Access to farm resources among farmers and
adoption of sawah technology in Nigeria.

A.O. Agboola, C.I. Alarima, T. Masuna...
Introduction
• Access to farm resources played a vital role in
adoption of any agricultural technology.
• Adoption of agri...
Introduction
• The lack of access to farm resources could
therefore be a constraint to agricultural
development.

• The co...
Introduction
• The decision to adopt and the level of adoption
of sawah technology in the end therefore
depend on the amou...
This is a sawah field

Pillars brought by Land owner for
selling of land used for sawah by a
farmer who rented the land

L...
Farmers’ improvised bridge to solve transportation problems
What is Sawah?
• Sawah refers to man-made improved rice fields
with demarcated, levelled, bunded and puddled
rice fields w...
Sawah Skills
 According to Wakatsuki et al (2013), sawah ecotechnology
involves four important skills and technologies:
(...
Basic Elements of Sawah Development
Plot layout

2

Site selection

1

3
Land
preparation

SAWAH

5
Field
Management

4

L...
Sawah An Innovation?
 Sawah is an INNOVATION to accelerate irrigated sawah
development by farmers’ power themselves in Af...
Sawah Development at Shabamaliki village, Bida, Nigeria.
Sawah Development at Shabamaliki village, Bida, Nigeria.
Sawah Hypotheses
• Sawah Hypothesis (I) for a Green Revolution in
Sub-Saharan Africa
• Sawah Hypothesis (II) for Intensive...
Farmers’ Paddy Fields: Diverse and
mixed up environment.No clear
field demarcations

APCDEFAFIZPCM
GMDUGHIGKCDILMBN
NPQTBB...
Sawah hypothesis(II): Sustainable Productivity
of lowland Sawah is more than 10 times than
Upland Field
1ha sawah is equiv...
Methodology
• This study was carried out in five states and the
FCT where sawah is being practiced. The states
are Niger, ...
Map of the Study Area
4°30'

7°00'

9°30'

12°00'

14°30'

14°00'

14°00'

Lak e Chad
Sokoto

Katsina
Kebbi

Zamfara

Yobe...
Methodology
• One hundred and twenty four sawah farmers in
the study locations were interviewed.
• Descriptive statistics ...
Methodology
• The regression equation is presented as follows:
ADOP = a + β x X1 + β x X2 + β x X3 + β x X4 + β x X5 +
β x...
Results
Descriptive Statistics
Description

Measurement

Adoption level

Min

Max

Mean

SD

3-point likert scale of full adoption...
Access to Farm Resource
Access to farm resources

Full (%)

Partial (%)

No (%)

Access to land

3-point likert scale of f...
Regression Analysis
Standardized Coefficients (β)

S.E.

Sign

Access to land

0.204

0.187

0.00

Access to equipment/too...
Conclusion
• The study has brought to the fore the import of
farmers access to required resources be it human or
material....
Thanks for Listening
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Th4_Access to farm resources among farmers and adoption of sawah technology in Nigeria.

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3rd Africa Rice Congress
Theme 4: Rice policy for food security through smallholder and agribusiness development
Mini symposium 4: Evidence of impact and adoption of rice technologies
Author: Agboola

Published in: Technology, Business
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Th4_Access to farm resources among farmers and adoption of sawah technology in Nigeria.

  1. 1. Access to farm resources among farmers and adoption of sawah technology in Nigeria. A.O. Agboola, C.I. Alarima, T. Masunaga and T. Wakatsuki
  2. 2. Introduction • Access to farm resources played a vital role in adoption of any agricultural technology. • Adoption of agricultural technology depends on availability and efficient use of farm resources such as land, labour, information, capital (credit) and farm inputs (fertilizers, irrigation and seeds).
  3. 3. Introduction • The lack of access to farm resources could therefore be a constraint to agricultural development. • The constraint of lack of access to farm resources range from unsecured land tenure, to lack of capital and access to affordable credit, access to input, access to good road infrastructure and poor extension services.
  4. 4. Introduction • The decision to adopt and the level of adoption of sawah technology in the end therefore depend on the amount of resources that are available and can be mobilized by farmers. • This study therefore examined farmers’ access to farm resources and its effect on adoption of sawah technology.
  5. 5. This is a sawah field Pillars brought by Land owner for selling of land used for sawah by a farmer who rented the land Land Tenure as a problem faced by farmers
  6. 6. Farmers’ improvised bridge to solve transportation problems
  7. 7. What is Sawah? • Sawah refers to man-made improved rice fields with demarcated, levelled, bunded and puddled rice fields with water inlets and outlets which can be connected to various irrigation facilities such as irrigation canals, pond, springs or pumps.
  8. 8. Sawah Skills  According to Wakatsuki et al (2013), sawah ecotechnology involves four important skills and technologies: (1) Site selection and site-specific sawah system design, (2) Skills for efficient and cost-effective sawah system development using power tiller, (3) Rice farmers’ socio-economic empowerment for the successful development and management of sawah systems, and (4) Sawah-based rice agronomy, including variety selection and soil and water management to realize at least the sustainable paddy yield of more than 4t/ha.
  9. 9. Basic Elements of Sawah Development Plot layout 2 Site selection 1 3 Land preparation SAWAH 5 Field Management 4 Land levelling 9
  10. 10. Sawah An Innovation?  Sawah is an INNOVATION to accelerate irrigated sawah development by farmers’ power themselves in Africa.  The sawah technology innovation is unique in terms of • development cost (less than 10% compared to contractor based heavy machine used development) • speed (1million ha can be developed within decades with proper dissemination systems), and • endogenous sustainable development (on-the-job capacity building of million farmers).
  11. 11. Sawah Development at Shabamaliki village, Bida, Nigeria.
  12. 12. Sawah Development at Shabamaliki village, Bida, Nigeria.
  13. 13. Sawah Hypotheses • Sawah Hypothesis (I) for a Green Revolution in Sub-Saharan Africa • Sawah Hypothesis (II) for Intensive Long-term Sustainability and to Combat Global Warming
  14. 14. Farmers’ Paddy Fields: Diverse and mixed up environment.No clear field demarcations APCDEFAFIZPCM GMDUGHIGKCDILMBN NPQTBBAACIGHOLKJDBV IRNJUAHGDNVAPCDEFAFT GMDUGHIGKCDILMGHOLNH NPQTBBAACIGHXLKJDHGLP IRNJUAHGDNVGHOLKNPSD TBBAACIGHYLKJDIRNJHG UAHGDNVAPCDEFKLG A B GHIGKCDIMB Fertilizer, Irrigation, and HYV are not effective, therefore , Green Revolution is impossible Sawah demarcates land based on topography, hydrology and soils, which make possible water control. Then green revolution technology of fertilizer, irrigation and HYV are useful. BB AA CC EE FF JJ HH II D K K MM LL Sawah based Farming system Sawah hypothesis (I): Farmers Sawah should comes the first to realize green revolution. Scientific technologies or experienced skills are needed to classify and demarcate the lowlands eco-technologically
  15. 15. Sawah hypothesis(II): Sustainable Productivity of lowland Sawah is more than 10 times than Upland Field 1ha sawah is equivalent to 10-15ha of upland Area (%) Productivity (t/ha) Required area for sustainable1 ha cropping* Upland Lowland(Sawah) 95 % 5% 3-6 2** 1-3 1 < ** = 5 ha : 1 ha * Assuming 2 years cultivation and 8 years fallow in sustainable upland cultivation, while no fallow in sawah **In Case of No fertilization
  16. 16. Methodology • This study was carried out in five states and the FCT where sawah is being practiced. The states are Niger, Kaduna, Ondo, Kwara, Ebonyin and Abuja (i.e. the FCT). • A well structured interview guide was used to elicit information from the farmers. A list of rice farmers in the villages where sawah technology was disseminated was compiled.
  17. 17. Map of the Study Area 4°30' 7°00' 9°30' 12°00' 14°30' 14°00' 14°00' Lak e Chad Sokoto Katsina Kebbi Zamfara Yobe Jigawa Kano Borno 11°30' 11°30' Gombe Bauc hi Kaduna Niger Adam awa 9°00' N Plateau Abuja Kwar a W Nas sarawa Oyo S Taraba Ekiti Kogi Osun Benue Selected states Abuja Ebonyi Kaduna Kwara Niger Ondo Other states Ondo Ogun 6°30' 9°00' E Lagos Enugu Edo Ebonyi Anam bra Delta Imo Riv er s Bayels a 4°30' 7°00' Abia Cr oss Riv er Akwa Ibom 100 9°30' 0 100 Kilometers 12°00' 14°30' 6°30'
  18. 18. Methodology • One hundred and twenty four sawah farmers in the study locations were interviewed. • Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the socio-economic and farming characteristics of the farmers. • Regression analysis was used to determine the relationships between the study variables.
  19. 19. Methodology • The regression equation is presented as follows: ADOP = a + β x X1 + β x X2 + β x X3 + β x X4 + β x X5 + β x X6 + β x X 7 Where X1 = Access to land X2 = Access to equipment/tools X3 = Access to required labour X4 = Access to cash/credit X5 = Access to information X6 = Access to extension services X7 = Access to improved Seed
  20. 20. Results
  21. 21. Descriptive Statistics Description Measurement Adoption level Min Max Mean SD 3-point likert scale of full adoption (3), partial adoption (2) and discontinued/not adopted (1) 9 26 19.39 4.24 Personal factors Sex Ordinally as Male (1) Female (2) Age Marital Status Measured in years Ordinally as Married (1) Single (2) Quranic (1) No formal education (2), Primary education (3), secondary education (4, and Tertiary education (5). Number of persons in the household Measured in hectares Measured in years Measured in kg Measured in Naira Measured in years Educational Level Household size Farm Size Years of experience Yield of Sawah rice Income Years of experience in Sawah Mostly Male (99%) 25 80 42.3 Mostly Married (98%) 13.58 Mostly Quranic (64%) 1 40 0.03 7 80 10000 1 10 65 36000 500000 11 14 0.53 31.91 2462.26 151110 6.34 1.03 16.33 5056.08 83351.61 3.31
  22. 22. Access to Farm Resource Access to farm resources Full (%) Partial (%) No (%) Access to land 3-point likert scale of full (3), partial (2) and no (1) 46.20 53.80 0.00 Access to equipment/tools 3-point likert scale of full (3), partial (2) and no (1) 19.30 43.70 37.00 Access to required labour 3-point likert scale of full (3), partial (2) and no (1) 80.70 18.50 0.80 Access to cash/credit 3-point likert scale of full (3), partial (2) and no (1) 2.50 26.90 70.60 Access to information 3-point likert scale of full (3), partial (2) and no (1) 4.20 25.20 70.60 Access to extension services 3-point likert scale of full (3), partial (2) and no (1) 0.80 22.70 76.50
  23. 23. Regression Analysis Standardized Coefficients (β) S.E. Sign Access to land 0.204 0.187 0.00 Access to equipment/tools 0.178 0.175 0.00 Access to required labour 0.356 0.183 0.00 Access to cash 0.191 0.199 0.00 Access to information 0.247 0.225 0.00 Access to extension services 0.275 0.161 0.00 Access to improved Seed 0.027 0.080 0.33 Variables Constant 0.785 R= 0.950 R Square = 0. .903 Adjusted. R Square= 0. .898 F value = 194.345 Sig. = 0.00
  24. 24. Conclusion • The study has brought to the fore the import of farmers access to required resources be it human or material. Farmers’ access to land, equipment/tools, labour, cash/credit, informatio n and extension service is found to have significant influence on their adoption. • Ensuring high levels of tenure security, adequate access to tools especially power tiller, sustained access to labour, adequate credit facilities and effective and efficient information and extension services is important for sustainable adoption of sawah technology.
  25. 25. Thanks for Listening 25

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