"Rapid urbanization is changing the face of poverty in Kenya. Nairobi’s population is set to nearly double to almost six million by 2025, and 60% of residents live in slums with no or limited access to even the most basic services such as clean water, sanitation, housing, education and healthcare. Whereas the starkest poverty has previously been found in remote rural areas, within the next ten years half of all poor Kenyans will be in towns and cities."
Session 3. Donovan McMullin - Fruit Consumption in Peru and Kenya
Fruit consumption on-farmand in peri-urban markets;Kenya and PeruStepha McMullin & Jason Donovan6th June 2013, IFPRI, Washington D.C
ICRAF’s involvement in A4NHOutcomes Outputs1. 1 Data and evidence to measure foodconsumption patterns, constraints toaccess to nutritious foods, consumersknowledge, awareness and knowledgegaps related to diverse diets andnutritious foods etc1.1.1 Data + evidence published on consumptionpatterns, availability, access, use + processing ofnutritious foods; information on dynamics of foodpurchases, own-production, sales of nutrient-rich foods,market access and overall nutrient gaps1.1.2 Database on nutritional value of lesser known andlocal foods1.1.3 Data + evidence published regarding poorconsumers knowledge, awareness, knowledge gaps,diverse diets and nutritious foods1.1.4 Portfolio of information/education/communicationmaterials developed1.3 Tools and technologies developed toenhance nutrition along the value chain;used by a variety of value-chain actors1.3.1 Top performing technologies identified and tested toenhance nutrition along the value chain
Fruits for NutritionDeficiency of Iron, Vit A, Vit C in SSA Fruits havehigh nutritional valueNutrient contents of selected Fruits:Sources: Freedman (1998) Famine foods, http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/FamineFoods;Fruitsfor the Future Series, ICUC, Fineli (http://www.fineli.fi/),etc.
Fruit Availability in Malawi and ZambiaPlantingseasonHarvestseason
Key Research Questions• How do tree foods contribute to family nutrition, and does this change throughthe seasons?• How do they contribute to family income and how is this income spent?• Do families with diverse fruit trees on their farm consume more fruits and arebetter nourished than those with less fruit trees? Reasons?• What is the nutrient content of products from underutilized tree species (lessknown, less used)?• How to develop fruit tree portfolios to fill nutrition gaps location-specific recommendations for optimal combinations and numbers of fruit/nut species?• What fruit are available at which time and at what price at the markets? Are theregaps in fruit supply and if yes, why?• How can nutrition sensitive fruit value chains be developed and/or promoted forbetter nutrition and economic returns? (CRP2 , SD2)• What are the cultural, socio-economic and environmental factors influencing thecultivation of food trees and consumption of their products?• How can technical agroforestry knowledge be disseminated with nutritionalinformation?
ICRAF SeedGrant ProjectKenyaIn collaborationwith BioversityInternational Kenya
UndernourishmentUndernourishment in East AfricaCountry Ethiopia Kenya Uganda Tanzania RegAverageUndernourishedpopulation41 31 21 34 25Underweightunder 529 16 16 16 20Stunting under 5 44 35 38 42 40Data Source: various, Country DHS reports 2006-2011, Sanderson and Auricht 2012 AIFSC
Low F&V ConsumptionFruit & Vegetable ConsumptionCountry % Of HouseholdsconsumingQuantity Kg/pp/py % of food budget % of total budgetKenyaVegetableFruitVariance894643882662836614EA AverageVegetableFruitVariance944648481534867625Country level data available for Ethiopia (1997), Malawi (1997), Tanzania (2000), Kenya (1997)Source: Collated from Ruel, M.T, Minot,N and L.Smith. Patterns and determinants of fruit and vegetable consumption in sub-Saharan Africa.Background paper for the Joint FAO/WHO Workshop on Fruit and Vegetables for Health, 1-3 September 2004, Kobe JapanFruit & Vegetable Consumption (Yearly/kg & Daily/gram)Country Fruit (kg/pp/py) Grams p/day Veg (kg/pp/py) Grams p/dayKenya 26 71 88 241Regional Avg. 15 40 50 136
Factors that constrain fruitconsumption & production•Lack of awareness of nutrition benefits•Loss of traditional nutrition systems based on local agro-biodiversity erosion ofPGR & related IK•Degradation of natural vegetation for agri-intensification•Low purchasing power and limited frequency of purchasesConsumption &Use, localknowledge•Lack of well adapted fruit tree varieties•Poor dissemination of quality planting material•Lack of sufficient tree domestication techniques & its dissemination•Low on-farm fruit tree productivity due to poor farming practices•High seasonality of common fruits- periods of no availability Nutritional gapsProduction•High seasonality of common fruits periods of no availability or gluts of fruitscausing wastage•Lack of fruit processing facilities & technologies, perishability & high post-harvest loss•Poorly organised fruit marketing pathways along VC•Imperfect markets Informal/formal market pathways poorly analysedValue Chains &Markets
On-Farm fruit production, consumption andmarketing of fruits in Western KenyaHousehold/On-farmFruit TreeDiversityHH incomeHHConsumptionHHexpenditureNutrient intake-whole diet(calories, protein,micro-nutrients)HH DietaryDiversityFoodPurchasesNon-FoodPurchasesSustainableDietsBetterNutrition?Markets?SeasonalityAvailabilityNutritional-GapsMore and morediverse income?More and morediverse food ?HH Decision-making? Women’s access to resources, role as producers, IG, care-givers,guardians of HH N&HMarkets workbetter?Socio-culturaldeterminantsPrices & Availability?Consumer preference?HH Income?Cost to HH & feasibility ofFruit production?
Study Objectives1. Identify key trends in gender-disaggregated preferences, attitudes and decision-making processes of rural households for fruit consumption, fruit production,income generated from this activity and expenditure on food and non-foodpurchases.2. Document diversity and seasonal availability of fruit trees on farms, assess howthis contributes to household fruit consumption and income generation andundertake food consumption surveys to identify nutritional gaps and thecontribution of fruits to the overall diet.3. Characterize informal and formal fruit value chains and identify the constraints toexpanded supply and demand of nutrient-rich fresh fruits with the aim to developstronger market linkages from rural to urban locales.4. Establish a network and partnerships for the design of interventions to addressbottlenecks in this area and to leverage fruit value chains for improved nutrition.A4NH V.C Objectives 1 & 2
ActivitiesActivity Activity details Data Collection Centremainlyresponsible1 Perform baseline survey to identify trends in the patterns and determinantsof fruit consumption to inform wider data collection in Phase II(Intervention); (Survey 1):Consumption patternsNutritional gap analysisDecision-making processesSocio-economic, socio-cultural and environmental factorsGender variances24 Hr RecallFood FrequencyDietary Patterns ( PCA, DDS)Bioversityand ICRAF2 Perform baseline survey to assess on-farm fruit tree diversity and fruitproduction as well as to identify bottlenecks. And to assess formal andinformal tree fruit value chains, diversity and availability in markets; (Survey2 + 3):Production volumes and factors influencing volumesDecision-making processesSeasonalityIncome generationMarket availability and farmer-market linkagesMarket ScanHousehold/ On-Farm surveyMarket SurveysICRAF andROP3 Analysis of data from surveys 1 and 2 to develop recommendedinterventions to address the opportunities and bottlenecks for improvingfruit value chain: production, marketing and consumption of fruits yearround. Design nutrition-sensitive interventions for increasing consumptionBased on activity 1, 2&3 ICRAF andBioversity4 Perform a workshop to strengthen collaboration between partners engagedin Agriculture-Nutrition-Health in Kenya; disseminate findings andbrainstorm with partners about future entry points and interventions forimproving nutrition along fruit value chains through enhancing availability,accessibility and use of tree fruitsPartner development ICRAF andROP
Study Area:Western KenyaHumid Upper MidlandsSemi-humidLower MidlandsSurvey 1 and 2• 3-4 AEZs (upper to lowermidlands, humid to semi-humid climate)2 transacts to cover (parallel):• An altitude gradient• A precipitation gradient• Gradient proximity & distanceto forests• 5 villages per transect (=10)• 30 HH per village (=300)• Market Survey (tbd)FGD1 FGD per village (=10) 5 Male + 5FemalePartners: Bioversity Int & ROP
Schedule of Activities 2013/14Activity June July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec JanMethodology Design XSurvey Design and Field workPreparationXIdentify Key Partners XBaseline survey 1 + FGD X X XBaseline survey 2 + 3 X X XData entry and analysis X X X XWorkshop with key partners XReport Compilation X XDevelop Phase II Intervention Project X X
ICRAF A4NH Regional StrategyWorkshopsWCA: 7th & 8th FebruarySahel Node: 8th & 9th FebruarySouthern Africa: 8th & 9th AprilEast Africa: 27th & 28th JuneLatin America, South Asia, South East Asia to follow soon!• Regional input and prioritization• Interactive format brainstorming• Topics: Production, Value Addition, Markets-Consumption• Priority Areas – Challenges – Opportunities – Entry Points• Multi-stakeholder engagement: ICRAF scientists, Nutritionists, Universities,Govt. level, Farmers, Extension agents, Private Sector, NGO’s Develop our global strategy for T4NH
A4NH seed-fund researchLeveraging tree-fruit value chains forimproved nutrition in peri-urban areasWhat is the potential to improveoff-farm nutrition andstrengthen rural livelihoods?Jason DonovanICRAF - Lima, Peru
VC development for tree fruits:Challenges at both ends of the chainConsumption: limited demand?• Low F&V consumption: Ecuador: 87% men, 90% of womenbelow WHO recommended level of F&V consumption• Growing consumption of oils, fats and butters (10% ofchildren <5 in Lima are overweight or obese)• Abundance of high-fat, high-sugar beverages and snacksmarketed to lower-income households• Time constraints: Increasing number of women in the laborforce, dependence on fast food (street vender, franchise)Production: limited incentives for fruit production• Smallholder production of a diverse range of exotic andindigenous fruits, but limited market outlets• High-risk market environment; market imperfections (work byGruère, Giuliani, and Smale 2006)
Producer vs. consumer approachesto designing nutrition interventionsProducer focus• Objective: improve nutritional outcomes of poor producers andrural communities (overriding concern: chronic under-nutrition)• Mechanisms: upgrading productive capacities of smallholders(technical assistance for production and post-harvestmanagement, micro enterprise development)• Limitations: don’t address overarching need toincrease/diversity income generationConsumer focus• Objective: improve dietary practices (balanced diets),address the effects of under nutrition• Mechanisms: education, feeding programs, socialmarketing, public purchase programs• Limitations: dependence of external funding, does notaddress demand for and access to nutritious and qualityfoods
Nutrition-oriented approach tovalue chain developmentConsumers• Nutrient excesses/deficiencies• Access to nutritious foods• Demand: latent vs. expressed;revealed vs. stated preferences• Perception of quality and price forhealthy foodsProducers, processors, traders• Business/livelihood strategies(and related outputs)• Flexibility and responsiveness forimproved nutritional outcomes• Relations among actors, includinginformation flows, provision ofservices, imposition of standards• Access to services and inputsCritical success factors (CSF)for improved nutritionoutcomes through VCDCapacity of private sectoractors and smallholders torespond to CSFMulti-level, multi-disciplinarystrategy for improvednutrition performance of VCs
Nutrition-oriented approachImproved access to services and inputs
Seed fund research in PeruObjectiveCharacterize the potential of interventions in tree-fruitvalue chains to impact nutritional outcomes of peri-urbanconsumersSpecific objectives1. Identify the actual and potential contribution of tree fruitsto healthy diets in peri-urban areas2. Characterize key factors that influence the demand fortree fruits in peri-urban areas (access, quality, cost)3. Identify key actors in VCs for tree fruits (processors,wholesalers, retailers), and their strategies regardingnutrition and safety
Seed fund research in PeruResearch partner:• NutritionalResearch Institute(Lima, Peru)Research location• San Juan deLurigancho,District of Lima(pop: 1.1M)
Implementation plan (2013-14)What? When?Elaborate collaborative research planwith IINJuneReview existing information onconsumer dietsJune-AugDesign data collection tools forhouseholds, businessesAugCollect household level data (n=40) Sept-DecCollect data from businesses Sept-DecAnalysis and report writing Jan
ConclusionsImplementation challenges• Complexity: multi-actor, multi-product, multi-discipline --need for critical feedback/reflection, iterative development ofconceptual framework• Leaving comfort zone: intensive collaboration with IIN in allaspects of consumer data collection and analysis• Site selection (and potential trade-offs) Lima: greater potential for impact rural livelihoods, but nutrition generallybetter in Lima than elsewhere Outside Lima: greater potential to address nutrition, but smaller markets,with less economic activity (Huánuco as potential alterative)Looking forward…• Potential to contribute to the emerging debates on VCs andnutrition through on-the-ground R&D• Potential to contribute to debates on developing VCs thatlink smallholders to growing urban markets