Session 6. Grace - Taking Evidence to Scale Across Countries for Single Commodities
Taking evidence to scale: animalsource food & nutritionAgriculture for Nutrition and Health (A4NH) Workshop:Enhancing Nutrition in Value ChainsIFPRI, Washington, D.C., June 6-7, 2013
-Child HealthStatusChild Nutritional(Growth) StatusAnimalsOwnedLabor Allocated toLivestockFood CropProductionHH CropConsumptionLabor Demands on(Female) CaregiverFood CropPurchaseFood CropsalesHHIncomeASF PurchaseAnimals & ProductsalesTraction; NutrientCycling; Fodder/feedProductionAnimalProductionHH ASFConsumptionLevel of Care/FeedingpracticesContact ZoonoticPathogensAccessHealthInputsIngestionhazards+ParticipationASF value chainLoss of Biodiversity andEcosystem PathogenRegulation ServicesModified from Randolph et al., 2007
Energy, nutrient, hazardintakeVulnerabilityConsumer KAP (who eats what,why, in what ways and when.Influence of gender, age, culture).Preferences, beliefs, values,ethics. Allergies, health needsand beliefs.HUMAN HEALTHWELLBEINGProcessRetailEatMoveMoveLand/WaterGrowCropHarvestMove(Transport)ProcessNutritional,safety, valuequantity andquality at retailAcceptabilityAvailability UtilizationMoveIncome vs priceDistribution: Food desertsRetail availabilityEntitlements: programs, food sharingAccessibilityIntegrated food safety & nutritionQuantity producedQuality producedSeasonality/fluctuationsImports & food aidGut biomeInfectionAflatoxins?EtcRegulatory and institutionalframework that drives,enables or hinders changesENVIRONMENT: Change inland use, climate, loss ofbiodiversity, CO2, productiongreen house gases, nitrousoxides, waste, use of water,fertiliser, pesticides, fossil fuels,etc.
The questions Availability: Is there enough? What does ASF contribute to diets (direct & via $)? What are major losses? The lost opportunities? Are there trade offs between food and feed? How does VC development influence safety & quality? Accessibility: How does VC chain development affect accessibility? What are the transaction costs in accessing ASF? Acceptability: How do consumers perceive quality & safety? How do culture & gender influence pathogen exposure & nutritionalbenefits? Utilisation: Are there trade offs between food safety and nutritional quality?
Availability: less pork020406080100120KkingoKyanamukakaKitayunwaNamwendwaBugulumbyaNtenjeruKaboneraKyampisiKimana-KyabakuzaKatwe-ButegoNyendo-SsenyangeMukonoTCGomarural-rural rural-urban urban-urbanherd exit - by value chain typeget lostgift/donationhome slaughter/consumptiontheftassisted labourpredators/dogsdeathsaletotalremaining
Availability: seasonalJan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Decrural-rural rural-urban urban-urbanconsumptionSchool fees Festivals Rains
Butchery wa Anthony:•Clean meat and clean butcherman•Organized place•Not a pork joint•Fair price (6,000 UGX per kg)Butchery Mukono:•Along the main way•Clean meat and butcher man•Organized•Not a pork joint•Fair price (6,000 kg UGX per kg)Butchery/ pork joint Nasuti:•Relative clean•Good price•nearButchery/ pork joint Nakabago:•Relative clean•Good price•nearButchery/ pork jointindustrial area:•Relative clean•Good price•nearButchery Mukilangila:•Dirty meat, dirty butcher man•Drunkards that maintain obscenewordsKitete, Mukono TCAvailability pork: rural consumers in Uganda
clean meat small fat layer fresh meat light colour ofthe meatsoft, not boneymeatsmell of themeatfatty meat not too old not too young ready stamped blood, notwater whenslaughteringcolour of thefatwith no beefrural consumer (n=23) urban consumer (n=10)Consumers like:• Clean meat• Fresh meat• A small fat layer• Soft meatAcceptability pork rural & urban consumers
Acceptability: nutritious vs delicious pig partsMore delicious Less deliciousMorenutritiousHeart, loin, hock,ham, spare ribsBrainLessnutritiousStomach, bellyslice, rib toastBones, skull, tail,intestines, liverHow often do you buy these?• Two days out of three• One day out of three• One day a month• Less than one day a month
Religion:•Muslims; SDA; Borne Again (Masaka):“pigs are for demons”•Abaswezi don’t eat eggplant, fish andpork•Abaana don’t eat pork•Bamasiya don’t eat anything thatproduces bloodBeliefs:•Pregnant women must not eat pork or“the child might have a mouth like apig”•If children eat meat “they might delayspeaking”•If children eat offal “they mightbecome dumb”Pregnant women avoid R UIntestines √ √Head meat √ √Spicy food √ ○Fishy food ○ √Dog meat √ ○“Nem chua”-fermented pork ○ √Boiled pork with fresh figleaves√ ○Acceptability: reasons to avoid pork in Uganda & Vietnam
1 kg of pork is broughthome6:00 P.M.Cut into small pieces6:30 P.M.Pork into sauce pan,add water, light fireand boil until thewater is finished6:35 P.M.Fry until the meatturns brown7:00 P.M.add ingredients, waterand keep cooking7:20 P.M.Serve for supper8:00-9:00 P.M.Cut into small pieces6:30 P.M.Apply salt, put insauce pan and fryuntil it turns brown torelease the fat6:35 P.M.Add ingredients andwater and boil6:55 P.M.Serve for supper8:00 P.M.
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