Why Lean Automation? “After implementing lean improvements such as cellularmanufacturing and setup reduction,selective automation can add value and reduce human variability.” Richard Schonberger, June 2002
Lean ManufacturingFundamental Principle of Lean Manufacturing Any activity or action which does not add value to the product is a form of waste and must be eliminated or minimized.
Definition of Value -AddedValue is added any time the product is physicallychanged towards what the customer is intendingto purchase.Value is also added when a service is providedfor which the customer is willing to pay (i.e.design, engineering, etc.).If we are not adding value, we are adding cost orwaste. 90% of lead time is non-value added!
Lean Manufacturing Concepts & TechniquesValue Stream Map *Flow: Setup Reduction, CellularManufacturing, Batch Size Reduction,Visual Workplace, Layout *Pull: Kanban Systems, Supply Chain Management, Point of Use *Others: Quality Improvement & Analysis *, Total ProductiveMaintenance, Training * * Used most frequently prior to Automation
Value Stream Map An Assessment ToolThe value stream map follows the productionpath from beginning to end and shows a visualrepresentation of every process in the materialand information flowsShows how the shop floor currently operatesFoundation for the future state
Value Stream Map Concept Orders Production OrdersSuppliers Customers Control Schedules I Process I Equipment Raw Cycle Finished Materials Times Goods Change Over Reliability Error Rate Lead Time File: VSM-A1
Value Stream Map (Current State) Orders Every 2 Weeks Production Control New Jersey Randomly PlacedAndrea Aromatics Alanx Order as Needed Various Porcelain Orders (Various Sizes) (Scented Oils) (Shaped Stones) Customers (Round Stones) Average of 6,000 Stones per Day in Various Size Orders (8 to 20 case & 200 to 400 case range mainly) 30 Cans of Oil 59,000 Stones 50,000+ Stones Every 2 Weeks Every 2 Weeks Every 2 Months (via stringer) Bi- Weekly Daily Shipping Productio Orders n Daily Schedule Shipments Existing Work Cell Soak & Dry Packaging Labeling Cartoning Case Packing Shipping APAI Multiple Ameripack Manual Manual Automatic Batch Tanks Flow Packager I I I Stapler I I I up to 0 0 125 Cans of Oil 1 Operator 4290 1 Operator 1/2 Operator 1/2 Operator 90,504 1 Operator 250 20,640 Round Stones Stones Stones stones 49,000 Shaped Stones in WIP C/T = 25 - 65 min. C/T = 1 sec. C/T = 3 sec. C/T = 2 sec. C/T = 1 sec. C/O = 10 min. C/O = 5 min. C/O = 2 min. C/O = N/A C/O = N/A Rel. = 100% Rel. = 85% Rel. = 80% Rel. = 100% Rel. = 100% 11.6 Days 0.7 Days 15.1 days 27.4 Days Lead Time 65 minutes, 7 seconds 65 min. 7 seconds Value-Added Time
Value Stream Map (Future State) Orders Every Week New Jersey Randomly PlacedAndrea Aromatics Alanx Monthly Order Production Control Various Porcelain Orders (Various Sizes) (Scented Oils) (Shaped Stones) Customers (Round Stones) Average of 6,000 Stones per Day in Various Size Orders (8 to 20 case & 200 to 400 case Bi-Weekly range mainly) 12 to 16 Cans 30,000 Stones 25,000 Stones Production of Oil Once a Once a Week Once a Month Schedule Week (via stringer) (large orders) Daily Shipping Orders Daily Shipments 4 Cases Existing Work Cell Soak & Dry Packaging Labeling Cartoning Case Packing Shipping APAI Multiple Ameripack Manual Manual Automatic Batch Tanks Flow Packager I I I Stapler I I up to 0 0 75 Cans of Oil 1 Operator 4290 1 Operator 1/2 Operator 1/2 Operator 30,000 1 Operator 250 40,000 Round Stones Stones Stones stones 25,000 Shaped Stones in a supermarket in WIP type arrangement C/T = 25 - 65 min. C/T = 1 sec. C/T = 3 sec. C/T = 2 sec. C/T = 1 sec. with stocking levels C/O = 10 min. C/O = 5 min. C/O = 2 min. C/O = N/A C/O = N/A by shape and scent Rel. = 100% Rel. = 85% Rel. = 80% Rel. = 100% Rel. = 100% Increase 10.8 Days 0.7 Days 5.0 days 16.5 Days Lead Time Reliability 65 minutes, 7 seconds 65 min. 7 seconds Value-Added Time
VSM IMPLEMENTAION FUTURE STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLAN & SCHEDULE SEQUENCE COMPLETION LOOP OBJECTIVES PROJECTS (PRIORITY) DATE (Mon./Yr) Supplier Loop * Develop pull system with suppliers 1. Review Weekly/Monthly Requirements With Suppliers 1 Sep-01 * Increase number of deliveries per week 2. Revise current blanket orders 1 Sep-01 * Reduce raw material inventory to match 3. Send daily consumption data to suppliers 2 Nov-01 4. Setup point of use raw material areas 1 Oct-01 Production Control Loop * Implement daily shipping schedule 1. Single point to schedule( shipping). See pacemaker loop. 1 Oct-01 * Work to schedule manufacturing based on shipping requirements 2. Daily production schedule by Operations Manager 1 Oct-01 3. Implement kanban loops as shown on future state VSM 2 Nov-01 4. Use MRP for materials forecasting 1 Oct-01 Element * Reduce lead time 1. Eliminate WIP between winding & annealing 1 Sep-01 Loop * Develop continuous flow 2. Implement supermarket for element prep and kanbans 1 Oct-01 * Develop pull system with element prep supermarket 3. Crosstrain element assembly operations 2 Dec-01 Module Assembly Loop * Reduce cycle time 1. Analyze process variance in environmental test 1 Oct-01 * Reduce variation in cycle time in testing 2. Analyze process variance in module drydown 1 Oct-01 * Reduce variation in cycle time in drydown 3. Implement supermarket and kanbans for cell installation 1 Oct-01 * Establish pull system with supermarket from cell installation 4. Crosstrain module assembly operations 2 Dec-01 * Reduce use of carriers 5. Analyze need for carriers vs. subassembly units 1 Sep-01 6. Analyze material handling reductions and layout improvements for element prep operations 3 Jan-02 7. Set up leak tested subassembly units in supermarket for final assembly 1 Oct-01 Pacemaker Loop * Reduce cycle time 1. Improve assembly methods in final mechancial assembly 2 Dec-01 * Establish pull system with supermarket from 2. Review design for manufacturing assembly improvements for (Unit Assembly/Shipping Loop) shipping tubing assembly 3 Feb-02 3. Consolidate inspection with final mechanical assembly or shipping/packing 2 Nov-01 4. Set up raw material suppermarket for final assembly 1 Oct-01 5. Crosstrain unit assembly operations 2 Dec-01NOTES:1. Conduct kanban and point of use training for plant personnel in 2001.2. Priotities as follows: #1(Complete in 2 months), #2(Complete in 4 months), #3(Complete in 6 months)3. Consider use of teams for implementation after training.
Implementing Lean Changes“My conclusion is that all of us making a lean leapwill need to deal with capability issues (TQM/SixSigma) and with availability issues (TPM) whileremoving wasted steps and introducing flow andpull in every value stream (TPS). My furtherconclusion is that there is no “right sequence” tofollow in tackling these problems. Rather itdepends on the nature of the product, the nature ofthe process technology, and the nature of thebusiness.”Jim Womack, October 2002
How Do We Use Lean Techniques for Automation?Assess the operation using a Value StreamMap and/or PFDs (Product families & Production data)Evaluate the layoutIdentify lean improvements & kaizenswithout automationImplement lean improvements using VSMplanIdentify lean automation opportunitiesDesign and implement lean automationStart the cycle again!
The Lean Automation Cycle Assessment Recommended Set Up (VSM) Solutions Layout CellsContinuous VisualImprovement Automation Implementation Information DO IT! Plan Systems
Levels of Automation Load Machine Unload TransferLevels Machine Cycle Machine Part 1 Operator Operator Operator Operator 2 Operator AUTO Operator Operator 3 Operator AUTO AUTO Operator The Great Divide 4 AUTO AUTO AUTO Operator 5 AUTO AUTO AUTO AUTOAs defined by the Lean Enterprise Institute in “Creating Continuous Flow”
Low Productivity Electrical Device Assembly The Challenge in Two StepsClient wanted wavesoldering and robotic pickand placeFunctional operationallayoutErgonomic problemsExtensive material stagingNo spaceInitially, 13 people inAurora cellLow output: 300 units/day
Lean Techniques Used Before AutomationProcess flow diagramsCellular Manufacturing & LayoutBalance Cycle Times Between WorkStationsReduce Batch Size & parts stagingQuality Data Collection & Analysis(Reduce Reject Rate)
With Lean Automation Level 1The Results Balanced cell at 24 sec per work station Two U-shaped cells 3 piece flow 1000 units/day per cell vs 300 6 people per cell vs 13 Faster identification of quality problems Point of use storage Better teamwork No backlog
Reducing Lead Time Steel Panel Fabrication The ChallengeClient wanted to reducelead time to less than oneweekAutomated equipment hadbeen installedPanel rejects & reworkMaterial flow problems
Lean Techniques Used Before AutomationValue Stream MappingProcess flow diagramsQuality Data Collection & Analysis(Reduce Reject Rate)Setup time Analysis
Value Stream Map (Current State) Blanket Annual Purchase Order with Daily Releases Production Control Randomly Placed (normally working Various Distributors Sheet Galvanized Sheet Galvanized Sheet Galvanized Sheet Galvanized Orders (normally 24 to 48 hours ahead (~ 24 for Smith Corp. &Steel (4’ by 8’ or cut) Steel (4’ by 8’ or cut) Steel (4’ by 8’ or cut) Steel (4’ by 8’ or cut) single unit orders) of ~ 6 for Jones Systems promised shipment) Average volume of 1000 systems per month in peak season. Customers are mainly distributors. There are a few dealers. Daily Daily Up to an average Daily Production Production of 130,000 lbs Shipping Daily Reports Reports daily in peak Schedule Shipments season In Straight Panel Dept. Shear Notch Specialty Punch Corner Punch Bend Stake & Label Add Z Brace Radius & Band Rack Shipping 1 Accurshear 1 Manual 4 Semi-Auto 3 Semi-Auto 1 Manual 1 Automated 1 Automated 1 Manual Table, Automated Notcher (S-23) Punches Punches Brake (R-7) Machine (R-8) Machine (ACR) 1 Jig-less Shear (P-3) & 1 Automated (S-1, S-2, & S-3) & 1 Automated Machine (R12), I Notcher (R-3) Brake (R-13) & 1 Jig Machine (R1)2 to 5 days 1 Material 1 Operator 1/2 Operator 0 Operators 1 Operator 1/2 Operator 1/2 Operator 1/2 Operator 2 Operators 2 Operatorsdepending Handleron pre-cut size C/T = 4 min. C/T = 2 min. C/T = 2 min. C/T = 2 min. C/T = 5 min. C/T = 2 min. C/T = 7 min. C/T = 8 min. C/T = N/A C/O = N/A C/O = 4 min C/O = N/A C/O = up to C/O = 30 to C/O = N/A C/O = N/A (average) C/O = N/A Rel. = 99% Rel. = 95% Rel. = 99% 30 min. 60 sec. Rel. = 99% Rel. = 98% to C/O = 2 to 30 Rel. = 100% Rel. = 99% Rel. = 90% 99% min. Rel. = 80% 2 to 5 Working Days, to 100% Lead Time 2 to 5 days 32 minutes, 4 min. 2 min. 2 min. 2 min. 5 min. 2 min. 7 min. 8 min. Value-Added Time
INITIAL IMPROVEMENT CONCEPTSImprove reliability and changeovercapability of R1 and R12 machines.Reduce panel reject rate. Radius & Band 1 Manual Table, Rack 1 Jig-less Machine (R12), & 1 Jig Machine 1 Material (R1) Handler 2 Operators C/T = 8 min. C/T = N/A (average) C/O = N/A C/O = 2 to 30 Rel. = 100% min. Rel. = 80% to 100% 8 min.
6 Foot Long Custom Radius Panel Fabrication Trumpf Area Straight Panel Dept. Notch Panel & Punch Bend Add Z Brace(s) Material Raw (Trumpf & Stake (if required) Material Stock Machine) 14 Ga. Galvanized Steel (pre-cut 53-15/16” by 6’3-15/16” sheets) Radius & Band Label Rack Ship (R12 - Jigless Machine) WIP Stock 16 Different Panels with Various Cutouts Custom Panel Dept. Band Shear Material Raw & Cut Material Stock 11 Ga. Galvanized Steel Partially finished panels are stocked in (4’ by 8’ standard sheets) sixteen different configurations. Panels are finished to order. Work is done in three different areas as noted. 7/19/02
R12 OPERATION CAUSE AND EFFECT DIAGRAM Figure 1 Red = Most Important Causes SET UP VALUES CHANGE NO SPECS OPERATORS MEASUREMENT RADIUS TEMPLATE MAINTENANCE ACCURACY PANEL CHANGES SQUARENESS SETTINGS DIFFERENT SETUP PROCEDURES NO DIMENSIONAL SPECS OR TOLERANCES DIFFERENT OPEATOR MEASURES USED ON OPERATOR R1 & R12 PREFERENCE JUDGEMENT NO TRUST RADIUS ANGLES NO SPECS DONT MEET SEGMENT LENGTH CURVATURE TEMPLATE REQUIREMENTS AT MOUNTING SETUP WRONG DIGITAL READOUT (4 & 6 RADIUS PANEL WIDTH VARIES USELESS PANELS) POOR TRANSDUCER BAD 3 SUPPLIERS SHEET DIMENSIONS SELECTION USE OF AIR vs. VARY BEARINGS HYDRAULICS BANDS HAVE ON LOWER CAMBER FORMING INDEXES VARY TOOL GALVINIZED COATINGINDEXES VARY CRUDE INDEX INACCURATE DIFFERENT ON POOR MAINT SYSTEM DESIGN CUTTING PANELS LOCATION PANEL OF SPECIALTY PUNCHES NOTCH O.D.SPACING VARIES ON PANEL SURFACE FINISH RADIUS VARIES .09 IN BACKING SHOE VARIES SIDE TO SIDE DIFFERENT ADJ.USTMENT. STEEL PROPERTIES PANEL NOTCH POSITION VARIES NO SPECS 3 SUPPLIERSAIR CYLINDER PANELS CATCH AT OPPOSING LAST 2 BENDSHYDRAULIC IN HEAD AIR PRESSURE LOW WIDTH OF STEEL BETWEEN ASSEMBLY NOTCHES VARIES 3.75 to 4.0 in. YIELD STRENGTH VARIES CONVEYOR NOT ACROSS RADIUS MAINTENANCE EQUIPMENT ADJUSTED PLATE THICKNESS PUNCH NO SPECS VARIES HOT VS COLD ROLL LOCATION PANEL NOT VARIES SQUARE. wIDTH 3 SUPPLIERS TOO LARGE NO SPECS DIFFERENT EQUIPMENT USED MATERIAL COATING STRAIGHT PANEL (PANELS, STEEL) VARIES 3 SUPPLIERS SPECIALTY PUNCH
R12 Process Improvements Separate Process & Machine IssuesCommon setup procedureReplace measurement gagesEstablished process capabilityImplementing process controlsfor panel dimensionsWorking with suppliers tocontrol steel plate dimensionsCompleted identifiedmaintenance actionsImplementing PM program
Lean Automation In Progress Level 2Modification of RadiusBending Machine R12Operate as a cellRuns two product familiesChangeover in less than 10sec. within product familyChangeover in less than 5min. between productfamiliesCycle time reduced from 5min. to 1.8 min.
MACHINE MODIFICATIONS • Automated band cutting • Radius measurement on line • Servo driven adjustments from panel bar codes
Long Cycle Times - Low Productivity Electric Drill Assembly The Challenge40 sec. cycle time for2 parts. ManualAssembly3 different assemblies12 “machines” (Fourtooled for threeassemblies)24 operators on twoshiftsClient wanted onelarge machine
Lean Techniques Used Before AutomationProduct Family Value Stream MapCycle Time Reduction to Produce SmallBatches (Needed 4 sec. cycle timeSetup Time ReductionVisual Workplace
Lean Automation Automated Pin/CarrierAssembly System Level 3
AFTER Automated Pin/Carrier Assembly System The Results3 semi-automatedmachines vs 1 BIGONE! ($1mm savings)Each machine runs aproduct familyNo changeover3 sec. cycle time percarrier vs 40 sec.3 operators on 1 shiftvs 24Small batchesAcceptance in 1 day
Long Cycle Times - Low Productivity Bearing Assembly The ChallengeFunctional layoutAverage batch size of900 bearingsLong set ups of 9 hrsLarge amount of WIPLong lead times of 4to 9 weeks3 shift operation
Lean Techniques Used Before AutomationProduct Family Value Stream MapSet Up Time Reduction (quick changeover chuck)Cellular Manufacturing & LayoutBalance Flow & Cycle Time Reduction toProduce Small Batches
Next Step - Lean Automation Level 3 AUTOMATIC LOADER/UNLOADER Automated parts feeding & reduced handling Decouple machine cycle from operator Cell cycle time at 1 min. per bearing Setup time reduced to 2 to 4 hrs One shift operation Average batch size of 100 down to 10
Low Machine Output - Long Cycle Times Toy Parts Bagging Lines The ChallengeLines average 5 to 10bags per minuteFeeders not movablebetween linesLines operate differentlyOperators dedicated tolines. No one wants Line#7Large amounts of WIPClient wanted morefeeders & lines
Lean Techniques Used Before AutomationProcess Flow DiagramsSetup Time ReductionCycle Time Reduction to Produce SmallerOrdersVisual Workplace
After Lean Automation Level 3 Line Electrical and Controls Modifications Average 12 to 20 bags per minute vs 5 to 10 Feeders interchangeable between lines All lines have the same control system Control panels are the same Operators can run any line No new feeders required
Lean Automation Part 3 Rod Orienter for Improved Parts Feeding AFTERBEFORE
Lean Automation Part 3 Continuous ImprovementReconfiguration Changes to Bagging Two lines installed at Advent Design Changed bag configurations Slow-feeding, complex parts run on small bagging line Running common parts on bagging lines
Low Productivity - Complex Flow Stainless Dinner Ware The ChallengeFunctional layoutManual packing on 3shifts128 packersErgonomic problemsExtensive materialstaging
BEFORE Lean AutomationFunctional Layout with Manual Assembly
Recommended Automation Option (Coating with Possible Shrink Bundles)Wrapping Bag sealed on Shrink Wrap Shrink Wrap in Coating Strip WrappingOptions (1) three sides (1a) Individual (1b) Bundles (1c) (1d) (1e) Wrapping Existing New Shrink Coating Strip Wrap Strip WrapMachine (2) Machine Bagging Wrap Machine Machine Machine (2a) Machine Machine (2d) (perpendicular (parallel to (2b) (2c) to flow) (2e) flow) (2f)Transfer to Man. Robot Auto.storage (3) (3a) (3b) (3c) Storage (4) Existing Tray Redesigned Magazine Reel (4a) Tray (4b) (4c) (4d) Feeding(5) Manual Robotic Pick (Semi) Continuous / Feeding and Place Automated Tractor Type (5a) (5b) Magazine Feed and Cut (5c) (5d) Deck Bomb Bay (consumer Door Coated Pieces line only) End Loading Deck Coating Cartoning Labeling Case Insertion Palletizer Removal Machine Machine Packer (next slide) (with leaflet dispenser) SHIP
B r o c a d e C a r to n in g L in e O p tio n s T rays D is p la y D ecks C a r to n e r 5 PPS & S e r v in g S e ts R o b o tic R o b o tic R o b o tic R o b o tic R o b o tic P ic k & P la c e P ic k & P la c e P ic k & P la c e P ic k & P la c e P ic k & P la c e L a b e le r A u to m a te d C a r to n e r C a rto n e r C a r to n er S h r in k W r a p 2 0 P ie c e 4 0 P ie c e F o o d S e r v ic e L in e C ase P a ck er(In n er C a rto n ) L a b e le r L a b e le r L a b e le r L a b e le r C ase P a ck er (O u te r C a se P a ck er C a se P a ck er C a se P a ck er C a rto n ) L a b e le r L a b e le r L a b e le r L a b e le r P a lle tiz e r P a lle tiz e r
AFTER Lean Automation Levels 2 & 4Focused Product Family Automation with 59 operators vs 128
How Do Implement Lean Automation? Assess the operation using a Value Stream Map or PFDs (Product families & Production data) Evaluate the layout and flow Identify lean improvements & kaizens without automation Quality improvement TPM Point of Use
How Do Implement Lean Automation? Implement lean improvements using VSM plan Identify lean automation opportunities Reduce repetitive motion Reduce material handling Improve quality Design and implement lean automation Start the cycle again!
Benefits of Lean Automation SummaryLower cost automationSimpler implementation & faster acceptanceGreater flexibility for setup & material flowMaximizes operator utilizationBetter use of floor space
Where Do We Go From Here? Become knowledgeable of Lean Techniques (MEPs) Question automation assumptions Implement Lean solutions first…then automate Design engineers must think differently Get work force involved: Use of automation kaizens Establish a cycle of continuous improvement
Lean Automation Makes Us All Winners!Reduced lead times Reduced costsShorter cycle times Smaller batch sizes Reduced inventory Improved quality Greater flexibility
Bill Chesterson CEO Automation & Product Design Advent Design 215 781 0500 Ext: 203 Corporation firstname.lastname@example.org 925 Canal Street Tom Lawton President Bristol PA, 19007 Contract Manufacturing 215 781 0500 Ext: 202 (P) 215 781 0500 (F) 215 781 0508 email@example.com Frank Garcia Director Planning & Productivity 215 781 0500 Ext: 207 firstname.lastname@example.org