Designing Products for Cellular Assembly ADVENT DESIGN CORPORATION Bristol, PA
Presentation GoalsReview use of Six Sigma designmethodology & DMADVReview how design impactsassemblyReview coordination of designdevelopment and cellularassemblyTransition to the Six SigmaDMAIC cycleFollow a new product throughthe cellular design process
Cellular ManufacturingRe-arranging production operations to improve flow and to reduce handling and cycle timeGroup products into familiesEstablish the required cycle timeReview the production sequenceDesign the cell layoutAdjust work to balance flow How is this done during the design process ?
The DMADV Cycle Six Sigma In ActionDefine & AnalyzeMeasure • Concepts Verify Design•Breadboard • DFMEA • Prototype • Requirements System Design Tolerance Design Parameter Design
Design for Six Sigma Use of DMADVDefine: Project Plan & ID RisksMeasure: Voice of the Customer, Customer Requirements, Critical to QualityAnalyze: Concepts, Key Functions, Design reviewsDesign: High Level Elements, Design Requirements, FMEA, Design ReviewsVerify: Drawings, BOM, PDCA, Bread board, Prototype, Implementation Plan
Critical to Quality (CTQs) (CTQs)Convert Customer Needs into the Language of the Design TeamCTQs that affect cell design… Out of package start up reliability must be 100% Process fluid batches must satisfy all chemistry requirements No leaks in any fluid paths
Analyze: Design & Process Concepts REVISED BETA TECHNICAL CONCEPT CONCEPT APPROACHGenerate concepts The primary goals of the revised Beta design are to reduce unit cost and the size of the unit. This can be approached following three general paths: 1. Cost and size reduction of individual components without affecting the process: • Tank(s) • Valves • Pumps • Sensors • Controls packageCombine concepts 2. Cost and size reduction of individual components with some select process changes: • • Saline tank overflow fill of brine tank Saline flow regulation by pump motor speed control • Catholyte re-circulation through a small, positive displacement pump 3. Significant process changes that target eliminating components and reducing complexity: • Continuous process concepts that eliminate the saline tank.Select concepts Regardless of the path selected, new components, whether resourced or re-sized or newly selected due to a process change, must be fully tested. The revised beta will require a new review by NSF and UL.Evaluate concepts
Process Concepts Lead to Machine Design HYDROGEN EXHAUST CATHOLYTE OVERFLOW TROUGH RECIRC CHAMBER BRINE TANK (T1) STERILOX pH CHAMBER FR-4 CELLS AND PROBE AQUALOX TANK (T3) BRINE PUMP S (SPEED CONTROLLED) PP-1 SV-3 CATHOLYTE FR-2 RECIRC. PUMP .01 GPM DIAPHRAM TYPE P-2 FR-3 ? FR-1 .44 GPM IN-LINE M CONDUCTIVITY METER MV-1 CONTINUOUS PROCESS OUT M MV-3 P-3 PRECISION AQUALOX AUTO OUT PRESSURE WASTE / AQUALOX REGULATOR DRAIN PUMPS TANK P-3, P-4, P-4 AQUALOX MANUAL OUT (T4) P-5 P-5 M S WASTE / DRAIN MANIFOLD SV-1 M MV-4 WASTE / DRAIN OUT MV-2 S SV-2 EMERGENCY OVERFLOW OUT WASTE / DRAIN JETPUMP P-6 POTABLE WATER INSUMMARY OF DIFFERENCES COMPARED TO ALPHA PLUMBING SCHEMATIC (DWG 77818000):1. THE SALINE TANK AND SALINE PUMP HAVE BEEN ELIMINATED. IN THEIR PLACES ARE A PRESSUREREGULATOR TO ENSURE CONSISTENT FLOW.2. CLOSED LOOP CONTROL OF THE BRINE PUMP (USING FEEDBACK FROM AN IN-LINE CONDUCTIVITYMETER) MAY NOT BE REQUIRED IF THE PROCESS IS STABLE WITH OPEN LOOP CONTROL.3. CATHOLYTE RECIRULATION DRIVEN BY A SMALL MAG DRIVE PUMP.
Design Requirements & DFMEA The Beginning of Cellular Development DESIGN REQUIREM ENTS Product Failure Effects Component or Failure Mode Causes Controls (Consequence of Failure) Process Step G eneral 7784-0004 Left Sharp Edges Laceration hazard -to Advent Techs, Laser cut not Deburring to be included in Side Plate Customer Service Techs, End users. deburred as parts of manufacturing process. 1. M echanical: 7784-0008 Right manufacturing Part will be inspected a) O utside dim ensions Side Plate process during first article b) Target weight (dry): inspection. 7784-0005 Base Right angle face not Assembly of side and top cover Tolerance not Geometric tolerance c) Fasteners and hardware maintained at 90 deg pieces difficult and causes top to specified and specified on drawing. d) W herever practical, com ponent m ounting will be m odular buckle on assembly therefore not EVS will construct fixture to maintained in maintain perpendicularity O ptions will be investigated to sim plify connections to manufacture during manufacture. pum ps and valves in order to reduce com ponents and Perpendicularity will be fittings. inspected during first article inspection. e) Pum p type to be self-prim ing. 7784-0010 Top Radius from pressing Inability to use same parts f) All outlet ports from the unit shall be ½ FN PT. Cover of PEM stud prevents (washers/spacers) on each stud in 2. S afety: stnd offs to seat an assembly and between a) Identified hazards will be labeled and/or guarded. consistently assemblies. User interface inoperable-keypad to b) G uards that lim it access to identified hazardous mylar face distances vary and may com ponents will require tools to be rem oved or will be be too far or too close to operate. interlocked. Cracked Welds Customer/End user disapproval - dissatisfaction. c) C onstruction with respect to electrical safety: Operator interface cut Inability to use same parts Manufacturing to support (1) U nit will be constructed to m inim ize risk of liquids away bowed > 0.005" (washers/spacers) on each stud in piece so that bow is com ing in contact with hazardous voltages (60 an assembly and between minimized. assemblies. Amount of Bow will be volts peak or 50 V D C ). User interface inoperable-keypad to inspected upon first article (2) The electrical enclosure will be open ventilated. As mylar face distances vary and may inspection. a result, there are scenarios that could result in be too far or too close to operate. All Outside Covers Scratches/Sanding- Customer/End user disapproval - water entering the enclosure. The fram e, panels, swirl marks dissatisfaction. and enclosure openings will be designed to m inim ize this risk. P lum bing leaks and piping/fitting failures will be taken into account. 3. A m bient environm ental operating requirem ents (tem perature, hum idity, etc.) 4. C odes / regulations:Design Failure Modes & Effects Analysis a) C U L b) N SF – unit will be designed following guidance of N SF C riteria C -2 – 1983, S pecial Equipm ent and/or D evices.• Failure modes 5. Installation and service: (1) Features to facilitate testing, packaging, transport, installation and service of the unit: (2) Target service require m ents• Consequences of failures (3) The C ontroller firm ware shall be able to deduce and provide indication of m ost likely fault using the U nit C ontroller to enter into a diagnostic and test m ode using a portable com puter and serial port• Causes into the C ontroller. It shall also be possible to view a detailed log of the Unit processing state values at the last good operating state and at the point of• Controls a U nit shutdown.
Design ReviewsCrossfunctional teams ADVENT QS-00-03-010 Page 1 of 1 Rev. B 15-May-03 DESIGN CORP. FCG/drh CONTROLLED RECORD WHEN COMPLETED PROJECT MEETING FORMTeam discussions Meeting Date: Attendees: Company Name: Project Name: Major Items DiscussedCustomerparticipation Action Items Responsibility Projected Completion DateEngineers & Schedule Impact:assemblers Budget Impact: ADVENT DESIGN CORP. CONFIDENTIAL- ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
Use of 3 D Modeling Easy VisualizationFor AssemblyFor MaintenanceAccessFor Interference
Cellular Concepts Based on Design ConceptsSelection of Main AssembliesIdentification & Selection of SubassembliesUsing 3D ModelModular Assembly ConceptsIdentification of complex assemblies forfixturing
Basic Design Assembly Concept Electrical Front Plate Assembly AssemblySubassemblies Tank & Frame Subassemblies Supports Assemblies Waste Tank & Jet Pump Top Cover Assembly Assembly
Sequence of Cellular Assembly Steps Subassemblies & Main Assembly Sequencing Main Assembly Assemblies Listed inStep 1 2 3 Mount standoffs to plate and glue to inside mounting plate(77810004) to tank on side. Glue peristaltic pump plate to tank Glue PH probe plate to tank. Proposed Assembly Order 4 Remove interior mounting plate 5 Assemble motor to motor mounting plate( rotate head 90 deg) 6 Assemble motor assy to mounting plate 7 Assembly manual valves to tank 8 Assemble motor mounting plate to tank with stainless hardware 9 Assemble pump to frame 10 Assemble casters to frame with stainless hardware (2 locking 2 fixed) 11 Build waste manifold assembly (77810029) 12 Assemble waste manifold assembly to tank 13 Build Burkett 121/131 manifold.(77810032) 14 Assemble 121/131 manifold to tank 15 Build peristaltic pump assembly 16 Assemble peristaltic pump to tank 17 Build water in/Auqalox out valve assembly (77810031) 18 Build water In valve assembly (77810033) Includes Final Test & 19 Build Water in assembly (77810034) 20 Install 1/2" tubing 21 Make peristaltic pump tubing connections 22 Place tank onto frame 23 Glue tank-to-frame blocks and align 24 Install 1/2" tubing to catholyte chamber Packaging 25 Glue cell mount blocks and catholyte chamber 26 Build cell pack assembly 27 Mount cell pack to tank 28 Mount two pumps and make connections 29 Install T3 manual drain and bracket 30 Build lower valve assembly (77810030) 31 Install lower valve assembly 32 Install electrical wiring 33 Install Transformer plate 34 Install Electrical plate and 35 Install sensors and fix with tape 36 Brine door assembly w/ hinges, lock and knob 37 Install exhaust fans 1 in electrical box , 1 for exhaust 38 Mount duct on skin for exit 39 Install cabling for boards, sensors, valves Preliminary Quality 40 Pressure test unit and check for leaks 41 Fix leaks if found ( plan to build test fixtures prior to assembly to tank) 42 Adjust sensors as necessary 43 Fill tank with Brine 44 Test unit to finalized test plan 45 Make adjustments/recheck parts/ retest if problems occur Checks 46 Drain unit 47 Flush unit with water 48 Add external skins/ and top cover 49 Add 4 hose and nozzle 50 Polish unit, towel dry if necessary 51 Place labels in accordance with UL standards/ including serial # 52 Package unit, complete ISO paperwork/checkoff sheets 53 Ship unit to customer Preliminary Cycle times
Cellular Assembly Flow Concepts Main & Subassemblies Packaging/shipment Leak testing / Product testing (Test to Final Qualificaiton Test Plan) Electrical Main Product Assembly Make Mechanical connections Main Product Assembly (See Assembly sequencing) Add Cabling Mount Tank to Subassemblies Frame Add Sensors Tank Assembly Frame Assembly Water in 121&131 Waste Manifold Assembly Manifold Assembly (77810034) Assembly (77810029) 3 parts Add Electronics (77810032) 14 parts Assemble Pump Name to Frame 35 min Title 7 min Tank & Frame Machine Mainfold Water In/Aqualox Water In Valve in house out Assembly Assembly (77810031) (77810033) 7 parts 9 parts Assemble casters Glue Mount top 13 min to frame securing blocks 10 min Glue Couplings to Manifold 24 hrs 3 min Interior Plate Assembly Assemblies Assemble Pump to plate , rotate Machine Manifold head of pump (77810007) & add fitting Machine 15 min couplings Valves to Tank 6 min Glue 1.Peristaltic plate 2. PH mount 3. Catholite chamber 4. Cell Mounting Block to Tank 32 minSubassemblies Assembly Blocks to plates & Glue to tank
Main Assembly & Subassemblies• Cell Pack Subassembly• Cell Pack Fits to Front Plate Assembly• Front Plate Fits to Tank
Sub Assembly Flow Preliminary Cell Work Process Flow & Sequence Main Assembly Flow Mount components Shipping/Receiving to power supply plate Inspection/Parts Supply Sub # 1A #9 Base,Fans, Line cord Cell Power Supply Sterilox Tank Assembly Start traveler & Traveler checkbox # 1 assign serial number Test Unit #7 Inlet/Outlet Plate Assembly & TestTraveler checkbox # 2 Assemble on Carts Waste Tank/ Brine Tank Plumbing Assemble Salt Chute Front Plate Assembly Electrical Assembly / Jet Pump Assembly Close up & Pack Traveler checkbox # 4 #8 Traveler checkbox # 3 Traveler checkbox # 4 Traveler checkbox # 5 Assemble boards Peristaltic to plate Pump Assy Build subassemblies .
Assembly Drawings & BOM Based on Cellular Flow• Required parts• Assembly notes• Quality requirements & checks
Sub Assembly Flow Cellular Assembly Flow & Sequence Chart Main Assembly Flow Build Cell Sterilox tank Power Build Cell & sensor Supply Pack Supervisor OK 7756-1107 7756-1112 7756-1113 Receiving to ship Check Inspection/Parts Supply Sign travelerBuild Outlet Build Inlet Base,Fans, Line Cord assembly assembly Cell Power Supply7756-1126 7756-1109 Sterilox Tank Assembly Quality Assurance Package Unit 7756-1104 & 1128 Start traveler & Checklist Review Traveler initial box # 1 assign serial number Traveler initial box Sign traveler Inlet/Outlet Valve Assembly & Test Burn-In & Test Unit 7756-1125 Traveler initial box # 2 Add test data to traveler Plumbing & Waste Tank Assemble Salt Chute & Front Plate Assembly Electrical Assembly / Brine Tank Top Cover 7756-1110 7756-1119 / Jet Pump Assembly Close Up & UL Test Traveler initial box # 3 Traveler initial box # 4 7756-1100 7756-1111 Traveler initial box Labeling Traveler initial box # 5 7756-1102 Remote programming TubingBuild pH Chamber Build Catholyte Chamber port 7756-1129 7756-1115 7756-1114 7756-1118 Cover assembly U/I assembly 7756-1102 7756-1124 Peristaltic Build conductivity probe Assemble Boards Jet Pump & Brine Tank Pump 7756-1116 to Electric Plate Waste Tank assembly Assembly 7756-1117 assembly 7756-1106 7756-1108
Guidelines for Lean Cell DesignEach operation is ergonomically designedMachines are arranged in the sequence ofoperations needed to process the partAll operations needed to make the part in thecell and have process time < CT or Takt timeWork stations equipped with pokayokeswhich perform as self inspectionsAisle width is 4 ft.
Preliminary Cell LayoutFollows Cell Flow and Sequence Implementation Planning
Questions to Ask About the Value Stream Represented by the CellIs the operation valuable?Is the operation flexible?Is the operation cycle time within takt time?Are the operations balanced?
Verify BOM & Material Staging for the Cell Lead time Space Availability Reduce cell assembler material handling Level of Material Control (kanban)
Verify Quality System Final Test Work Station Checks Vendor Process Capabilities Documentation Build Customer Confidence!
Establish Assembler Knowledge & Training Requirements based on Cellular Design ID S uba sse mbly/Ope ra tion T a nk & Ba se Assy 1 Cell Subassembly 1 X T T 2 Cell Power Supply 1 T X T 3 Base and Tanks 1 X T T Inle t/Outle t a sse mbly 4 Inlet/Outlet Mounting Plate 2 - X T 5 Jet Pump Water in Assembly 2 - X T 6 Process Water In Assembly 2 - X T 7 Output Valve Assembly 2 X X T 8 Assemble/Test Inlet/Outlet Assembly 2 X X T Front P la te Assy 9 Catholyte Chamber Assembly 3 X X X X T 10 pH Probe Assembly 3 X X X X T 11 Conductivity Probe Assembly 3 X X X X T 12 Assemble/Test Front Plate 3 X X X X T E le ctrica l Assy 11 Remote Program Port Assembly 4 T T X X X 12 Electrical Plate Assembly 4 T X X X X X 13 Signal Transformer Assembly 4 T X X T 14 Peristaltic Pump Assembly 4 T X X 15 Sensor Calibration 4 T X X X 16 Cuno Jack Wiring/Soldering T X X T Electrical Component 17 4 T X X Wiring/Mounting P lumbing/ T ubing 18 Side Tubing Connections 5 X T Tubing Interconnection-Aqualox 18 5 X T Tank 18 Waste Chamber & Front Plate Tubing 5 X T 19 Assemble Tank & Pump to unit 5 X T 20 Jet Pump Assembly 6 X X 21 Waste Chamber Assembly 6 X X T 22 Brine Tank Assembly 6 X X T 23 T e st 7 T T X X 24 S a lt D oor 8 T X X 25 Ope ra tor Inte rfa ce / Cove rs 8 T 26 Ground P lug Asse mbly 8 T X 27 Fina l U nit Che ck 8 T T X X 28 Packing 9 T T X T T - Trainer for task X - Trained to perform task
Pre-Production Cellular Assembly Flow, Sequence & Quality Chart Sub Assembly Flow Main Assembly Flow Build Cell Sterilox tank Power Build Cell & sensor Supply Pack Supervisor OK 7756-1107 7756-1112 Workstation 7756-1113 Receiving to ship Check Quality Check Inspection/Parts Supply Sign traveler incoming Workstation receipts Quality Check Build Outlet Build Inlet Base,Fans, Line Cord assembly assembly Cell Power Supply 7756-1126 7756-1109 Sterilox Tank Assembly Quality Assurance Package Unit 7756-1104 & 1128 Start traveler & Checklist Review Traveler initial box # 1 assign serial number Traveler initial box Sign traveler CM-19-03- 010 Rev A Workstation Inlet/Outlet Valve Quality Assembly & Test Workstation Check Burn-In & Test Unit 7756-1125 Quality Check Label Check Traveler initial box # 2 Add test data to Final calibration & test traveler CM-19-01-002 Rev A Plumbing & Waste Tank Assemble Salt Chute & Front Plate Assembly Electrical Assembly / Brine Tank Top Cover Workstation 7756-1110 7756-1119 Close Up & UL Test / Jet Pump AssemblyQuality Check Traveler initial box # 3 Traveler initial box # 4 7756-1111 7756-1100 Traveler initial box Labeling Traveler initial box # 5 7756-1102 Assembly & Remote programming Workstation Workstation Tubing Quality Checklist port Quality Check Build pH Chamber Build Catholyte Chamber Quality 7756-1129 7756-1118 CM-19-03-012 7756-1115 7756-1114 Check Cover assembly U/I assembly 7756-1102 7756-1124 Peristaltic Build conductivity probe Assemble Boards Jet Pump & Brine Tank Pump 7756-1116 to Electric Plate Waste Tank assembly Assembly 7756-1117 assembly 7756-1106 7756-1108 Note: Green accepted labels will be applied to subassemblies at specified workstations when they pass the go/no-go test and inspection.
Transition from DMADV to DMAIC Pre-Production Build & EvaluationFitting Leak 59 1st 100 BuildAssembly DefectpH Control FailureConductivity Control Failure 37 33 18 70 Overall Defect Pareto Analysis FMEA using Final Test DataTank Leak 11 59 60 # of OccurrencesSV-7 no/too little flow 7 50 37 40 33 30 18 20 11 7Conductivity Probe 10 10pH ProbeCPU 1 5 0 Service History Fitting Leak Assembly pH Control Conductivity Tank Leak SV-7 no/too Defect little flow Failure Control FailureInoperable 20Incorrect assemblySensor not secureLoose Connections 13 7 5 1st 100 Build Assembly Defect Pareto Analysis Compare data to determine product &Damaged/malfunctioned component 5Sensor incorrect location 3 14 13 # of OccurrencesOther 3 12 10 cell design changes(can 8 7 6 5 5 4 3 3 2 0 establish ratios) Incorrect assembly Loose Connections Sensor incorrect Sensor not secure Damaged/malfunction Other ed component location Customer feedback
Pre-Production Cell Design & Flow to Eliminate the Eight WastesInventory (more than one piece flow)Overproduction (more or sooner than needed)Correction (inspection and rework)Material MovementWaitingMotionNon-Value Added ProcessingUnderutilized People
Changes to Cell Design from Quality & Service Data Reduce Defects & Cycle TimeChange design & method of connecting pipingfittings & pressure testing to eliminate leaks &reduce cycle timeSimplified final test procedure through improvedconductivity controlSimplified waste tank assemblyVendor to supply wire harnesses
After DMADV: the DMAIC Cycle Six Sigma In Action SDCA Measure & Plan-Do-Study-Act Define Analyze Teams Benchmark Analysis toolsSDCA ID variability Employee Involvement Improve Design of Control Plan-Do-Study-Act Experiments SDCA = Standardize-Do-Check-Adjust
Lessons LearnedSpecify everything:fasteners, tube lengths,etc. (or the assemblers willguess)Avoid tight fits. Watchstack up tolerancesUnderstand vendorcapabilitiesHave vendors supplycomplete subassembliesNeed to verify BOMs ateach workstationHave assemblersparticipate in prototypeassembly
Designing Products for Lean Cellular Assembly Methodology that maximizes value and achieves improvement in….. Customer satisfaction Operating costs Process speed(lead time) Inventory & invested capital Quality Operating flexibility
Contact Information Advent Design Corporation Canal Street and Jefferson Ave. Bristol, PA 19007 www.adventdesign.com 800-959-0310Frank Garcia, Director Engineering Services firstname.lastname@example.org Thomas A. Lawton, President Tom.email@example.com
Bill Chesterson CEO Automation & Product Design Advent Design 215 781 0500 Ext: 203 Corporation firstname.lastname@example.org 925 Canal Street Tom Lawton President Bristol PA, 19007 Contract Manufacturing 215 781 0500 Ext: 202 (P) 215 781 0500 (F) 215 781 0508 email@example.com Frank Garcia Director Planning & Productivity 215 781 0500 Ext: 207 firstname.lastname@example.org