Particle size, drying method, water
temperature and husk-to-bran ratio are
important factors influencing the hardness of
b...
Introduction
In regions of the world where rice
is produced especially in SSA
countries, poor treatment and
disposal of ri...
Introduction
Rice bran is often used in in SSA countries as an
ingredient in the production of livestock feed.
Recently so...
Introduction
However, in areas where Engelberg-type mills
are common, the husk is usually mixed with
the bran, making both...
Objectives
Overall
To add value to husk and husk mixed with bran through
briquetting to achieve the required hardness and ...
Methodology of briquette production
Biomass
collection

Husk

Ratio

Bran

Grinding

Sieving
Water
[Hot = 97 oC]
[Cold = 2...
Results and Discussions
Hydraulic Pump briquetting machine (2
tons)
Lid
Cylindrical tube
Support
Bar
Piston

Pressure pump...
Results and Discussions
•Influence of proportion of husk and bran on the hardness of briquettes
Drying method= Sun, Drying...
Results and Discussions
•Influence of drying method on the hardness of briquettes
Drying time = 7, water proportion= 1,5, ...
Results and Discussions
•Influence of temperature of water used for mixture on the hardness
Drying method= Sun, Drying tim...
Results and Discussions
•Influence of Particle size on the hardness of the briquettes
Drying method= Sun, Drying time = 21...
Conclusions and Recommendations
• Husk-Bran mixture of 1:1 from Engelberg mills and husk
alone (1:0) from rubber roll mill...
Th3_Particle size, drying method, water temperature and husk-to-bran ratio are important factors influencing the hardness ...
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Th3_Particle size, drying method, water temperature and husk-to-bran ratio are important factors influencing the hardness of briquettes at constant pressure

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3rd Africa Rice Congress
Theme 3: Rice processing and marketing
Mini symposium: Adding value to Africa’s rice: rice-derived products
Author: Mbazzi et al.

Published in: Technology, Business
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Th3_Particle size, drying method, water temperature and husk-to-bran ratio are important factors influencing the hardness of briquettes at constant pressure

  1. 1. Particle size, drying method, water temperature and husk-to-bran ratio are important factors influencing the hardness of briquettes at constant pressure S.A. Ndindeng, J.E.G. Mbassi*, M. BihLoh Achu, W.F. Mbacham, J.T. Manful S.Ndindeng@cgiar.org
  2. 2. Introduction In regions of the world where rice is produced especially in SSA countries, poor treatment and disposal of rice by-products is a serious problem as this results in pollution. Rubber roll mill In these communities rubber roll mills are advantageous not only because they produce better quality milled rice but also because they produce separate husk and bran De-husking Polishing
  3. 3. Introduction Rice bran is often used in in SSA countries as an ingredient in the production of livestock feed. Recently some authors have pointed out the possibility of using rice bran as a supplement in the production of biscuits and cookies (Bunde, 2010; Yadav, 2011). BRAN HUSK Unlike the bran, rice husk is not used for any purpose in SSA countries and the huge mounts behind rice mills is usually set on fire and it burns slowly as it is produced. Some authors have indicated the possibility of using rice husk ash as a partial substitute for cement (Brown, 2012).
  4. 4. Introduction However, in areas where Engelberg-type mills are common, the husk is usually mixed with the bran, making both by-products unsuitable for livestock feed production. Briquetting of husk from rubber roll mills and husk mixed with bran from Engelberg mills for fuel wood has been suggested as alternative means to add-value to these by-products especially for communities that need fuel wood for other rice processing activities such as parboiling. Such a briquetting process must also ensure that it does not incorporate material in the briquettes that will render the ash unusable either as a cement substitute or in ceramics. De-husking and Polishing Briquettes
  5. 5. Objectives Overall To add value to husk and husk mixed with bran through briquetting to achieve the required hardness and burning parameters. Specific • Produce a briquetting machine • Use machine to produce briquettes while varying the following factors: • • • • Particle size Husk : Bran ratio Water temperature Drying method • Measure the hardness of different briquettes
  6. 6. Methodology of briquette production Biomass collection Husk Ratio Bran Grinding Sieving Water [Hot = 97 oC] [Cold = 27oC] Large, Pore size (mm2) = 2<PS ≤ 67 Medium Pore size = 0,49<PS ≤2 Fine, Pore size = PS ≤ 0,49 Mixing Briquetting (press) Drying Strength analysis on briquettes •Open –air •In the oven (70 C)
  7. 7. Results and Discussions Hydraulic Pump briquetting machine (2 tons) Lid Cylindrical tube Support Bar Piston Pressure pump Open/closed pump Lever
  8. 8. Results and Discussions •Influence of proportion of husk and bran on the hardness of briquettes Drying method= Sun, Drying time = 14 days, water proportion= 1,5, water temp= hot (97°C), Particle size =fine, 14 More bran leads to harder briquettes 12 10 8 6 4 2 N= 6 3 3 3 3 1:1 1:2 1:0 0:1 2:1 Ratio of husk to bran Sokhansanj and co-workers (2005) identified that feed material containing higher proportions of starch and protein will produce higher quality briquettes than material high in cellulosic material.
  9. 9. Results and Discussions •Influence of drying method on the hardness of briquettes Drying time = 7, water proportion= 1,5, water temp= hot, Particle size =fine, Ratio husk to bran=1:1 Sun drying had the best effect on the hardness of the briquettes. 8.0 7.5 7.0 6.5 6.0 5.5 N= 2 3 Oven and Sun Sun only Drying method Michel and Autio (2001): During drying, the amylopectin portion of the starch granule recrystallizes, and increases the rigidity of starch gels
  10. 10. Results and Discussions •Influence of temperature of water used for mixture on the hardness Drying method= Sun, Drying time = 14, Particle size =fine, water proportion= 1,5, Ratio husk to bran=1:1 10 Hot water modifies physico-chemical properties (gelatinization of starch, denaturation of protein) and binding between particles is greatly enhanced resulting in improved physical briquettes quality (Thomas et al. 1997) 8 6 4 2 0 N= 6 5 Hot (97) Cold (27) Water temp for briquetting (oC) Warm water influence positively on the hardness of briquettes
  11. 11. Results and Discussions •Influence of Particle size on the hardness of the briquettes Drying method= Sun, Drying time = 21, water proportion= 1,5, water temp = hot, Ratio husk to bran=1:1 12 11 10 9 8 Fine 7 Medium Large 6 5 4 N= 3 3 Fine Medium Particle size Mani and co-workers (2003) report that smaller particle sizes produce higher density briquettes.
  12. 12. Conclusions and Recommendations • Husk-Bran mixture of 1:1 from Engelberg mills and husk alone (1:0) from rubber roll mills gave briquettes of good hardness (7-9 kg). • The highest hardness were achieved from a combination of the following factors: Particle size: Fine (PS ≤ 0,49) Water temperature: Hot (97°C) Combination Drying method: Sun drying/Open air Drying time: 21 days

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