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Fatima Denton: Links between adaptation, mitigation and low carbon, or climate compatible development


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Fatima Denton: Links between adaptation, mitigation and low carbon, or climate compatible development

  1. 1. Links between adaptation, mitigation and low carbon, or ‘climate compatible’ development<br />Fatima Denton<br />The Climate Change Adaptation in Africa Program - Team Leader<br />
  2. 2. Outline <br />Messages - Key messages and assumptions<br />Definitions - What do we mean by climate resilient development?<br />Adaptation & Mitigation -What are the intersections between adaptation and mitigation?<br />
  3. 3. Outline <br />4. Transitions<br />- Vulnerability to resilience <br />- adaptation to adaptation and mitigation <br />- piecemeal adaptation – to a transformational process adaptation and mitigation within a sustainable development context<br />5.Questions– Key Questions<br />6.Conclusion – Concluding Remarks<br />
  4. 4. Key Messages <br />Climate is a key ‘resource’ and a key ‘hazard’ -– but it is 1 exacerbating factor within a complex mix of current vulnerabilities<br />Poverty reduction is still the overriding challenge for most countries in Africa<br />
  5. 5. Key Messages <br />Processes that are necessary to build both adaptive and mitigative capacity are strongly correlated with sustainable development<br />Responses to CC will continue in many parts of Africa to be un-cordinated – a process of ‘muddling through’ <br />Making the transition from planned incremental responses to a transformative process of social change takes time<br />
  6. 6. Definitions <br />Climate Resilient Development<br />R= to (1) buffer disturbance, (2) self-organize, and (3) learn and adapt<br />Recovery potential, Opportunity/adaptive capacity<br />Resilience development has several strands – socio-economic resilience ( income, knowledge, technology), institutions, governance, ecosystems and communities <br />What does a climate ‘resilient’ development means ?<br /><ul><li>Development that minimises harm triggered by CC and exploits development opportunities associated with low carbon emissions
  7. 7. Sustainability element – climate risk management as important for the enhancement of sustainable development practices
  8. 8. Silo treatment – adaptation cannot be done in a silo – but should include both present and future risks</li></li></ul><li>1st Transition – Vulnerability to Resilience<br />Agriculture remains a key growth and strategic sector<br />1st Challenge – enhancing the adaptive capacity of the smallholder farmer (understanding the drivers of vulnerability)<br />2nd Challenge – Improving soil fertility and productivity and how this underpins issues relating to food security and poverty (ecosystems resilience)<br />3rd Challenge – Weak institutions – enhancing the capacities of local institutions to enable local communities to adopt improved technologies and innovations<br />4th Challenge – Diversifying options and thinking in terms of surpluses<br />5th Challenge – work with demand groups i.e. communities and decision makers on their response capacities.<br />
  9. 9. 1st Transition - Vulnerability to Resilience <br />Human vulnerability and food insecurity – rainfall and economy in Sub-Saharan Africa. <br />For Sub-Saharan Africa, patterns in economic growth follow precipitation patterns closely. <br />As rainfall has decreased over the last 30 years, so has economic development.<br />Rainfed agriculture represents a major share of the economy of countries in Africa as well as for domestic food supply.<br />Improved water resources management and a wider resource base are critical to the stability and security that is required for economic development –<br />Sources Barrios, Salvador, LuisitoBertinelli & Eric Strobl. 2003. Dry Times in Africa: Rainfall and Africa's Growth Performance, 2008. <br />
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  11. 11. Food needs / Soil fertility<br />Food insecurity in Africa remains unacceptably high (27%); agricultural production has to increase by at least 4 to 6%yrs to meet growing food needs of the continent<br />This will require urgent increase of soil fertility of cropland, reduction of deforestation and grassland conversion<br />10<br />
  12. 12. 2nd Transition – Adaptation to Adaptation and Mitigation <br />Agricultural Sector <br />Carbon sequestration = enhances adaptation and sustainability of crop production <br /><ul><li>by increasing carbon concentration in the soil through better management practices = multiple benefits
  13. 13. For biodiversity, soil fertility and productivity, and soil water storage capacity </li></li></ul><li>2nd Transition – Continued.<br />2. Soil Management - practices that reduce fertiliser use and tend to increase crop diversification<br />3. Integrated crop rotation and diversification, and zero or reduced tillage have potential to improve soil carbon sequestration and reduce GHG<br />4. Compensation – paying off resource dependent communities for carbon sequestration and funds used towards adaptation practices<br />5. Carbon Trade + REDD = huge potential for forestry and agriculture<br />
  14. 14. 2nd Transition Adaptation to Adaptation and Mitigation<br />Carbon sequestration / Biomass improvement <br />Reforestation  Increasing of plant litter  carbon sequestration and increasing of soil organic matter; <br />
  15. 15. Jatropha is<br /><ul><li>adapted in arid, semi-arid and sub-humid conditions
  16. 16. yield oil seed for decades after planting
  17. 17. used as a medicinal plant
  18. 18. used as a living hedge to prevent soil erosion
  19. 19. associated with rainfed agricultural system
  20. 20. used traditionally by women to make soap
  21. 21. Source of energy</li></ul>MFC<br />14<br />MFC<br />
  22. 22. Landavailability<br />FAO study based on soils and climate (2000)<br />15<br />HIGH POTENTIAL FOR BIOFUEL DEVELOPMENT IN AFRICA<br />
  23. 23. 2nd Transition Adaptation – Adaptation and Mitigation <br />Water Sector <br />- Reduction in water supplies in the large rivers in Sahel will affect agriculture and energy production <br />1. Conservation tillage = increase soil water retention in drought conditions whilst also sequestering carbon below ground<br />2. Irrigation potential - Small scale irrigation facilities can conserve water in and also increase crop productivity and soil carbon<br />
  24. 24. 59 transboundary river basins<br />And 38 transboundary aquifers<br />Transboundary waters in Africa<br />Africa counts:<br />
  25. 25. Energy resource of Africa<br />Energy Sector <br />Diverse and good share of global fossil and renewable energy resources<br /> 6.2% of coal <br />7.7% of oil<br />7.2% of Natural Gas <br />Few Geothermal sources <br />Large potential of biomass, hydro, solar and wind<br />Nearly all the resources are under exploited<br />18<br />
  26. 26.
  27. 27.
  28. 28. 2nd transition – A- A&M<br />Promotion of low energy production systems <br />Promotion of efficient energy use by commercial agriculture and agro-industries<br />Efficient use of biomass, shells, peanuts, bagasse = mitigative benefits reduction in the use of charcoal and fuel <br /><ul><li>Adaptive benefits– reduction of likelihood of deforestation
  29. 29. Wind Pumps = crop processing, irrigation, water pumps– mitigative = decrease in dependence on biomass, avoidance of CO2
  30. 30. Biogas Plant -= production of sludge for fertilisers </li></ul>Adaptive benefits = adaptation to soil erosion, aridity and environmental degradation <br />Mitigative benefits = avoided emissions<br />
  31. 31. 3rd Transition – piecemeal adaptation to transformational process <br />Adaptive management¨= a viable option for for climate resilience development <br />The development of alternative hypotheses, <br />identifying knowledge gaps <br />Assessing the usefulness of knowledge prioritizing research questions.<br />Resource stakeholders must (1) be fully engaged in developing management strategies as a means of building a constituency for the resource management problem, (2) agree upon and fully understand the consequences of making decisions, and (3) agree upon the processes for making decisions in a context of deliberative democracy (Brown 2002). <br />
  32. 32. 3rd Transition – piecemeal adaptation to a transformative process of SD.<br />Adaptive management is essential to building socio-ecological resilience <br />Innovations – Using ISFM as an entry point - Zimbabwe<br />Social learning - establish learning centres as a platform for co-learning and testing ideas and technologies (Zimbabwe, Tanzania and Malawi, Benin)<br />Improved agricultural practices using learning centres saw a sharp rise in the production of key staples - production of maize and groundnuts to support HIV/AIDS home based programmes in Zambia <br />Understanding what works – What crop species do farmer prefer? (long duration sorghum varieties in Zimbabwe<br />How do farmers make decisions? – less than 25% farmers have access to seasonal weather information – rely on IK<br />
  33. 33. 3rd Transition -small scale adaptation to SD - transformational <br />Zimbabwe<br />Using planning – action- reflection cycles in PAR to build weak local food security systems in Zimbabwe<br />Using PAR to strengthen community cohesion for collection action <br />Building consensus amongst different stakeholder and building consensus amongst social groups<br />Creating learning centres and learning hubs as a platform for increased and effective adaptation <br />Using ISFM technologies soil and water conservation techniques and improved crops and varieties as a way of revitalising local safety nets<br />
  34. 34. 3rd Transition – continued <br />Building low-lyingearthdams to improve water availability for agriculture in Senegal<br />Promoting drip irrigation technology for water conservation in Morocco’s Saiss Basin<br />Developing resistant cover crops as Mucuna or Zai/trenches to protect soils moisture in Benin<br />Develop tools for early prediction of and prevent malaria epidemics in East African Highlands<br />
  35. 35. 3rd Transition<br />Institutional Strengthening <br />Institutions are the lubricant that keeps society moving <br />Institutions acting as custodian for knowledge generation, development and sharing <br />Institutions that are able to intersect climate needs and development priorities<br />Institutions cultures, values and norms guide behaviour within organisations and mediated environmental policies<br />Adaptation cannot operate in an institutional vacuum<br />Institutions define roles and provide a social context for action<br />
  36. 36. 3rd Transition – Instituional setting<br /><ul><li>Functioning institutions capable of bridging the numerous gaps between communities, policy and scientific spheres</li></ul>Overall research performance ranking across institution type, East Africa<br />IRIs: International Research Institution; RPs: Research Partnerships ; RRNGOs: Regional Research NGOs; NRIs: National Research Institutes; Dual: government and other development orgs with some research going on.<br />Parameters: Planning, Implementation, Engagement/Communication, Partnership.<br />Source: CCAA. Institutional Mapping for Climate Change Adaptation in Eastern Africa. 2008.<br />
  37. 37. 3rd Transition - Continued<br />Knowledge sharing as a strong foundation for building adaptive capacity<br />Expanding research communities to farmers – Benin; Senegal<br />multi-stakeholders committees playing a key role in sharing met data and forecasts in Tanzania and Benin<br />Local committee were linked to national committee that could channel met information and alerts from the national met. Agency - Benin<br />Knowledge sharing mechanisms can bring together key stakeholders, and both channel information and support the development of adaptation options – Tanzania; Malawi; Benin ; Senegal<br />Social learning processes - sources of learning, innovation and interaction – Malawi<br />
  38. 38. 3rd Transition – Bridging the research to policy interface<br />Using information to build consensus with policy makers and met. officials - Infoclim Project (Senegal), Nganyi project (Kenya)<br />Consensus forecast meetings in Kenya is receiving institutional support from local civil servants<br />Local management Units were given mandates by local authorities<br />Including policy makers in diagnosing the research problem have deepened their understanding of climate change – Morocco<br />Using climate information to develop an appropiate water management in the Berg River – South Africa<br />Integrating climate information to guide policy making for fisheries management in Senegal; Guinea; Gambia and Cape Verde<br />
  39. 39. 3 rd Transition <br />Financial Landscape <br /><ul><li>Difficulties in financing adaptation through current streams of ODA
  40. 40. Separate and or additional caveat
  41. 41. Burden sharing approach = viable way to go amongst regional institutions with similar problems
  42. 42. Funds needed to strengthen the delivery mechanism of African institution to strengthen response capacities
  43. 43. Adaptation funding is complex and messy - need more innovative funds and strong institutions to absorb these funds </li></li></ul><li>Key Questions <br />How can we exploit synergies between Adaptation and Mitigation within a development first paradigm?<br />How do we mobilise resources to do both adaptation and mitigation and who will pay for this?<br />How do African scientists and communities define their own agendas with regard to A&M – what is their degree of ownership in such projects?<br />How can successful A&M projects be scaled up and out and who does this?<br />What kindsof metric evaluation systems do we put in place to measure adaptive and mitigative capacity <br />
  44. 44. Conclusion<br />Poverty reduction remains a nagging problem <br />A&M can be pursued in parallel with adaptation work and based on perceived risk, stakes and interests and opportunities for development <br />A&M need to be done with vulnerable communities = respecting their need for growth, equity and security<br />It is about understanding the factors that exacerbate social vulnerability and putting in place measures that will resonate with communities and their aspirations<br />Building networks of reciprocity – alliances an creating safety nets <br />