></ul><ul><li>Donor coordination at the national level can be improved by agreeing on an overall vision with governments, by coordinating separate funding streams and through regular monitoring and dialog. </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership from regional and international granting and lending organizations will be essential for those countries committed to elevating the education levels of their rural citizens. </li></ul>