Arab Republic of Egypt Ministry of Agriculture Agricultural Research Center Field Crops Research InstituteRice Research & Training Center ((RRTC Sakha, Kafr El-Sheikh, Egypt Postal Code: 33717 Fax +2 0473225099 Tel: +2 0473223683 +2 0473223614 E-Mail: email@example.com
Rice in EgyptTotal area: ~ 600,000 hectares. Productivity: ~ 10.00 t/ ha.
OUR VISIONKey Elements for Breaking Yield Plateau : Maximization of yield potentiality Stabilizationfor diverse environmental conditions Optimization of culture practeces
RICE RESEARCH & TRAINING CENTER Breeding Plant Technology Agronomy & Protection Transfer SeedProduction Weed Entomology Plant Science Pathology
• The rice research concept was initiated in 1917.• RRTC was dedicated in January 1987.• RRTC is located at Kafr El-Sheikh city, about 130 Km north of Cairo.
• Rice occupies about 25% of the cultivated area in Egypt during the summer season.• Rice is one of the most important cereal crops in Egypt, either for consumption or for exporting.
• Rice cultivations help in reclaiming saline soils near to the Mediterranean coast.• Rice plays a paramount role in the economy of Egypt, as the exports in 2008- 2009 were estimated as one pillion US$.• Due to high population rate increase ( ~1.2 million yearly(, great efforts are needed to maximize production.
Objectives 1• Maximizing the yield potential per unit area and water use effeciency.• Developing new varieties tailored with high yielding ability and resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses.• Deployment of new technologies ; hybrid rice, biotechnology, biological control, organic rice… etc.• Increasing yield potential of saline areas.• Improving cultural practices and updating the package of recommendation to maximize the productivity/unit area.
Objectives 2• Transferring new rice technologies to the farmers.• Increasing the certified seeds covering area at the 70% of national level.• Increase the capabilities of young scientists in different areas of research by attending conferences, courses, workshops and training in or/and out the country.• Establish and sustain the co operation between Egypt and International institutions.
Main Strategies• Minimizing of in pot and maximizing of out pot.• Spreading rice hybrids (12 t/ha(.• Increase the productivity of poor quality soils.• Developing low input rice varieties as well as special rices.• Strengthening relationships among research, extension and rice growers through Technology Transfer Component.
Number of scientists currently conducting rice research * and their areas of specialization Head of Senior SupportingSpecialization Research and Researcher Researcher Staff ConsultantPlant Breeding & 7 4 8 8BiotechnologyAgronomy 6 5 8 10Plant Pathology 2 2 2 2Entomology 1 1 1 0Weed 1 1 1 1ManagementTechnology 1 0 0 4TransferEconomy 1 0 0 0Total 19 13 20 25 * Excluding administrative and technical staff.
Future Research Needs(i( Maximize yield / unit area (› 10t /ha( by developing both inbred and hybrid varieties and its agronomy practices.(ii( Increase rice areas covered by certified seeds up to 70%.(iii( Minimize mineral fertilizers use by increasing its use efficiency and utilize it combined with organic and bio fertilizers .(iv( Develop drought, salinity and heat tolerance varieties tailored with high daily production to face the climate changes.(v( Develop rice lines resistant to various types of plast diseases.
Major constraints AbioticSalt-affected soil in the coastal areas.Difficulties in producing japonica hybrid riceLimited area and water resources.Suffering from Zn deficiency.
Major Constraints Biotic• High mutable rate of the blast fungus needs long term plan to develop a variety with multiple resistant genes.• Occurrence of some newly diseases such as Bakana, stem rot and Nematodes .• Susceptibility of some varieties to LM and SB
Major Constraints Socio-economic• Difficulties in controlling rice prices as well as prices of inputs including fertilizers, chemicals …. etc.• High competition with the other summer crops especially maize and cotton, in area and water share.• Low available fund for rice research.• Weakness of some farmers conviction to accept the new technology.• Portioning growing area by the farmers.
Giza 182 Giza 177 Giza 178Sakha101 Egyptian Varieties Sakha103 Sakha102 Sakha 106 Sakha 105 Sakha 104 Yasmine Hybrid 1
WATER MANAGEMENT SALINITYPHYSIOLOGY PROGRAM Agronomy Components CULTURAL NUTRITION PRACTICESMineral, Organic and Bio
Objectives of Agronomy Program1- Develop and improve the package of recommendation for different methods of rice planting in normal and saline soils. Utilize of rice residues to sustain soil fertility - 23- Estimate water requirements of cultivars and use regimes to save irrigation water.4- Rationalize the water use.5- Increase the fertilizer efficiency under different water regimes.6- Study interactions among the different factors to reach to maximize rice yield.
Methods of rice planting in Egypt Transplanting Direct Seeded riceManual Mechanical Drill Broadcasting
The package of recommendation for transplanting Method• Sowing date : 15th April – 15th May.• Seeding rate ; 100 kg /ha.• Seedling No 3- 5 /hill.• Seedling age : 25 – 30 days• Plant spacing : 20x20 cm• N level : 144kg /ha.• Time of N application: 2/3 as passel +1/3 at PI.
continue• Zn Fertilizer rate :24 kg Zn sulfate /ha.• Time of Zn applic. : after wet leveling.• P rate : 125 kg /ha. Incorporated with soil.• Weed control: 2L of Saturn (Thiopencarp).• Water management : 4days on 6days off.• Water regime: 15days after CF.• Harvesting time : 30 days after CF.
Main Objectives of Breeding Program• Develop new varieties with high sustainable grain yield > 10 t/ha, early maturing, multiple resistance to pests and with superior grain quality.• Develop varieties suited to adverse conditions.• Develop rice hybrids suitable for normal and saline soils.• Developing special rices i.e. aromatic, waxy and rice grain with high nutritional value.• Evaluate, characterize, catalogue and maintain the local genetic collections.• Maintain the genetic purity of commercial varieties, through an efficient system of seed production.
Breeding ComponentsInbred Rice Hybrid Rice VarietalImprovement Seed Production Biotechnology
Yield and Ancillary Traits of the New Released Rice Varieties Blast Yield Duration Height Grain Milling Variety (T/ha) (day) (cm) L N Type (%)Improved varieties:Giza 177 10.7 125 100 2 R Sh 73Giza 178 12.1 135 100 2 R Sh 71Sakha 101 11.5 140 90 4 S Sh 72Sakha 102 10.8 125 110 2 R Sh 72Sakha 103 10.9 120 99 2 R Sh 72Sakha 104 11.4 132 105 4 S Sh 71Giza 182 11.7 129 94 2 R L 70Egyptian Yasmine* 9.5 150 95 1 R L 65Average 11.1 132 99.13 1-4 R Sh-L 65-73Old varieties:Giza 171 7.3 160 140 7 S Sh 72Giza 176 8.7 150 100 5 S Sh 69Giza 181 9.1 150 95 2 R L 68Average 8.4 153 112 2-7 R-S Sh-L 68-72
Objectives of Plant Protection Program This program aims to application ofintegrated pest management “ IPM” forprotection of rice crop against diseases, insects and weeds. It has a strong co- operation with breeding program to develop new rice varieties resistant to diseases and insects
Objectives of Plant Pathology Program Develop and improve an integrated disease management (IPM( system for major diseases, blast, brown spot, false smut, bakanae and white tip nematode diseases through: Host plant resistance, Cultural practice Biological and chemical control. Minimize using of fungicides. Minimize yield losses due to diseases, Increase grain yield and grain quality.
Trichogramma: the next tool for rice stem borer control The parasite lays eggs The parasite examines the egg host Parasitized eggs A card for release the parasitoid
Natural Parasitism of Trichogramma on RSB Egg-masses ( RRTC-Egypt ) 100 80 Parasitism 60 40 % 20 0 18 26 7 19 30 2 9 16 23 28 Jul. Aug. Sept. Sampling Date
Weeds can depress rice yield by 10-90 %especially in direct-seeded rice. This dependson infestation degree and rice cropping.system Overall objectivesMinimizing weed infestation and •reduce competition and losses in rice.yield Maximizing rice crop yields •.depending on efficient weed control
:ActivitiesThe objectives can be achieved through the:integrated weed management includingagricultural practices*biological control*.and efficient chemical weed control*
:AchievementsEmployment of tillage, leveling, puddling and*.water management to suppress weeds FungusContinuous evaluation and selection of*allelopathic rice entries for natural weed.suppressionDetection of the role of some biological agents*( fungus and algae ) in controlling weed in.riceContinuous evaluation and identification of*effective chemical weed control treatments in.direct-seeded and transplanted rice
:Success evidenceIncreasing the area of direct-seeded rice by*.about three folds through the last six yearsThe release of rice cultivar Yasmine which is*.natural suppressive for grassy weeds Allelopathic effectsIdentification of many rice lines as*allelopathic active against weeds during the. last five years
Technology Transfer componentThe main objectives of Technology Transfer Component are:• To increase the national rice production through transfer of research recommendations and new technology to rice farmers.• To identify problems and suggest suitable solutions in the rice fields.• To evaluate and disseminate research information and update the package of recommendations to rice farmers.• To train the extension staff and farmers on the new rice production technology.