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Transition Cow, Cow Comfort, Heat Stress

Jack H Britt, Ph.D.
Professor Emeritus
University of Tennessee
&
N.C. State Univ...
Daily Management:
Transition Cow

Days from Parturition
Phase I – Dry off until 21 days prepartum (early dry period)
 TMR High fiber diet , 2-3 kg straw
NEL 1.3-1.4 Mcal/kg
12...
Days in close-up pen

Goal: 21 d in close-up group

More
Milk

Days in close-up pen

Goal : Cows pregnant with
twins, 35 d...
Phase II – 21 days prepartum (late dry period)
 TMR, high fiber, highly palatable
 Adequate fiber length (> 3.75 cm)
 1...
Cows

Heifers

Feed intake declines
during 3 wk pre-partum
 40% decline overall
Abrupt decline last 5 days
BCS = 2.8
BCS...
Transition Cow
Phase II Housing
 Calving pen
 Feed alley
 Lock-up
 Access to chute

Source: Roger W. Palmer, UW Madiso...
Phase III – 21 days postpartum
 TMR NEL 1.6-1.7 Mcal/kg
Highly palatable feeds (30-33% NDF)
 Adequate fiber length
 2-...
Transition Cow:
Transition Cow:
Energy Balance and Fertility
Energy Balance and Fertility
Progesterone
concentrations are
...
Daily Management:
Peripartum Problems Reduce Fertility

Problems Affecting Fertility
• Dystocia
• Twins
• Retained Placent...
Relationships Between Primary and
Secondary Postpartum Disorders
Primary Disorder (occurs first)
Secondary
Disorder
(occur...
Daily Management:
Postpartum Reproductive Disorders

Recommendations
 Monitor temperature and appetite
 Treat sick cows ...
Daily Management:
Monitor Cervix Diameter
* 21-28 days postpartum

Cervix Diam eter Group

Smallest
1/3

Largest
1/3

Perc...
Daily Management:
Mastitis and Milk Loss
Primiparous

Impact of clinical mastitis
on milk yield
 Primiparous (DIM = 22)
...
Daily Management:
Mastitis and Conception Rates
Mastitis Status
After
Before 1st Soon after
Preg.
AI
1st AI
Diagnosis
250
...
Daily Management:
Heat Stress
Managing Heat Stress

Shade <> Cooling <>Ventilation
Feed Intake <> Protein <> Water
Daily Management:
Heat Stress

Seasonal conception rate
3200 Holsteins cows southeast US

Cows affected more than heifers
...
Heat Stress Management

Feeding

•Monitor intake
• Adjust protein

Shade

•Over cows
•Over feed

Water
• Clean
• Exit alle...
Cooling Cows During Heat Stress

Fans & sprinkler over feed bunk
Fans
Sprinklers
Cow Comfort
Transition & Heat Stress Management

Free stalls
•Sand
• Size

Alleys
• Rubber floor strips
• Grooved

Holding...
Cow Comfort:
Estrus is Affected by Footing Surface

Concrete

100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0

Number of Mounts per 5-Min...
Gracias!
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Transition cow, cow comfort and heat stress -- Jack Britt

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Presentation for farmers and veterinarians presented on several occasions in North America. Citations are provided for data presented in slides.

Published in: Education, Business, Technology
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Transition cow, cow comfort and heat stress -- Jack Britt

  1. 1. Transition Cow, Cow Comfort, Heat Stress Jack H Britt, Ph.D. Professor Emeritus University of Tennessee & N.C. State University
  2. 2. Daily Management: Transition Cow Days from Parturition
  3. 3. Phase I – Dry off until 21 days prepartum (early dry period)  TMR High fiber diet , 2-3 kg straw NEL 1.3-1.4 Mcal/kg 12-13% CP  60-80 g Ca; 30-40 g P  Trace minerals and vitamins in TMR  Health & comfort  Dry cow mastitis treatment  Vaccines  Trim feet, off concrete  Provide shade
  4. 4. Days in close-up pen Goal: 21 d in close-up group More Milk Days in close-up pen Goal : Cows pregnant with twins, 35 days in close-up Source: Corbett, R. B. 2002. J. Dairy Sci. 85(Suppl. 1):191-192. (Abstr.) Better Health
  5. 5. Phase II – 21 days prepartum (late dry period)  TMR, high fiber, highly palatable  Adequate fiber length (> 3.75 cm)  1-2 kg straw  15% crude protein  Increase starch (NFC 38 - 42%)  Yeast  Anionic salts, minerals, vitamins in TMR  Rumen-protected choline; Ca salts of Omega 3 & 6 F.A. (fertility)  Monitor intakes closely Source: J. Goff, Feedstuffs, March 8, 2004 J. S. Britt, DVM
  6. 6. Cows Heifers Feed intake declines during 3 wk pre-partum  40% decline overall Abrupt decline last 5 days BCS = 2.8 BCS = 3.6  Higher BCS – greater decline BCS = 4.4 Source: Hayirli et al, J. Dairy Sci. 85: 3430-3443, 2002
  7. 7. Transition Cow Phase II Housing  Calving pen  Feed alley  Lock-up  Access to chute Source: Roger W. Palmer, UW Madison-Dairy Science Department
  8. 8. Phase III – 21 days postpartum  TMR NEL 1.6-1.7 Mcal/kg Highly palatable feeds (30-33% NDF)  Adequate fiber length  2-3 kg long stem hay 16-19% crude protein  Increase starch (NFC 44%)  Trace minerals and vitamins in TMR  Rumen protected choline, Ca salts of omega 3 & 6 fatty acids  Monitor intakes, limit total fat Source: J. Goff, Feedstuffs, March 8, 2004 J. S. Britt, DVM
  9. 9. Transition Cow: Transition Cow: Energy Balance and Fertility Energy Balance and Fertility Progesterone concentrations are higher with more positive energy balance 6.0 Conception rate at first AI is higher in cows with higher energy balance 5.0 Postpartum anestrus is shorter with more positive energy balance 4.0 Postpartum Anestrus 3.0 2.0 1.0 0.0 1 0 12 2 3 24 36 48 60 72 Days Postpartum 84
  10. 10. Daily Management: Peripartum Problems Reduce Fertility Problems Affecting Fertility • Dystocia • Twins • Retained Placenta • Metritis • Metabolic diseases >> ketosis, milk fever
  11. 11. Relationships Between Primary and Secondary Postpartum Disorders Primary Disorder (occurs first) Secondary Disorder (occurs next) Milk fever Dystocia Retained placenta Displaced Metritis abomasum Ketosis Dystocia X Retained placenta X X Metritis X X X Displaced abomasum X X X Mastitis X X X X Low conception. X X X X X X
  12. 12. Daily Management: Postpartum Reproductive Disorders Recommendations  Monitor temperature and appetite  Treat sick cows systemically  Delay treatment for other cows  Monitor diameter of cervix @ 3-4 wk  Treat endometritis after 30 days
  13. 13. Daily Management: Monitor Cervix Diameter * 21-28 days postpartum Cervix Diam eter Group Smallest 1/3 Largest 1/3 Percentage of cows 40% 26% 1st service conception 67% 47% 85 108 Trait Days open *492 cows in 8 commercial herds, Michigan Source: Oltenacu et al. 1983. J Dairy Sci. 66: 612.
  14. 14. Daily Management: Mastitis and Milk Loss Primiparous Impact of clinical mastitis on milk yield  Primiparous (DIM = 22)  Multiparious (DIM = 81) Approximately 1600 cows on two commercial farms in New York state. Source: Wilson et al. J Dairy Sci. 2004. 87: 2073. Multiparous
  15. 15. Daily Management: Mastitis and Conception Rates Mastitis Status After Before 1st Soon after Preg. AI 1st AI Diagnosis 250 147 103 Trait No. Cows None 501 Con. Rate 1st AI 29% 22% 10% 38% Preg. @ 320 DIM 85% 72% 59% 93% Abortion 6% 12% 12% 10% Source: Santos et al. 2004. Animal Reproduction Science 80:31-45.
  16. 16. Daily Management: Heat Stress Managing Heat Stress Shade <> Cooling <>Ventilation Feed Intake <> Protein <> Water
  17. 17. Daily Management: Heat Stress Seasonal conception rate 3200 Holsteins cows southeast US Cows affected more than heifers Cows Heifers Source: Faust et al. 1988. J. Dairy Sci. 71:3092 Sartori et al. 2002. J. Dairy Sci. 85:2803. Heat stress affects cows more than heifers.
  18. 18. Heat Stress Management Feeding •Monitor intake • Adjust protein Shade •Over cows •Over feed Water • Clean • Exit alleys Fans over stalls
  19. 19. Cooling Cows During Heat Stress Fans & sprinkler over feed bunk Fans Sprinklers
  20. 20. Cow Comfort Transition & Heat Stress Management Free stalls •Sand • Size Alleys • Rubber floor strips • Grooved Holding pens •Ventilation •Water in exit alleys Fans over stalls
  21. 21. Cow Comfort: Estrus is Affected by Footing Surface Concrete 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Number of Mounts per 5-Minutes Dirt Concrete 0 to 5 6 to 10 11 to 15 16 to 20 21 to 25 Minutes from Movement Dirt Britt et al. 1986. J. Dairy Sci. 69: 2195. 26 to 30
  22. 22. Gracias!

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