Deep Energy Reductions at No Added
Cost: The Oregon State Hospital Strategy
Mara Baum & Jim Sharpe
CleanMed 2015
Learning Objectives
• Evaluate the integrated factors that enabled Oregon State Hospital at
Junction City to achieve a ver...
Agenda
• Project introduction
• Energy design strategy
– Oregon State Hospital Salem
– Oregon State Hospital Junction City...
Oregon State Hospital Salem
Salem
Salem
Salem
Salem: Architectural Energy Conservation
Measures
• Narrow building footprint
supports daylighting
• High insulation value...
Salem: MEP Energy Conservation Measures
(ECMs)
• Patient rooms & corridors:
– Code variance: 2 ACH of 100%
OA
– Code varia...
Salem: MEP Energy Conservation Measures
(ECMs)
• Gymnasium: natural ventilation, ceiling fans, night-time pre-cooling
• Ad...
Salem: ECMs Studied but not Included
Not cost effective:
• Exterior shading
devices
• Photovoltaics
• Solar thermal water
...
Salem Hospital – Modeled Energy by End Use
Space
Heating
Hot
Water
Vent.
Fans &
Pumps
Misc.
Eqpm.
Lighting
Space Cooling
Salem Hospital – Energy Usage Intensity
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
Code SEED
Minimum
Modeled Measured
EUI(kBtu/sf/y...
Oregon State Hospital Junction City
Oregon State Hospital Junction City
Oregon State Hospital Junction City
Junction City: Energy Design Factors
• Connection with outside and daylighting
• Code mandates 1.5% of construction $ for ...
Junction City: ECMs from Salem
• HVAC variances: 2 ACH, 100% OA & 78°F summer design temp.
• Ventilation & lighting shut-o...
Junction City: New ECMs
• Geo-exchange (no boilers, chillers,
cooling towers, or propane tank)
• Heat recovery chillers
• ...
Geo-Exchange Heat Recovery System
Open Loop Wells on Site
Geo-Exchange vs Conventional System Cost
Geo Cost Adds
 Open loop wells
 Heat recovery chillers
 Heat exchangers
Geo Co...
De-Coupled HVAC System – Chilled Beams
Lower energy consumption
• Less primary air to condition
• Increased COP of chiller...
1.5% Construction Cost for Active Solar
PV Panels
Solar Thermal
Panels
Summary: Critical Design Factors
Architectural:
 Enhanced R-value envelope & reduced
infiltration
 Limited window size
...
Summary: Critical Design Factors
MEP:
 Reduced air change rates
 Expanded indoor temperature ranges
 Demand-controlled ...
Summary: Critical Design Factors
MEP:
 Reduced air change rates
 Expanded indoor temperature ranges
 Demand-controlled ...
Code, Modeled & Measured EUI
EUI(kBtu/sf/yr)
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
Salem SEED
Minimum
Salem
Modeled
Salem
Measured...
SEED Minimum, Modeled & Measured EUI
EUI(kBtu/sf/yr)
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
Salem SEED
Minimum
Salem
Modeled
Salem
...
EUI(kBtu/Yr/SF)
Salem EUI: Modeled vs. Measured
Month
-
2.0
4.0
6.0
8.0
10.0
12.0
14.0
Modeled EUI
Measured EUI
EUI(kBtu/Yr/SF)Salem Modeled vs. Measured:
Electricity & Natural Gas
-
1.0
2.0
3.0
4.0
5.0
6.0
7.0
8.0
9.0
10.0
Modeled El...
Salem: Why the big difference?
NO big climate or occupancy changes
Energy model assumed higher loads:
• Demand controlled ...
Junction City vs. Salem:
Greenhouse Gas Emissions
• Greenhouse gas emissions per year
– Salem: 16 million lbs CO2
– Juncti...
Lessons Learned
Critical factors to cost effective
energy efficiency:
• Legislation
• Integrated design
• Careful LCCA ana...
Owner Feedback from Salem
• Campus and neighborhood
approach
• Patient experience: Reduced use
of seclusion rooms
• Staff ...
Questions?
Mara Baum & Jim Sharpe
mara.baum@hok.com & jsharpe@aeieng.com
AEI / Affiliated Engineers Presents Two Oregon State Hospital Projects at CleanMed 2015
AEI / Affiliated Engineers Presents Two Oregon State Hospital Projects at CleanMed 2015
AEI / Affiliated Engineers Presents Two Oregon State Hospital Projects at CleanMed 2015
AEI / Affiliated Engineers Presents Two Oregon State Hospital Projects at CleanMed 2015
AEI / Affiliated Engineers Presents Two Oregon State Hospital Projects at CleanMed 2015
AEI / Affiliated Engineers Presents Two Oregon State Hospital Projects at CleanMed 2015
AEI / Affiliated Engineers Presents Two Oregon State Hospital Projects at CleanMed 2015
AEI / Affiliated Engineers Presents Two Oregon State Hospital Projects at CleanMed 2015
AEI / Affiliated Engineers Presents Two Oregon State Hospital Projects at CleanMed 2015
AEI / Affiliated Engineers Presents Two Oregon State Hospital Projects at CleanMed 2015
AEI / Affiliated Engineers Presents Two Oregon State Hospital Projects at CleanMed 2015
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AEI / Affiliated Engineers Presents Two Oregon State Hospital Projects at CleanMed 2015

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AEI presents energy conservation measures (ECMs) used in two Oregon State Hospital projects, including: active chilled beams, natural ventilation, geoexchange heat recovery systems, and demand-control ventilation/lighting. Also discusses why modeled and measured energy use intensity sometimes differ.

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  • SRG
    Late 1880’s
    Used in the same way as the movie up until the time of this renovation
    The feds came in and told them they needed a new treatment system
  • Historic building with wards – now all administration
    Naturally ventilated, daylight, chilled beams; very low energy use
  • 650 beds, 800,000 sq ft
    “downtown” – as move from going home to neighborhood, to downtown; then to cottages and community
    Multiple steps back to society
    Cottages are historic – originally residential cottages occupied by psychiatrists and other staff
    Historic district that shows wards – very linear; very seldom moved off of wards but occasionally used the basketball courts (as seen in movie)
  • Historic building off to the left; new on the right – trying to blend but not match; knit new buildings into existing historic fabric

    Main entrance for public; security process
  • Circulate around the courtyards – inside out – increase views
  • Colonnade walk ways
    No unnecessary glazing (upper is admin, north facing)
  • Old and new
    Colonnade walk ways
    Rains a lot but can still be outside because of the colonnade
  • Involved regular client – and also patients, city representatives, mayor. Everyone represented.
    Bringing these groups together helped to adjust expectations between users and psychiatrists
    Learned lessons from Salem, used at JC (e.g. color)
  • Reduced use of mechanical conditioned air: 2 air changes per hour(ACH) with 100% outside air (OA) in patient rooms and patient corridors. (code variance)
    Relaxed indoor design temperature: 78°F in summer for patient rooms. Code is 75°F. (code variance)
    Room ventilation shut-off when unoccupied controlled by lighting occupancy sensor.
    Natural ventilation in downtown gym with night time pre-cooling. Ceiling fans for daytime cooling.
    Chilled beams used in administration area.
    Heat wheels on 100% outside low pressure drop air handling units.
  • Reduced use of mechanical conditioned air: 2 air changes per hour(ACH) with 100% outside air (OA) in patient rooms and patient corridors. (code variance)
    Relaxed indoor design temperature: 78°F in summer for patient rooms. Code is 75°F. (code variance)
    Room ventilation shut-off when unoccupied controlled by lighting occupancy sensor.
    Natural ventilation in downtown gym with night time pre-cooling. Ceiling fans for daytime cooling.
    Chilled beams used in administration area.
    Heat wheels on 100% outside low pressure drop air handling units.
  • The power of less
    Learned on Salem -> tightened the belt; brought only what was needed and no more
    Less square footage than originally anticipated
    Artists on both project; on this one the artist sat with the patients at Salem who wrote about their lives. She spent three days with a writing/poetry class at Salem – these are now the words on the glazing
  • Color
  • Carryovers from Salem
    Reduced use of mechanical conditioned air: 2 air changes per hour(ACH) with 100% outside air (OA) in patient rooms and patient corridors. (code variance)
    Relaxed indoor design temperature: 78°F in summer for patient rooms. Code is 75°F. (code variance)
    Room ventilation shut-off when unoccupied controlled by lighting occupancy sensor.
    Natural ventilation in gym with night time pre-cooling. Ceiling fans for daytime cooling.
    Heat wheels on 100% outside low pressure drop air handling units.

    Expanded
    No boilers, chillers or cooling towers.
    Geo-exchange open wells for heating and cooling.
    Heat recovery chillers.
    Chilled beams in patient areas (security type).
    No propane tank for backup fuel required.
    Reduce patient room winter design temperature from 75F to 72F. (code variance)

  • Carryovers from Salem
    Reduced use of mechanical conditioned air: 2 air changes per hour(ACH) with 100% outside air (OA) in patient rooms and patient corridors. (code variance)
    Relaxed indoor design temperature: 78°F in summer for patient rooms. Code is 75°F. (code variance)
    Room ventilation shut-off when unoccupied controlled by lighting occupancy sensor.
    Natural ventilation in gym with night time pre-cooling. Ceiling fans for daytime cooling.
    Heat wheels on 100% outside low pressure drop air handling units.

    Expanded
    No boilers, chillers or cooling towers.
    Geo-exchange open wells for heating and cooling.
    Heat recovery chillers.
    Chilled beams in patient areas (security type).
    No propane tank for backup fuel required.
    Reduce patient room winter design temperature from 75F to 72F. (code variance)
  • Lower Energy Consumption
    Less primary air to condition
    Increased COP of chiller
    Reduced AHU fan motor energy
    60 F chilled water for AHU coils and chilled beams

    Reduced Space Requirements
    Reduced AHU size, weight and cost
    Smaller ductwork
    6” floor to floor savings
    Reduced shaft sizes

    Improved Comfort
    Lower noise level


  • Need 17x more to get to ZNE
  • AEI / Affiliated Engineers Presents Two Oregon State Hospital Projects at CleanMed 2015

    1. 1. Deep Energy Reductions at No Added Cost: The Oregon State Hospital Strategy Mara Baum & Jim Sharpe CleanMed 2015
    2. 2. Learning Objectives • Evaluate the integrated factors that enabled Oregon State Hospital at Junction City to achieve a very high energy efficiency with no added first cost. • Identify healthcare-appropriate low-energy building systems that go beyond “standard” energy efficiency measures and describe lessons learned that can be applied to other projects. • Discuss factors that motivated the facilities department to commit to nonstandard systems. • Analyze measured energy data from the first few years of occupancy to understand the relationship between the energy model and operational savings.
    3. 3. Agenda • Project introduction • Energy design strategy – Oregon State Hospital Salem – Oregon State Hospital Junction City • Measured energy performance • Lessons learned
    4. 4. Oregon State Hospital Salem
    5. 5. Salem
    6. 6. Salem
    7. 7. Salem
    8. 8. Salem: Architectural Energy Conservation Measures • Narrow building footprint supports daylighting • High insulation values (R-22 walls, R-30 roof) • Solarban 70XL dual pane windows • Low window to wall ratio • Consolidated central utilities • Exterior covered circulation buffers conditioned space
    9. 9. Salem: MEP Energy Conservation Measures (ECMs) • Patient rooms & corridors: – Code variance: 2 ACH of 100% OA – Code variance: Summer patient room design temp. increased from 75°F to 78°F • Room ventilation and lighting shut off when unoccupied
    10. 10. Salem: MEP Energy Conservation Measures (ECMs) • Gymnasium: natural ventilation, ceiling fans, night-time pre-cooling • Administration: Active chilled beams • Air handlers: – 100% outside air – Heat wheels – Low pressure drop
    11. 11. Salem: ECMs Studied but not Included Not cost effective: • Exterior shading devices • Photovoltaics • Solar thermal water heating Not appropriate: • Natural ventilation throughout • Night time flushing of thermal mass • Geothermal-coupled heat pumps
    12. 12. Salem Hospital – Modeled Energy by End Use Space Heating Hot Water Vent. Fans & Pumps Misc. Eqpm. Lighting Space Cooling
    13. 13. Salem Hospital – Energy Usage Intensity 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 Code SEED Minimum Modeled Measured EUI(kBtu/sf/yr) (code for public buildings)
    14. 14. Oregon State Hospital Junction City
    15. 15. Oregon State Hospital Junction City
    16. 16. Oregon State Hospital Junction City
    17. 17. Junction City: Energy Design Factors • Connection with outside and daylighting • Code mandates 1.5% of construction $ for solar • New energy code: ASHRAE 90.1 2010 • Excessive rainwater & ground water • Large acreage • HVAC code variances maintained
    18. 18. Junction City: ECMs from Salem • HVAC variances: 2 ACH, 100% OA & 78°F summer design temp. • Ventilation & lighting shut-off when unoccupied • Gym: natural ventilation, night time pre-cooling, ceiling fans • 100% OA AHUs, heat wheels, low pressure drop
    19. 19. Junction City: New ECMs • Geo-exchange (no boilers, chillers, cooling towers, or propane tank) • Heat recovery chillers • Chilled beams in all areas • Code variance: patient room winter design temp. from 75F to 72F • LEDs in gym & exterior lighting • Solar thermal & PV Active Chilled Beam23% energy reduction vs. Salem system
    20. 20. Geo-Exchange Heat Recovery System
    21. 21. Open Loop Wells on Site
    22. 22. Geo-Exchange vs Conventional System Cost Geo Cost Adds  Open loop wells  Heat recovery chillers  Heat exchangers Geo Cost Deducts  Chillers  Cooling towers  Boilers  Propane tank First Cost Difference = ~$0
    23. 23. De-Coupled HVAC System – Chilled Beams Lower energy consumption • Less primary air to condition • Increased COP of chiller • Reduced AHU fan motor energy Cost effective • Reduced space requirements due to lower AHU size and weight • Smaller ductwork  6” floor to floor savings & reduced shaft sizes • Contractor & estimator education required Lower noise level  improved comfort First Cost Difference = ~$0
    24. 24. 1.5% Construction Cost for Active Solar PV Panels Solar Thermal Panels
    25. 25. Summary: Critical Design Factors Architectural:  Enhanced R-value envelope & reduced infiltration  Limited window size  High performance glazing  Daylighting
    26. 26. Summary: Critical Design Factors MEP:  Reduced air change rates  Expanded indoor temperature ranges  Demand-controlled ventilation/lighting  Selective natural ventilation  Active chilled beams  Solar PV and hot water (Junction City)  Geo-exchange (Junction City)
    27. 27. Summary: Critical Design Factors MEP:  Reduced air change rates  Expanded indoor temperature ranges  Demand-controlled ventilation/lighting  Selective natural ventilation  Active chilled beams  Solar PV and hot water (Junction City)  Geo-exchange (Junction City) Cost neutral & replicable in other facilities
    28. 28. Code, Modeled & Measured EUI EUI(kBtu/sf/yr) 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 Salem SEED Minimum Salem Modeled Salem Measured JC SEED Minimum JC Modeled JC Measured ? (20% below ASHRAE 90.1 2007) (ASHRAE 90.1 2010) 2030 Challenge 2030 Challenge
    29. 29. SEED Minimum, Modeled & Measured EUI EUI(kBtu/sf/yr) 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 Salem SEED Minimum Salem Modeled Salem Measured JC SEED Minimum JC Modeled JC Measured ? (20% below ASHRAE 90.1 2007) (ASHRAE 90.1 2010) EUI with solar = 94
    30. 30. EUI(kBtu/Yr/SF) Salem EUI: Modeled vs. Measured Month - 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0 12.0 14.0 Modeled EUI Measured EUI
    31. 31. EUI(kBtu/Yr/SF)Salem Modeled vs. Measured: Electricity & Natural Gas - 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 Modeled Elect EUI Measured Elect EUI Modeled NG EUI Measured NG EUI Month
    32. 32. Salem: Why the big difference? NO big climate or occupancy changes Energy model assumed higher loads: • Demand controlled ventilation & lighting • Domestic hot water (showers) Modeling process: • Bias to err on the high side • Very large single model  fewer refinements
    33. 33. Junction City vs. Salem: Greenhouse Gas Emissions • Greenhouse gas emissions per year – Salem: 16 million lbs CO2 – Junction City: 0.4 million lbs CO2 10 times less per SF! • Why is Junction City so much less? – All electric building – Bonneville Power Administration (90% hydro, 5% nuclear) • Potential for ZNE (site energy) with more PV Grand Coulee Dam
    34. 34. Lessons Learned Critical factors to cost effective energy efficiency: • Legislation • Integrated design • Careful LCCA analysis • Commissioning!
    35. 35. Owner Feedback from Salem • Campus and neighborhood approach • Patient experience: Reduced use of seclusion rooms • Staff satisfaction • Commendation from the Joint Commission
    36. 36. Questions? Mara Baum & Jim Sharpe mara.baum@hok.com & jsharpe@aeieng.com

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