By                       Taddesse LakewAgronomy task force and Processing and Value addition task force                   ...
Introduction      Ethiopia:      • One of the biggest countries in east         Africa (1.12 million Km2 )      • agricult...
Introduction…•    Rice was introduced (1970s) and has since been cultivated in different parts    of the country at limite...
Introduction…
Introduction…Figure 2. Trends in volume of commercial rice import in Ethiopia (1999 – 2008)
Major rice ecologies in Ethiopia Upland rain fed: NERICA-4, NERICA-3, SUPERICA-1, Kokit(IRAT-  209), Pawe-1(M-55)• Curren...
Major rice ecologies… Lowland rainfed:    X-JIGNA, GUMARA(IAC-164) , WAB189-B-B-  B-B-HB• Current recommended(used) pract...
Major rice ecologies … Irrigated:NERICA-1, NERICA-2, FOFIFA 3737,NERICA-  6, NERICA-6, HODEN (MTU-1001), GODE-  1(BG-90-2...
Constraints in rice production and productivity abiotic:                  - unable to use recommended input and other    ...
Constraints in rice research•   Lack of stress tolerant (cold, drought, salinity and acidity ) rice lines/ varieties•   La...
Opportunities• Existence of conducive policy environment that put more emphasis   on rice as to use of irrigation and impr...
Achievements on technology development for agronomy,                  processing and value addition•   Since the inception...
Achievements on technology development for agronomy….    Demonstration of N fertilizer        Pre-scaling up of        on ...
Achievements on technology development for agronomy….  Demonstration of weeding   frequency and time of         weeding
Achievements on technology development for agronomy….              Farmers field day on rice                   technologies
Rice recipes   Enjoy rice meal
On-going research activities on agronomy, processing and                        value additionRain fed Agronomy:•   Effect...
On-going research activities on agronomy, processing and                      value addition…• Study on integrated weed ma...
On-going research activities on agronomy, processing and value                            addition…Processing and value ad...
Agronomy, processing and value addition institutions Totally 16 research centers, out of which     - 5 research centers w...
Linkage between research and extension Good tradition of working together - At national and regional states    RELK(resea...
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTAfrica rice centre is duly acknowledged for inviting Ethiopia to take part in the “Rice agronomy task force...
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Rice research and production in ethiopia

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Rice research and production in ethiopia

  1. 1. By Taddesse LakewAgronomy task force and Processing and Value addition task force workshop 22-25November 2011 Cotonou, Benin at Africa Rice
  2. 2. Introduction Ethiopia: • One of the biggest countries in east Africa (1.12 million Km2 ) • agriculture accounts > 45% of GDP, 80% of exports & 80% employment • Climatic zone: 1-hot arid- temp. 28 C- 34 C 2 - warm to hot semi-arid- temp. 20 C - 28 C 3 -warm to cool semi-humid- temp. 16 C-20 C 4 -cool to cold humid-temp. 10 C- 16 C 5 -cold moist temperature – temp.is below 10 C
  3. 3. Introduction…• Rice was introduced (1970s) and has since been cultivated in different parts of the country at limited scale.• Currently, rice is considered as the millennium crop believed to contribute in food security “4th food security crop after wheat, maize and the country ‘s traditional food crop ‘tef’”• According to MoA (2010), NRRDSE targeted production: from 498,332 tons in 2009 to 1.8 million tons in 2014, and to 4 million tons in 2019.• With area increment of 156 thousand ha in 2009 to 464 thousand and 774 thousand ha in 2014 and 2019, respectively• Rice production potential: rain fed= 20 million ha irrigated = 3.7 million ha
  4. 4. Introduction…
  5. 5. Introduction…Figure 2. Trends in volume of commercial rice import in Ethiopia (1999 – 2008)
  6. 6. Major rice ecologies in Ethiopia Upland rain fed: NERICA-4, NERICA-3, SUPERICA-1, Kokit(IRAT- 209), Pawe-1(M-55)• Current recommended(used) practices 1. field preparation -3 -4 times ploughing 2. weeding : 3-4 times 3. fertilizer rate: 80kg N/ha(Fogera) : 115 kg N/ 46 P2O5 (Metema) 4. Time of fertilizer application: - Nitrogen half at planting and half at maximum tillering - P2O5 all at planting - (not studied) 4. Seed rate: 100kg/ha (under study)
  7. 7. Major rice ecologies… Lowland rainfed: X-JIGNA, GUMARA(IAC-164) , WAB189-B-B- B-B-HB• Current recommended(used) practices 1. field preparation: 3 -4 times ploughing 2. weeding : 3-4 times 3. fertilizer rate: 69/23kg N/ha N/P2O5 (Fogera) 4. Time of fertilizer application: : N 1/3 at planting and : ¾ at maximum tillering : P2O5 all at planting 4. Seed rate: 140kg/ha
  8. 8. Major rice ecologies … Irrigated:NERICA-1, NERICA-2, FOFIFA 3737,NERICA- 6, NERICA-6, HODEN (MTU-1001), GODE- 1(BG-90-2), Shebele(IR688059-76-3-3-3-2)• Current recommended(used) practices 1. field preparation: 2-3 times ploughing 2. weeding : 3 times 3. fertilizer rate: 75N/46kg /ha N/P2O5 4. Time of fertilizer application: : N half at planting and : half at maximum tillering : P2O5 all at planting 4. Seed rate: 60kg/ha All these practices are not yet studied for the ecology- on going activities
  9. 9. Constraints in rice production and productivity abiotic: - unable to use recommended input and other packages- high price - drought - poor rice consumption habit in money rural areas - coldness - incidence of malaria, trypanosomasis and HIV - salinity in major rice growing areas - acidity - inadequate water management and irrigation Biotic: infrastructures - weeds  Processing related: - the sector is not well developed - diseases- - very few modern processors with dehulling and - insect pests milling facilities which also incur losses - birds problem reaching up to 50% Socio-economic: - limited harvesting tools - labor intensive : - farmers normally sell their rice at farm site to workload on women local traders and contradicts school - farmers thresh rice using oxen power and human power
  10. 10. Constraints in rice research• Lack of stress tolerant (cold, drought, salinity and acidity ) rice lines/ varieties• Lack of deep knowledge, skill and experience in rice science and it research, software application and data analysis• Inadequate skilled manpower in all disciplines of rice research• Less or no equipped laboratories and facilities• Lack of research supporting logistics such as cold rooms, seed/seedling planters, plot threshers• Lack of field moisture meter , green & screen houses, leveling machines, seed counters, small milling machines• Lack of GPS for research• Lack of chlorophyll meter in N fertilizer study• Lack of altimeter
  11. 11. Opportunities• Existence of conducive policy environment that put more emphasis on rice as to use of irrigation and improved rice technologies• Availability of high yielding and adaptable rice varieties• Availability of technology dissemination channels• Presence of land potential for rice production under irrigation (3.7 million ha) and rain fed ( 20 million ha)• Presence of market & increased domestic and international rice demand• Available rice research partners and donors who support rice research and development in Ethiopia ( Africa rice, IRRI, JICA, AGRA, SG2000, MEDA , World Bank etc)• National Rice Research and Development strategy of Ethiopia ( NRRDSE) has been developed and its Implementation Plan (IP) approved• Establishment of National Rice Research and Training Institution ( Nearly to launch)
  12. 12. Achievements on technology development for agronomy, processing and value addition• Since the inception of research on rice, some technologies have been developed and are being used by farmers while some others are under demonstration and pre-scaling up with the participation of farmers – rice transplanting technology – plant spacing in transplanted rice – weeds management : weeding frequency and time of weeding – seed rate for lowland rice – Fertilizer rate : for upland and lowland rice – peregrinated rice technology in lowland rice – time of fertilizer application for lowland rice – Bio-fertilizer study: on rice using Azolla, symbiotic green algae – Demonstration of different rice recipes to different stake holders
  13. 13. Achievements on technology development for agronomy…. Demonstration of N fertilizer Pre-scaling up of on lowland rice transplanting technology on lowland rice
  14. 14. Achievements on technology development for agronomy…. Demonstration of weeding frequency and time of weeding
  15. 15. Achievements on technology development for agronomy…. Farmers field day on rice technologies
  16. 16. Rice recipes Enjoy rice meal
  17. 17. On-going research activities on agronomy, processing and value additionRain fed Agronomy:• Effect of fertilizer rate on rice yield and yield components in rainfed upland and lowland rice ecosystems (Two years: 2011 to 2012 cropping seasons)• Determination of seed rate for broadcasted rice in rainfed upland ecosystems (Two years: 2011 to 2012 cropping seasons)• Study on rice-chickpea relay intercropping on transplanted rice in rain fed lowland ecosystem in Fogera vertisols(Two years :2011 and 2012)• Determination of fertilizer rate for transplanted rice in rain fed lowland ecosystem of Fogera Vertisols(Two years: 2012 and 2013)• Study on the effect of drill row planting and seed rate on yield and yield components of rice in rain fed upland and lowland ecosystems(Two years: 2013 to 2014 cropping seasons)• Estimation of Rice crop water requirement and irrigation scheduling using CROPWAT computer model(2011- 2013)• Effect of rotary weeder and puddling on weed control and yield and yield components of rainfed lowland rice (Two years: 2011-2012)• Determination of optimal irrigation regimes and rate of fertilizer application(2011- 2012)
  18. 18. On-going research activities on agronomy, processing and value addition…• Study on integrated weed management practices on rain fed rice production ecosystems (upland, low land) in the country(two years: 2011-2012)Irrigated rice Agronomy:• Effect of N and P fertilizers rate on irrigated rice yield and yield components(Two years: 2011 to 2012 cropping seasons)• Study on the effect of drill row planting and seed rate on yield and yield components of rice in irrigated ecosystems(Two years: 2011 to 2012 cropping seasons)• Developing transplanting technologies for irrigated rice ecosystem of the country(Two years: 2011 to 2012)• The effect of N fertilizer application time on irrigated rice yield and yield components(Two years: 2013 to 2014 cropping seasons)
  19. 19. On-going research activities on agronomy, processing and value addition…Processing and value addition :• Evaluation, adaptation and promotion of postharvest technologies for rice-Determination of optimum harvesting date-Study on Effects of harvesting Methods-Study on Effects of Threshing methods-Study on Effects of Drying Methods-Study on Effects of Storage Methods-Evaluation of milling machines and milling quality of varieties-Milling quality of Available rice varieties:• Development of different rice based food products and rice utilization Systems -Survey on rice utilization Systems -Determination of Physico-chemical properties of important rice Varieties -Determination Cooking Properties - Determination of Pasting Properties - Determination of Amylose content -Evaluation of rice varieties for specific food types - Study on suitable mixing ratio of rice flour with other crops for various dishes - Study on the effect of parboiling on rice quality
  20. 20. Agronomy, processing and value addition institutions Totally 16 research centers, out of which - 5 research centers worked relatively longer on rice research centers - while 11 started recently - no more than 4 centers worked on rice food science research But even previous centers have no equipments and facilities Discipline Researchers Technicians BSc MSc PhD Agronomy 12 6 0 14 Processing 4 2 0 6 and Value addition
  21. 21. Linkage between research and extension Good tradition of working together - At national and regional states RELK(research and extension linkage) in which all stakeholders included established • come together to monitor and evaluate, give feedback, make amendments whether research agenda are in line with or not the target set by the government and problem solving Almost all research centers, not only for rice, established FREG(farmer research and extension group) to work with as means of technology transfer Hence, rapid expansion of rice production
  22. 22. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTAfrica rice centre is duly acknowledged for inviting Ethiopia to take part in the “Rice agronomy task force workshop” and for other several capacity building endeavors! Thank You very Much!

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