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US Open Data Policy and Open Access to Earth Observation and Environmental Datasets/Liping Di

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High-level Meeting & Workshop on Environmental and Scientific Open Data for Sustainable Development Goals in Developing Countries. Madagascar, 4-6 December 2017

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US Open Data Policy and Open Access to Earth Observation and Environmental Datasets/Liping Di

  1. 1. Page 1 CSISS Center for Spatial Information Science and Systems U.S. Open Data Policy and Open Access to Earth Observation and Environmental Datasets Dr. Liping Di Professor and Director Center for Spatial Information Science and Systems (CSISS) George Mason University ldi@gmu.edu
  2. 2. Page 2 CSISS Center for Spatial Information Science and Systems Contents • The Open Data Policy of U.S. Federal Government • Open Earth Observation and Geospatial Data in U.S. Federal • Efforts to make data accessible and usable • Open Consensus-based Standards as the foundation for the open data policy
  3. 3. Page 3 CSISS Center for Spatial Information Science and Systems Introduction • Data is an asset – Foundation for scientific research – Foundation for informed, science-based decision makings • Data does not come for free – It is very expensive to collect up-to-date data – Huge resources have been invested by private and public sectors – Big data archives have been built up at many different federal agencies • Data’s value is only realized through applications – It only has values if it can be used in various application domain • Open Data – A piece of data, which anyone can be free to use, reuse, and redistribute it – subject only, at most, to the requirement to attribute and/or share-alike
  4. 4. Page 4 CSISS Center for Spatial Information Science and Systems U.S. Federal Data • The U.S. Federal government is the largest data producer and consumer in the United States and probably the world • Federal government has invested huge amount of money in collecting and managing those data – Paid by tax money, so it is tax payers’ (citizen) investment • Question: How can taxpayers get the best return from the investment? • Answer: open data for everyone to use • Rational: Maximize the return from investment on data – The data belong to taxpayers – Make government more open and accountable – Increase citizen participation in government – Create opportunities for economic development – Informs decision making in both the private and public sectors.
  5. 5. Page 5 CSISS Center for Spatial Information Science and Systems Formulation of Federal Open Data Policy • U.S. Federal Government has been the promoter and front runner on modern open data movement • NOAA has made the weather data freely available since 1970s • NASA has made its EOS data open data since 1990s • The formulation of open data policy for entire federal government has been made through a series of public laws and presidential executive orders • The most important one is the executive order signed by President Obama in 2013 for open data
  6. 6. Page 6 CSISS Center for Spatial Information Science and Systems History of forming U.S. Federal Open Data Policy • 1994. Circular A-130, a Clinton administration memorandum effective July 15, 1994 – The earliest official policy statement asserting the public’s right to know through information technology • Late 1990 – early 2000. Open data is one policy among many in public laws and executive orders, such as the E-Government Act, the Information Quality Act, and Memorandum M-06-02 • 2009 to 2013. 4 main policy documents were issued – January 21, 2009. Memorandum on Transparency and Open Government (“the 2009 Memorandum”) – December 8, 2009. The Open Government Directive (“the Directive”, also known as OMB Memorandum M-10-06) – May 23, 2012. Digital Government: Building a 21st Century Platform to Better Serve the American People (“the Digital Government Strategy”) – May 9, 2013. Memorandum on Open Data Policy—Managing Information as an Asset(“the Open Data Memorandum”, also known as M-13-13).
  7. 7. Page 7 CSISS Center for Spatial Information Science and Systems The 2013 Executive Order on Data Policy • Executive Order 13642 of May 9, 2013, Making Open and Machine Readable the New Default for Government Information – Open – Machine Readable • Accompanying the executive order, the White House issued a Memorandum (M-13-13) to detail the implementation of Executive Order 13642 – The title of Memo: Open Data Policy – Managing information as an asset • The executive order and Memo formed the foundation for the open data policy of U.S.
  8. 8. Page 8 CSISS Center for Spatial Information Science and Systems What is federal open data ? • Open data in U.S. Federal Government refers to publically available data collected by federal agencies or their contractors structured in a way that enables the data to be fully discoverable and usable by end users • The 8 principles of federal open data: – Public: agencies must adopt a presumption in favor of openness to the extent permitted by law and subject to privacy, confidentiality, security, or other valid restrictions. – Accessible. Available in convenient, modifiable, and open formats that can be retrieved, downloaded, indexed, and searched. Formats should be machine-readable (i.e., data are reasonably structured to allow automated processing).. – Described. Fully described so that consumers of the data have sufficient information to understand their strengths, weaknesses, analytical limitations, security requirements, as well as how to process them (Metadata).
  9. 9. Page 9 CSISS Center for Spatial Information Science and Systems Open data principles (2) • Reusable. made available under an open license that places no restrictions on their use or reuse. • Complete. published in primary forms (i.e., as collected at the source), with the finest possible level of granularity that is practicable and permitted by law and other requirements. Derived or aggregate open data should also be published but must reference the primary data. • Timely. made available as quickly as necessary to preserve the value of the data. Frequency of release should account for key audiences and downstream needs. • Managed Post-Release. A point of contact must be designated to assist with data use and to respond to complaints about adherence to these open data requirements.
  10. 10. Page 10 CSISS Center for Spatial Information Science and Systems The U.S. Open Data Policy • Formulated around the Executive Order and the principles of the open data • Policy requirements 1. Collect or create information in a way that supports downstream information processing and dissemination activities a. Use machine-readable and open formats b. Use data standards c. Ensure information stewardship through the use of open licenses d. Use common core and extensible metadata 2. Build information systems to support interoperability and information accessibility
  11. 11. Page 11 CSISS Center for Spatial Information Science and Systems Open Data Policy Requirements (2) 3. Strengthen data management and release practices a. Create and maintain an enterprise data inventory b. Create and maintain a public data listing c. Create a process to engage with customers to help facilitate and prioritize data release d. d. Clarify roles and responsibilities for promoting efficient and effective data release practices 4. Strengthen measures to ensure that privacy and confidentiality are fully protected and that data are properly secured 5. Incorporate new interoperability and openness requirements into core agency processes • data.gov is federal open data portal that provides point of entry as well as data repository for federal open data
  12. 12. Page 12 CSISS Center for Spatial Information Science and Systems Open Geospatial Data • Geospatial data is the data which has a location component • In the US federal government, 18 federal agencies has been involved in collecting geospatial data – NASA, NOAA, USGS, USDA, DOE… • Geospatial data is very diverse in both sources and data forms. • Satellite-based Earth Observation (remote sensing) is by far, the largest source of geospatial data
  13. 13. Page 13 CSISS Center for Spatial Information Science and Systems NASA’s Earth Observing System As of June 22, 2015, NASA EOS had 42 completed missions, 25 operational missions, and 25 future missions
  14. 14. Page 14 CSISS Center for Spatial Information Science and Systems EOSDIS Data Trends 0.00 2.00 4.00 6.00 8.00 10.00 12.00 FY00 FY01 FY02 FY03 FY04 FY05 FY06 FY07 FY08 FY09 FY10 FY11 FY12 FY13 Volume(PBs) Multi-year Total Archive Volume (PBs) Trend
  15. 15. Page 15 CSISS Center for Spatial Information Science and Systems Data and products available at NASA DAAC • University of Alaska SAR Facility (ASF DAAC): SAR data • NASA JPL (PO DAAC): Oceanographic data • USGS EROS (LP DAAC): Land Surface process • University of Colorado (NSIDC): Snow and Ice data • NASA Marshall(GHRC): Hydrological remote sensing data • DOE Oakridge NL (ORNL DAAC): field experiment data • NASA Langley (ASDC): Atmospheric data • NASA Goddard (GES DISC): Global biosphere, hydrology, atmospheric dynamics, atmospheric chemistry • University of Columbia (SEDAC): Socio-economic data • NASA Goddard (CDDIS):Crustal Dynamics Data Information System • NASA Goddard (LAADS):Level 1 and Atmosphere Archive and Distribution System • NASA Goddard (OB DAAC): Ocean Biology Distributed Active Archive Center
  16. 16. Page 16 CSISS Center for Spatial Information Science and Systems Efforts to make data accessible and usable • Document the data with applicable consensus-based open standards • Build interoperable web-service based data and information systems which provide both machine- interoperable and human readable interface. – e.g. NASA ECHO, CMR; NOAA OneStop – International efforts including CWIC and GEOSS • Both need standards as the foundation.
  17. 17. Page 17 CSISS Center for Spatial Information Science and Systems CWIC Data Partners BoM, CSIRO, GA ISRO/NRSC AOE ROSCOSMOS Brazil INPE
  18. 18. Page 18 CSISS Center for Spatial Information Science and Systems CWIC CWIC OGC CSW Interface Mediator Core CWIC CSW Clients Brazil INPE Connector USGS LSI Connector NASA ECHO Connector Canada CCMEO Connector NOAA GHRSST Connector EUMESAT Connector India ISRO Connector CWIC interface overview (OGC CSW) Data provider native protocol OGC CSW protocol OpenSearch protocol
  19. 19. Page 19 CSISS Center for Spatial Information Science and Systems The Definition of Standards • Definition of Standards – Standards are statements of fact, quality, procedures, or content, to which applicable entities are compared for purposes of acceptance and/or use. – They are documented agreements that contain or specify technical or other specific criteria to ensure that processes, products, or services meet their intended purpose. • Standards can be designated as either voluntary or mandatory with respect to usage. • Using common standards increases the sharability, reliability, and effectiveness of geospatial data.
  20. 20. Page 20 CSISS Center for Spatial Information Science and Systems Federal Geographic Data Committee • Federal Geographic Data Committee is an inter-agency coordination committee established by Executive Order 12906: COORDINATING GEOGRAPHIC DATA ACQUISITION AND ACCESS: THE NATIONAL SPATIAL DATA INFRASTRUCTURE, signed by President Bill Clinton on April 11, 1994. – Coordinate the establishment of national spatial data infrastructure to share and reuse the federal geospatial data among governmental agencies as well as industries and general public – Set up the federal geospatial standards that federal agencies have to comply when they create geospatial data • Adopted from open consensus-based national (ANSI/INCITS), International (ISO), and industrial (OGC) standards • Developed FGDC standards when external standards are not available
  21. 21. Page 21 CSISS Center for Spatial Information Science and Systems
  22. 22. Page 22 CSISS Center for Spatial Information Science and Systems Conclusion • US Federal government is the advocator of open data policy • US Federal government is the largest providers of open data, particularly the geospatial data • The US open data policy and mechanism to enforce the policy are effective • Open data benefits the economy and society greatly – Many companies rely on federal open data to generate value-added products • Weather data is the base of industry which generates US$30 billion annually. • GPS data is the base of an industry which generate US$90 billion annually • Climate Corporation sold for $2 billion; Zillow is valued at over $7 billion now, the Weather Channel was sold for approximately $3.5 billion in 2008; Redfin has a market cap of $1.9 billion. These are all companies that were built using raw government data

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