Axis Powers, military forces that fought against the Allies during World War II (Japan, Germany, Italy, Hungary, Bulgaria, and Romania)
convergence : cooperation, conceived: to understand to think of an idea, imperative: obligatory
Isolationims and Neutrality
Isolationism and Neutrality
• Isolationism and Neutrality
• Why Isolated or Neutral?
• Is Neutrality or Isolationism possible?
• Case study
A foreign policy of abstaining from political
or economic relations with other countries.
• A policy of none-interventionism in or
withdrawal from international affairs
• US didn’t join League of Nation
• Influences social and political life
Status of a nation that refrains from participation in
a war between other states and maintains an
impartial attitude toward the belligerents.
- neutrality flows from the unlimited sovereignty of a
- absolute neutrality is not always the reality
- The duty of the belligerent is to respect neutral
territory (land and air) and neutral territorial
- Neutral duties and rights were codified or
incorporated in treaties and thus became part of
Why Isolated or Neutral?
• Protecting your own country.
• Securing the existing regime and culture.
• Interest of nation is best served by holding the affairs
of other nations at a distance.
• to preserve nations way of life.
• avoiding international entanglements, especially in
• focus on self-defense
• and allocating their own resource for their own
• State is best served by avoiding international trade
agreements or other mutual assistance pacts.
Isolationism & Neutrality: Possible?
• Isolationism is difficult to practice because:
• States are global entity with age of technology
• States are not self-sufficient
• the world is smaller than we thought
• massive oceans no longer protect us
– Attach on Pearl Harbor
• Ten years into the war in Afghanistan, Americans
are weary of fighting... So perhaps now is the
moment when isolationism will finally get back,
lost since those heady days of the 1930s. Danielle
• 42% of US population is in favor of Isolationism
• It is impossible to be neutral because:
– wealth and power are already distributed in
certain ways, neutrality means accepting the way
– It is a world of clashing interests
• war against peace
• nationalism against internationalism
• equality against greed
• “The hottest place in Hell is reserved for those
who remain neutral in times of great moral
conflict.” Martin Luther King, Jr.
• “We must take sides. Neutrality helps the
oppressor, never the victim. Silence encourages
the tormentor, never the tormented.” Elie Wiesel*
– He is in favor of interventionism.
• “If you are neutral in situations of injustice, you
have chosen the side of the oppressor.”Desmond
Case: Irish Neutrality During
• In WWII many Allies had champion of freedom
against the evil tyranny of the Axis powers. This
caused Irish neutrality in emergency time:
• Traditional neutrality
• Irish government declared sovereignty and self-
determination as a small nation
• Ireland was venerable to attack, remained
outside of conflict
• Influence of public opinion & culture believe
shaped F.P of Ireland
• 2/3 of population support Irish neutrality.
• Irish believe, identity and the agency of the public
in foreign policy.
• Policy of censorship by Gov to censor newspaper,
letter, radio stopped people form outside events.
• Invasion to Ireland is detrimental in public
opinion as democracies fighting tyranny GB & US
could not easily invade a small democracy.
Advantage of Neutrality
• Neutrality allowed government to consolidate
a considerable amount of power:
– This served to keep dissent under her control
– Giving a sense of civic responsibility among
– Irish people & Irish culture could survive
– Peace promotion
– Maintaining Ireland independence
– Supporting “soft power” in in the international
• Irish neutrality succeeded to win public support at
home & abroad
– Political independence
– Independence form British hegemony
– Finally it promotes neutrals to evaluate the policy
of neutrality in terms of its ability to “serve the
cause of peace”
Irish Foreign Policy Orientation
• Irish public appears to associate with
neutrality such as:
– A general stance of anti-militarism
– Pursuing disarmament & non-proliferation
– Resolution of justice & development issues
Irish Neutrality Approach
• A convergence of interest & virtue is a necessary condition for
the successful implementation of a foreign policy conceived
as a moral imperative.
• If such convergence does not occur, it is the duty of mass
movements & public opinion to create it.
• Irish neutrality conceptualizes neutrality as a peacetime policy
• In 1996 White Paper on Foreign Policy of Ireland made clear
that Ireland would not seek membership of NATO & Western
• Irish Gov add a protocol promising to hold a referendum on
joining a EU military alliance in future.
• The advice of Switzerland's popular saint, Nicholas of
Flüe (1417-87), "Don't get involved in other people's
• Hallmark of Swiss policy for nearly 500 years.
• Neutral since 1515, formally recognized in 1815 by
• Not only protected from war but from internal
• In 1996 joined NATO _ desire to peacekeeping
• Neutrality works as long as you are able to
• Isolationisms does not seem practical now.
• States are isolationism and neutral because of
• they influence the foreign policy of a state
1. * Eliezer "Elie" Wiesel KBE is a Romanian-born Jewish-American professor and political activist. He
is the author of 57 books. He is a Nobel Prize winner.
2. ** Desmond Mpilo Tutu is a South African cleric and activist who rose to worldwide fame during
the 1980s as an opponent of apartheid. In 1984, Tutu became the second South African to be
awarded the Nobel Peace Prize, http://www.goodreads.com/author/show/5943.Desmond_Tutu ,
3. Inforplease, Neutrality: http://www.infoplease.com/encyclopedia/society/neutrality.html
4. Isolationism Glossary: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DqTC7OheXAM
5. Danielle Pletka. “Death and life of Isolationism”, Newyork Times:
6. Neutrality and Isolation. Federal department of Foreign Affairs Presence Switzerland,
7. Lain Atack and Sean Mean McCrum: “Neutrality Irish Experience European Experience” , Irish
School of Ecumenics Dublin Monthly Meeting Peace Committee, ,May 2009
8. Timothy J. White & Andrew J. Riley” Irish Neutrality in World WarII”,
9. Karen M.Devine,” The Myth of Irish Neutrality: Deconstructing Concepts of Irish Neutrality using
International Relations Theories