NUR AFIFAH BT NORSILAN
forDEFINITION AND THEORY
• Many people incorrectly view motivation as a personal trait.
• Motivation is “process that account for an individual’s intensity, direction, and
persistence of effort toward attaining a goal”.
- Early Theories of Motivation -
i) Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
ii) Theory X – assumptions are basically negative (lower-order needs)
iii) Theory Y – assumptions are basically positive (higher-order needs)
iv) Two Factor theory (intrinsic & extrinsic rewards)
v) McClelland’s Theory of Needs (focus on achievement, power, & affiliation)
- Contemporary Theory of Motivation –
i) Self-determination theory (focus on cognitive evaluation theory)
ii) Employee engagement v) Reinforcement theory
iii) Goal setting theory vi) Equity theory
iv) Self-efficacy theory vii) Expectancy theory
WAYS TO REDESIGNED
JOB AND ALTERNATIVE
- Redesigned Job -
• Job Rotation:- cross-training
- Alternative Work Arrangement -
• Flextime:- defined as flexible work hours. Allow employees some discretion
over when they arrive at and leave the work.
• Job Sharing:- allow two or more individuals to split a traditional 40-hours-a-
• Telecommunicating:- allow employees do their work at home at least two
days a week on a computer that is linked to their office.