Moral Panic Of Copyright Criminality


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Moral Panic Of Copyright Criminality

  1. 1. Copyright Criminality: The construction of a Moral Panic
  2. 2. Origins
  3. 3. Gutenberg
  4. 4. The Stationer's Company
  5. 5. Letters Patent
  6. 6. Statute of Monopolies of 1623
  7. 7. Licensing Act of 1662
  8. 8. "An Act for preventing the frequent Abuses in printing seditious treasonable and unlicensed Bookes and Pamphlets and for regulating of Printing and Printing Presses."
  9. 9. <ul><li>Statute of Anne 1710 </li></ul><ul><li>‘ A bill for the encouragement of learning’  </li></ul>
  10. 10. Donaldson v Beckett, 98 Eng. Rep. 257 (1774)
  11. 11. <ul><li>“ The arguments attempted to be maintained on the side of the respondents, were founded on patents, privileges, Star Chamber decrees, and the bye laws of the Stationers' Company; all of them the effects of the grossest tyranny and usurpation; the very last places in which I should have dreamt of finding the least trace of the common law of this kingdom; and yet, by a variety of subtle reasoning and metaphysical refinements, have they endeavored to squeeze out the spirit of the common law from premises in which it could not possibly have existence.&quot; </li></ul>Lord Camden in Donaldson v Beckett
  12. 12. <ul><li>01 </li></ul><ul><li>10 </li></ul><ul><li>11 </li></ul><ul><li>100 </li></ul><ul><li>101 </li></ul><ul><li>110 </li></ul><ul><li>111 </li></ul><ul><li>1000 </li></ul><ul><li>1001 </li></ul><ul><li>1010 </li></ul>
  13. 13. Digital
  14. 14. manuscript <ul><li>read </li></ul><ul><li>read aloud </li></ul><ul><li>quote </li></ul><ul><li>lend </li></ul><ul><li>burn </li></ul><ul><li>copy </li></ul><ul><li>gloss </li></ul><ul><li>re-mix </li></ul>
  15. 15. text <ul><li>read </li></ul><ul><li>read aloud </li></ul><ul><li>quote </li></ul><ul><li>lend </li></ul><ul><li>burn </li></ul><ul><li>gloss </li></ul><ul><li>copy </li></ul><ul><li>re-mix </li></ul>
  16. 16. digital <ul><li>read </li></ul><ul><li>read aloud </li></ul><ul><li>quote </li></ul><ul><li>lend? </li></ul><ul><li>burn? </li></ul><ul><li>gloss </li></ul><ul><li>copy </li></ul><ul><li>re-mix </li></ul>
  17. 17. DMCA
  18. 18. World Intellectual Property Organisation Copyright Treaty
  19. 19. Technical Protection Measures
  20. 20. Anti-circumvention
  21. 21. Secondary liability
  22. 22. <ul><li>2.3 Moreover, UCT must meet certain requirements and obligations that safeguard against unauthorised access and reproduction. Thus, where an extract of a work is temporarily placed on the institution's Intranet, only those students enrolled for the particular course of study may be granted access rights to the extract in question. The materials must be removed from the Intranet and/or made inaccessible when the course to which they pertain ends and/or when all students have had an opportunity to print out a personal copy of the materials in question. Students should be cautioned against and, preferably, barred from running off multiple copies of any extracts offered for the sole purpose to print a personal paper copy. Thus, individual students ought not to be allowed to send more than two print commands over the network..... </li></ul>
  23. 23. How did we end up here?
  24. 25. Moral Panic
  25. 26. Moral Panic &quot;a condition, episode, person or group of persons [who] become defined as a threat to societal values and interests.&quot; Folk Devils and Moral Panics, Cohen, 1987: 9
  26. 27. <ul><li>&quot;If we have to file a thousand lawsuits a day, we'll do it. It's less expensive than losing control of your creative works.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Jack Valenti, President and CEO,Motion Picture Association of America ( </li></ul>
  27. 28. <ul><li>the 1000th copy of a DVD, ... is as pure and pristine as the original. You strip away all the protective clothing of that DVD and leave it naked and alone.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Jack Valenti </li></ul>
  28. 29. <ul><li>Photocopying could bring publishers to their knees </li></ul><ul><li>Monica Seeber, March 31, 2004 </li></ul>
  29. 30. <ul><li>&quot;Plagiarism has become an epidemic at American college and universities&quot; </li></ul>
  30. 31. (in)conclusions
  31. 32. Digitisation and Copyright
  32. 33. What is digitisation? <ul><li>Is it anything at all? </li></ul><ul><li>Is it a copy? </li></ul><ul><li>Is it a derivative work? </li></ul>
  33. 34. Material form <ul><li>Section 1 (2) A work, except a broadcast or programme-carrying signal, shall not be eligible for copyright unless the work has been written down, recorded, represented in digital data or signals or otherwise reduced to a material form. </li></ul>
  34. 35. “ any manner or form” <ul><li>8. Nature of copyright in cinematograph films </li></ul><ul><li>(1) Copyright in a cinematograph film vests the exclusive right to do or to authorize the doing </li></ul><ul><li>of any of the following acts in the Republic: </li></ul><ul><li>(a) Reproducing the film in any manner or form, including making a still photograph </li></ul><ul><li>therefrom </li></ul>
  35. 36. “ copy” <ul><li>“ copy” means a reproduction of a work, and, in the case of a literary, musical or artistic </li></ul><ul><li>work, a cinematograph film or a computer program, also an adaptation thereof: Provided </li></ul><ul><li>that an object shall not be taken to be a copy of a work of architecture unless the object is a </li></ul><ul><li>building or a model of a building; </li></ul>
  36. 37. “ reproduction” <ul><li>“ reproduction”, in relation to - </li></ul><ul><li>(a) a literary or musical work or a broadcast, includes a reproduction in the form of a record or a cinematograph film; </li></ul><ul><li>(b) an artistic work, includes a version produced by converting the work into a three dimensional form or, if it is in three dimensions, by converting it into a </li></ul><ul><li>two-dimensional form; </li></ul><ul><li>(c) any work, includes a reproduction made from a reproduction of that work; </li></ul>
  37. 38. <ul><li>(1) In this Act, unless the context otherwise indicates - </li></ul><ul><li>“ adaptation”, in relation to - </li></ul><ul><li>(a) a literary work, includes - </li></ul><ul><li>(i) in the case of a non-dramatic work, a version of the work in which it is </li></ul><ul><li>converted into a dramatic work; </li></ul><ul><li>(ii) in the case of a dramatic work, a version of the work in which it is converted </li></ul><ul><li>into a non-dramatic work; </li></ul><ul><li>(iii) a translation of the work; or </li></ul><ul><li>(iv) a version of the work in which the story or action is conveyed wholly or </li></ul><ul><li>mainly by means of pictures in a form suitable for reproduction in a book or in a </li></ul><ul><li>newspaper, magazine or similar periodical; </li></ul><ul><li>(b) a musical work, includes any arrangement or transcription of the work, if such </li></ul><ul><li>arrangement or transcription has an original creative character; </li></ul><ul><li>(c) an artistic work, includes a transformation of the work in such a manner that the original or substantial features thereof remain recognizable; </li></ul>
  38. 39. adaptation
  39. 40. What rights does someone who digitises a work acquire?
  40. 41. originality?
  41. 42. independent skill and effort
  42. 43. new material
  43. 44. “ the improvement or refinement is not superficial. The alteration to the original work must be substantial.”
  44. 45. “ But copying, per se, however much skill or labour may be devoted to the process, cannot make an original work.’ (Interlego A G v Tyco Industries Inc [1989] AC 217 (PC) at 263)