Development of an Improved
Stove for Small Scale Parboiling
Audrey Yank
Michael Ngadi
Robert Kok
McGill University, Québec...
Introduction - Energy
• Rice parboiling is an energy
intensive process
• 80% of the energy in
developing countries comes
f...
Introduction - Health
• Smoke exposure affects the
respiratory health
• 1.6 million people, mainly women
and children, die...
Objectives
Develop and test improved stoves for small
scale rice parboiling:
 Reduce emission of air pollutant
 Increase...
3-Stone Stove

Stove 1

Stove 2 (with grate)

Stove 3 (with chimney)
Water Boiling Test - Protocol
High Power: Cold Start
High Power: Warm Start
Low Power: Simmering
Preliminary Results
Table 1: Time to boil* 15L of water (min)
Stove Type
3-Stone Stove
Stove 1
Stove 2
(with grate)
Stove ...
Thermal Efficiency (%)
30
25
20
15
10

5
0
3-Stones
Cold Start

Stove 1

Stove 2

Hot Start

Stove 3
Simmering
Gas Emissions – Concentration (ppm)
Improved Stove

40
30
20
10
0
40

Hydrocarbons
Carbon Monoxide

3-Stone Stove

30
20
1...
Conclusion
• Improved wood stoves have the potential to
significantly reduce the wood requirement for
rice parboiling.

• ...
Questions?

Thank You!
Merci!
Th3_Development of an Improved Stove for Small Scale Parboiling
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Th3_Development of an Improved Stove for Small Scale Parboiling

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3rd Africa Rice Congress
Theme 3: Rice processing and marketing
Mini symposium: improving rice processing technologies in Africa
Author: Yank

Published in: Technology, Business
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  • - 3 billion people worldwide cook on wood stoves – especially in rural areas 80% in energy supply in developing countries = biomass (Wood logs or Charcoal)10% efficient only pressure on the environment and on deforestation as it uses more wood than what would normally be required. Picture: Rice parboiling – energy intensive process
  • Howmuchenergywent to boil water vs total energy in the system
  • Amount of fuel consumed per liter of water boiled
  • Th3_Development of an Improved Stove for Small Scale Parboiling

    1. 1. Development of an Improved Stove for Small Scale Parboiling Audrey Yank Michael Ngadi Robert Kok McGill University, Québec, Canada
    2. 2. Introduction - Energy • Rice parboiling is an energy intensive process • 80% of the energy in developing countries comes from biomass (UNEP, 2001) • Low stove efficiency leads to high fuel demand and wood use
    3. 3. Introduction - Health • Smoke exposure affects the respiratory health • 1.6 million people, mainly women and children, die every year as a result of the wood smoke (WHO, 2006) Source: practicalaction.org/smoke-andits-impact
    4. 4. Objectives Develop and test improved stoves for small scale rice parboiling:  Reduce emission of air pollutant  Increase thermal efficiency and reduce wood requirements  Increase user safety during rice parboiling
    5. 5. 3-Stone Stove Stove 1 Stove 2 (with grate) Stove 3 (with chimney)
    6. 6. Water Boiling Test - Protocol High Power: Cold Start High Power: Warm Start Low Power: Simmering
    7. 7. Preliminary Results Table 1: Time to boil* 15L of water (min) Stove Type 3-Stone Stove Stove 1 Stove 2 (with grate) Stove 3 Cold Start 42 28 Hot Start 51 23 33 31 26 30 * Starting with 15◦C water temperature up to 98.7 ◦C
    8. 8. Thermal Efficiency (%) 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 3-Stones Cold Start Stove 1 Stove 2 Hot Start Stove 3 Simmering
    9. 9. Gas Emissions – Concentration (ppm) Improved Stove 40 30 20 10 0 40 Hydrocarbons Carbon Monoxide 3-Stone Stove 30 20 10 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 Time (min) 30 35 40
    10. 10. Conclusion • Improved wood stoves have the potential to significantly reduce the wood requirement for rice parboiling. • The design of the wood stoves still needs to be optimized to reduce the emissions.
    11. 11. Questions? Thank You! Merci!

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