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Identification des causes des écarts de
rendement dans deux zones de
production de riz au Togo
presented by

Komlan A. ABL...
Outline
 Background
 Materials and methods
 Results
 Conclusion
Background
 Rice = 3rd most cultivated
cereal crop in Togo after
maize and sorghum.
 In Togo, Rice is increasingly
used ...
Background
 However, rice production in Togo does not cover the needs of
the population
 Deficits are
always
compensated...
Background
 In 2012, ITRA and AfricaRice survey have
been done to quantify ‘‘yield gap’’ in 2 rice
production areas in To...
Background
 The objectives of this survey were:
 to identify causes of yield gap in rice
cultivation in Togo
 to quanti...
Materials and methods
 Survey’s areas

Hub

Village/Irrigat N° of surveyed
ion scheme
field/farmer

REGION des
PLATEAUX
(...
Materials and methods
 Data collection

 through sampling
Materials and methods
 Data collection

 through direct observation
Materials and methods

Data collection

 through interview
Materials and methods
 Data collected
 Previous crops or length of fallow (by interview)
 Variety (by interview)
 Rice...
Materials and methods
 Data have been recorded using smartphone
 Open Data Kit helped to
 Build a data collection form ...
Results


Main observations
o Good/bad practices

Maritime: irriguée

Plateaux : pluviale de bas-fond

Mauvais nivelage d...
Results


Main observations
o Abiotic/biotic stress

Stress

Maritime: irriguée

Plateaux : pluviale de basfond

Toxicité...
Results


Main observations
o Abiotic/biotic stress

Stress

Plateaux : rainfed lowlands

-

Insuffisance/mauvaise répart...
Results
Rainfed lowlands

Irrigated lowlands

Village

Rep.

Average yield
(kg/ha)

Village

Rep.

Average yield
(kg/ha)

...
Results

Rendement moyen paddy (12% Hté) vs écart par rapport au potentiel fixé à 6 t/ha
Conclusion
o Many biotic and abiotic constraints have been
recorded
o The highest yields/lowest gap were obtained in
irrig...
Thank You
Merci
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Th2_Identification des causes des écarts de rendement dans deux zones de production de riz au Togo

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3rd Africa Rice Congress
Theme 2: Intensification and diversification
Mini symposium: determinants of agricultural productivity in Africa’s rice-based systems
Author: Ablede, et. al.

Published in: Technology
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Th2_Identification des causes des écarts de rendement dans deux zones de production de riz au Togo

  1. 1. Identification des causes des écarts de rendement dans deux zones de production de riz au Togo presented by Komlan A. ABLEDE Agronomist (Institut Togolais de Recherche Agronomique, Togo)
  2. 2. Outline  Background  Materials and methods  Results  Conclusion
  3. 3. Background  Rice = 3rd most cultivated cereal crop in Togo after maize and sorghum.  In Togo, Rice is increasingly used in the diet of population in both urban and rural areas.  The annual average of white rice consumption per capita is about 15 kg on the national level of (DSID, 2010) Fig. 1 : Production of the main cereal crops (2008-2010)
  4. 4. Background  However, rice production in Togo does not cover the needs of the population  Deficits are always compensated by massive importations in spite of the enormous potentialities of the country Fig. 2 : Production vs importation of white rice (2000-2010)
  5. 5. Background  In 2012, ITRA and AfricaRice survey have been done to quantify ‘‘yield gap’’ in 2 rice production areas in Togo. Yield gap = Potential yield – Actual yield obtained by farmers
  6. 6. Background  The objectives of this survey were:  to identify causes of yield gap in rice cultivation in Togo  to quantify yield gaps and their causes.
  7. 7. Materials and methods  Survey’s areas Hub Village/Irrigat N° of surveyed ion scheme field/farmer REGION des PLATEAUX (rainfed lowlands) TOTAL AGOME GLOZOU 10 ZIOWUNU 9 KOVIE 6 AKATA ADAME 10 KPELE BEME 10 AGADJI REGION MARITIME (irrigated lowlands) 10 - 55
  8. 8. Materials and methods  Data collection  through sampling
  9. 9. Materials and methods  Data collection  through direct observation
  10. 10. Materials and methods  Data collection  through interview
  11. 11. Materials and methods  Data collected  Previous crops or length of fallow (by interview)  Variety (by interview)  Rice ecology (by interview and observation)  Land preparation method (by interview)  Crop establishment method and period (by interview)  Irrigation / drainage system (by interview and observation)  Crop density, rice canopy cover, weed infestation  Water status, iron toxicity, …  Crop management practices  Diseases and insect pests,  Yield data, etc.
  12. 12. Materials and methods  Data have been recorded using smartphone  Open Data Kit helped to  Build a data collection form or survey;  Collect the data on a smartphone and send it to a server; and  Aggregate the collected data on a server and extract it in Excel format.  Average yield data have been submited to ANOVA under GenStat and means were compared by Duncan test (5%)
  13. 13. Results  Main observations o Good/bad practices Maritime: irriguée Plateaux : pluviale de bas-fond Mauvais nivelage du sol, bonne confection des diguettes Mauvais nivelage du sol Repiquage systématique (7 plts/pqt) Semis à la volée/grande qté semences (Akata Adamé); repiquage (Beme + Agadji) Désherbages réguliers Mauvaise gestion des adventices (désherbages insuffisants) Non application d’engrais organique Engrais minéral mal appliqué/en qté insuffisante/périodes d’apport inappropriées Non application d’engrais organique Engrais minéral mal appliqué/en qté insuffisante/périodes d’apport inappropriées Lutte contre certaines maladies/ravageurs Pas de lutte contre les maladies/ravageurs Brûlis systématique des résidus Paillage des résidus au champ Irrigation/drainage
  14. 14. Results  Main observations o Abiotic/biotic stress Stress Maritime: irriguée Plateaux : pluviale de basfond Toxicité ferreuse Faible fertilité des sols Sols pauvres; salinité Très faible fertilité des sols Mauvaises herbes: surtout Echinocloa sp Mauvaises herbes piriculariose, helminthosporiose abiotique Insuffisance/mauvaise répartition des pluies flétrissement bactérien; piriculariose, biotique Insectes ravageurs: foreurs, acridiens et Insectes ravageurs: acridiens, foreurs et coléoptères phyllophages coléoptères phyllophages
  15. 15. Results  Main observations o Abiotic/biotic stress Stress Plateaux : rainfed lowlands - Insuffisance/mauvaise répartition des pluies Toxicité ferreuse Faible fertilité des sols Sols pauvres; salinité Très faible fertilité des sols Mauvaises herbes: surtout Echinocloa sp Mauvaises herbes piriculariose, helminthosporiose abiotic Maritime: irrigated flétrissement bactérien; piriculariose, biotic Insectes ravageurs: foreurs, acridiens et Insectes ravageurs: acridiens, foreurs et coléoptères phyllophages coléoptères phyllophages
  16. 16. Results Rainfed lowlands Irrigated lowlands Village Rep. Average yield (kg/ha) Village Rep. Average yield (kg/ha) Agadji 10 2663 b Kovié 6 3920 b Akata Adame 10 2815 b Ziowunu 9 3314 c Kpele Beme 10 Agome Glozou 10 5242 a Mean 3781 a 3086 B 4159 A
  17. 17. Results Rendement moyen paddy (12% Hté) vs écart par rapport au potentiel fixé à 6 t/ha
  18. 18. Conclusion o Many biotic and abiotic constraints have been recorded o The highest yields/lowest gap were obtained in irrigated lowlands o Yield gaps recorded were ranged from 40 to 60% of potential yield of the most popular variety cultivated in Togo (IR 841) which is 6t/ha. o Yield gap survey is ongoing in the 2 hubs 2013 o Introduction of Good agricultural practices began in 2013
  19. 19. Thank You Merci

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