Rice Policy Challenges and
Constraints for Liberia:
Food Security for Small-holders and
rice value chain development
Eric ...
Overview of presentation
• Two economies of the Liberian rice sector
• Constraints and Challenges

• National Rice Develop...
Two Rice Economies of Liberia
60% dependence on imports

Development and rehabilitation
of the domestic rice sector

3
Liberia Rice Production, Supply, Use and Trade
2006/07 2007/08 2008/09 2009/1012010/11 2011/12 2012/13

130

Thousand Hect...
Key Constraints and Challenges
Value Chain
Constraints

Institutional
Constraints

Infrastructure
Constraints

Lack of Cer...
National Rice Development Strategy
Liberia Agriculture Sector
Investment Program (LASIP)
Food and
Nutrition
Security

Comp...
Vision and Scope of LNRDS
Ecosystem

Upland
Yield/ha
Lowland
Rain-fed
Yield/ha
Lowland
Irrigated
Yield/ha

Area
2018
culti...
Path Forward: Research and Extension Policy
on Upland and Lowland Rice Systems
1.

2.

3.

Farmer Association demonstratio...
Path Forward: Research and Extension Policy
on Upland and Lowland Rice Systems
4.

With regard to lowland rice value chain...
Recommendations
1. Develop business incubation models for Farmer
Associations for value chain investments.
2. Develop cost...
Global Rice Framework – Arkansas Global
Rice Economics Program (AGREP)
Arkansas Global Rice Model AGRM is one of the two g...
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Th4_Rice Policy Challenges and Constraints in Liberia

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3rd Africa Rice Congress
Theme 4: Rice policy for food security through smallholder and agribusiness development
Mini symposium2: Policy and price transmission mechanisms affecting rice sector development in Africa
Author: Wailes

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Th4_Rice Policy Challenges and Constraints in Liberia

  1. 1. Rice Policy Challenges and Constraints for Liberia: Food Security for Small-holders and rice value chain development Eric Wailes, Professor University of Arkansas, Fayetteville Division of Agriculture
  2. 2. Overview of presentation • Two economies of the Liberian rice sector • Constraints and Challenges • National Rice Development Strategy • The Path Forward – institution building, infrastructure development and valuechain enhancements.
  3. 3. Two Rice Economies of Liberia 60% dependence on imports Development and rehabilitation of the domestic rice sector 3
  4. 4. Liberia Rice Production, Supply, Use and Trade 2006/07 2007/08 2008/09 2009/1012010/11 2011/12 2012/13 130 Thousand Hectares 160 190 200 200 200 200 0.78 Metric tons/ha (milled) 0.71 0.95 0.93 0.94 0.95 0.96 Production Beginning Stocks Domestic Supply 101 0 101 Thousand metric tons (milled) 113 181 185 187 189 0 0 0 0 0 113 181 185 187 189 191 0 191 Consumption Ending Stocks Domestic Use 311 0 311 253 0 253 331 0 331 385 0 385 402 0 402 409 0 409 426 16 443 -210 68% -140 55% -150 45% -200 52% -215 53% -220 54% -251 59% Area Harvested Yield Net Trade Import Share Source: USDA, PS&D 4
  5. 5. Key Constraints and Challenges Value Chain Constraints Institutional Constraints Infrastructure Constraints Lack of Certified Seed Production System Limited adaptive research capacity at CARI Inadequate feeder road network Limited credit and microfinance Lack of Extension and Training Programs Damaged and Undeveloped Irrigation Systems Limited private sector for input marketing and rice milling and marketing Inadequate information on farmlevel constraints, costs and productivity Lack of farm machinery, drying/storage, milling facilities
  6. 6. National Rice Development Strategy Liberia Agriculture Sector Investment Program (LASIP) Food and Nutrition Security Competitive Value Chains and Market Linkages Institutional Development Land and Water Development Liberia National Rice Development Strategy (LNRDS) Enhancing Access to Inputs Mechanization Enhancing Post-Harvest Quality Improvement Enhancing Access to Markets Institutional Capacity Building Land and Water Development
  7. 7. Vision and Scope of LNRDS Ecosystem Upland Yield/ha Lowland Rain-fed Yield/ha Lowland Irrigated Yield/ha Area 2018 cultivated projection 2009 (Ha) (Ha) Production output (MT) 2009 2018 1-crop/yr 2018 1.5 crop/yr 190,000 190,000 171,000 0.9 t/ha 380,000 2 t/ha 380,000 20,000 64,500 24,000 225,750 338,625 1.2 t/ha 3.5 t/ha 4,000 273,000 2.0 t/ha 6 t/ha 2,000 45,500 409,500 Total 212,000 300,000 199,000 878,750 1,128,125 Source: Ministry of Agriculture. 2011. National Rice Development Strategy. Table 2, p. 18.
  8. 8. Path Forward: Research and Extension Policy on Upland and Lowland Rice Systems 1. 2. 3. Farmer Association demonstration sites are developed for 2013 to provide a much-needed baseline data set on productivity and costs of production, to evaluate the strategy regarding on-going efforts towards the two production systems. Measurement of practices, production and productivity for project farmers and a control group of non-participating farmers will provide ongoing assessment of progress and constraints critical to analyze future strategy of rice value chain. With regard to upland rice value chain: – What priority should be given to upland rice system improvement? – What is the extent to which upland rice needs to be understood as an integrated cropping/livestock system? – What is the role of rice as a food subsistence component where more emphasis is needed on diversification into vegetables and livestock as opportunities to improve household incomes and diets/nutrition? – How to address this with respect to the global context, the environmental context, food security context and small-holder engagement.
  9. 9. Path Forward: Research and Extension Policy on Upland and Lowland Rice Systems 4. With regard to lowland rice value chain: 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 5. What priority should be given to lowland rice system improvement? What are the economic returns to investment in development/ rehabilitation of lowland rice areas? Can it be justified on rice alone? What is the extent to which lowland rice needs to be understood as an integrated cropping/aquaculture system? What is the role of lowland rice from a food security framework as a safeguard from dependence on rice imports and volatility in global rice markets? How to address this with respect to the global context, the environmental context, food security context and small-holder engagement. Post-harvest processing and marketing: 4. 5. 6. The strategy to work with Farmer Associations to develop post-harvest processing infrastructure has begun using a parboil approach. This is value-enhancing from both a milled rice recovery perspective and a nutrition enhancing perspective. Basic questions remain on logistics and coordination of inputs (fuel, water, labor, drying and storage of paddy, drying and storage of parboiled, and drying and storage of milled (brown or white rice) and use of by-products (hulls, bran and ash).
  10. 10. Recommendations 1. Develop business incubation models for Farmer Associations for value chain investments. 2. Develop cost-benefit analysis of improved seed and associated technology packages being promoted by MOA and FED/USAID. 3. Develop detailed study using AGREP models on impacts of pending trade negotiations with ECOWAS and WTO for Liberia rice to assess accession, staging and consequences for the rice sector.
  11. 11. Global Rice Framework – Arkansas Global Rice Economics Program (AGREP) Arkansas Global Rice Model AGRM is one of the two global rice modeling frameworks maintained by the University of Arkansas’ Global Rice Economics Program (AGREP). AGRM is a partial, non-spatial, multi-country statistical simulation and econometric analytical framework. RICEFLOW, is a spatial equilibrium framework that tracks bilateral trade flows and rice value chain adjustments for flexible product disaggregation of rice and other commodities and disaggregation of countries and regions. These models are updated on a regular basis to provide situation and outlook projections and are being used to provide analyses for the World Bank, IRRI, USDA, OECD, Asian Development Bank, United NationsFAO, Africa Rice Center as well as many national governments and research institutes. These models link all countries through rice prices and trade (Wailes, 2012). African countries and regions currently modeled include: Cameroon, Cote D’Ivoire, Egypt, Ghana, Guinea, Kenya, Liberia, Mali, Mozambique, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Tanzania, ECOWAS-7, and Rest-of Africa 11

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