Th1_Genetic diversity in rice (Oryza spp.) for resistance to blast disease in West Africa

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3rd Africa Rice Congress
Theme 1: Climate resilient rice
Mini symposium: Towards improved resistance to biotic stress
Presenter: Yanagahira et al.

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Th1_Genetic diversity in rice (Oryza spp.) for resistance to blast disease in West Africa

  1. 1. Genetic diversity in rice (Oryza spp.) for resistance to blast disease in West Africa T. Odjo, Y. Koide, S. Yanagihara, M. Sié, Y. Séré, D. Silué, T. Kumashiro and Y. Fukuta 21 Oct. , 2013 at rd Africa Rice Congress 3 JIRCAS
  2. 2. Strategies for rice variety improvement to increase/stabilize rice production in Africa under the collaboration between JIRCAS and AfricaRice. Ⅱ. Introduction of improved lines from Asia Ⅰ. Improvement of existing varieties Problems to be solved Upland rice Irrigated rice ①Breakdown of resistance Actions ①Survey of blast races and resistance genes in rice and their utilization. Actions ①Survey of blast races and resistance genes in rice and their utilization. ②Introduction of long root geneqRL6.1. ②Yield barrier in nutrient deficiency (Nitrogen) ③Introduction of P def. tolerance gene, Pup1. ②Introduction of long root gene qRL6.1. ③ Yield barrier in nutrient deficiency(Phosphorous) Introgression lines developed under the collaboration between JIRCAS and IRRI. ④Utilization of deep root germplasm ④Drought (Upland and rainfed lowland) Prepare improved germplasm for African environment Evaluate under African environment and select the best performers. Selected lines. Sharing information Apply for multi-environmental varieties trial by Breeding Task Force. National institute for breeding or farmers fields in Africa
  3. 3. Problem of rice blast disease -Rice blast disease caused by Pyricularia oryzae Cavara (syn. Magnaporthe oryzae B. Couch) is a fungal disease of rice known to cause yield losses in most rice producing areas of the world. -In Africa, it is a major constraint of rice production. -The most economical and effective way of controlling rice blast in resource-poor farmers’ fields shall be the development of resistant cultivars.
  4. 4. Problem of rice blast disease 2 -However, the causal fungus is able to overcome the resistant varieties after they became popular. -Thus, ideal high performance varieties require lower inputs with more stable resistance to blast disease. -To achieve this breeding goal, it’s important to assess rice accessions from Africa.
  5. 5. Survey of blast resistance in rice germplasm from West Africa Plant materials used in the survey Irrigated Rainfed lowland lowland Species Status O. sativa Improved 9 18 22 6 55 O. glaberrima Landrace 10 4 8 23 45 Interspecific Improved 0 42 18 0 60 O. barthii Wild 0 0 5 0 5 19 64 53 29 165 Total Upland Manglove Total In addition, - 23 monogenic lines targeting for 23 resistance genes (Tsunematsu et al., 2000), - 2 NILs for Pik and Pik-h with a Chinese Japonica-type variety Lijiangxintuanheigu (LTH) genetic background(Telebanco-Yanoria et al, 2010), - 2 NILs for Pi5(t) and Pi12(t) with a Indica type susceptible line US-2 genetic background(unpublished materials), - and Nipponbare, Kasalath, US-2, and LTH as control varieties
  6. 6. Survey of blast resistance in rice germplasm from West Africa Blast races used for survey and their origin
  7. 7. Survey of blast resistance in rice germplasm from West Africa Cluster analysis for rice germplasm I (n=8) II (n=53) III (n=27) IV (n=108) Rice germplasm in West Africa and control varieties were classified into 4 cluster groups based on the reaction patterns to blast isolates from Japan and West Africa
  8. 8. Survey of blast resistance in rice germplasm from West Africa Bn45 Mean 3.3 1.6 3.5 0.2 3.5 1.7 2.5 0.6 ( ): No. of differential and control varieties. 1 3.9 0.7 1.5 0.1 4.3 4.4 4.5 3.8 3.6 1.2 1.3 1.6 1.3 1.6 1.8 2 2.6 1.9 2.3 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.5 Mean Ina86-137 4.5 1.4 2.9 0.1 Ken53-33 TH68-126 3.8 4 3.7 4 1.6 1.3 1.7 0.9 2.7 2.6 2.3 0.4 0.5 0.2 0.4 0.2 Ina93-3 3.8 1.3 2.7 0.3 3 2 Kyu92-22 TH68-140 Ai74-134 24-22-1-1 IW81-04 Sasamori121 Kyu89-246 GFOS8-H Mu95 Ai79-142 Mu183 Ao92-06-2 0528-2 P-2b I 4 1.3 3.7 4.1 3.3 3.9 3.5 4 4.1 3.8 II 0.9 0.7 1.3 1.7 1.2 1.5 1.1 1.3 1.3 1.1 III 1.7 0.6 1.4 3 2.5 2.8 0.6 0.6 0.8 2.8 IV 0 0.1 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 4 Whole mean 9 2.9 4 3.9 3.2 1.7 2.6 2.2 1.2 2.9 4.6 3.9 0.9 0.1 0.4 0.9 0.6 31-4-151-11-1 43 3.7 2.7 3.5 2.5 53 60 3.6 3 3.2 2.8 1.4 1.6 0.8 1.3 0.9 2.3 0.3 2.2 0.4 0.5 0.4 0.3 32 Ma29 4.4 1.4 2.4 0.3 CI14 CI9 Ma37 Ma56 3.7 1.3 2.2 0.1 Mean values of Infection degreed to each blast isolates Isolates from Japan 1804-4 Resistance group I 8 ( 8) II 53(11) III 27(10) IV 108( 2) Ni2 Mean values of Infection degreed to each blast isolates Isolates from West Africa No. of accession Resistance group Infection scores of rice accessions to standard differential blast isolates from West Africa and Japan 4 2 3 1
  9. 9. Survey of blast resistance in rice germplasm from West Africa Classification of rice accessions in West Africa based one the reaction patterns to standard differential blast isolates from West Africa and Japan Groups based on reaction patterns to blast isolates I II III IV Total No. and name of rice accessions and differential varieties 1: LTH, 1: US-2, 5: DVs (Pik-s, Pi19(t), Pia, Pish, Pi12(t)) 1: Nipponbare 10: DVs (Pi20(t), Pib, Pi12(t), Pit, Piz, Piz-5, Pita x2, Pita-2 x2) 4: JA(UP-I), 2: JA(UP-L), 1: JA(LO-I) 1: Kasalath, 1: IN(DW-L) 1: NO(LO-I) 3: NERICA (UP-IS) 9: AF (DW-L) , 10 AF (LO-L) , 9: AF (UP-L) 2: W (UP) 10: DVs (Pii, Pi3, Pi5(t) x2, Pik-m, Pi1, Pik-h, Pik, Pik-p, Pi7(t) ) 14: AF (DW-L) , 2: AF (LO-L) 1: W (UP-L) 2: DVs (Pi9(t), Piz-t) 6: JA(UP-L) , 1: JA (UP-I), 2: JA (UP-L) 14: IN(LO-I), 3: IN(LO-L) , 4: IN (DW-I), 1 IN(DW-L), 9: NO(LO-I), 1: NO (UP-L) , 5: NO (UP-I) 15 NERICA (UP-IS) , 42 NERICA (LO-IS) 1: AF (LO-L) 2: W (UP) No. of rice accessions (Differential varieties and checks) 8(8) 53(11) 27(10) 108(2) 196(31)
  10. 10. Conclusion -Rice accessions from West Africa, DVs and check varieties were classified into 4 groups I, II, III and IV, based on the reaction patterns to the 20 standard differential blast isolates from Japan and the 12 isolates from West Africa. -106 accessions including 15 rainfed upland NERICAs, all lowland NERICAs, one O. glaberrima, two O. barthii, 46 Asian varieties, and two DVs for Pi9, and Piz-t were categorized in the strongest group. -The wild rice, O. barthii, showed more variation than in O. glaberrima. However, more number of accessions are to be investigated.
  11. 11. JIRCAS Thank you for your attention.

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