Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

ACT Sicence Coffee - Alexandre Meurisse

2,123 views

Published on

Title: ''Solar 3D printing of lunar regolith "
Abstract: In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) has become in the last decades one of the most prominent approaches for the building of a settlement on the Moon. The use of local resources to reduce up-mass, cost and risk of mission is now an essential consideration in future exploration scenarios. Within this trend, lunar regolith, the loose layer of crushed rock covering the Moon surface, has a key role to play. Its high metallic oxides content could offer a sustainable way of producing oxygen and it could also be used as a construction material via, for instance, a sintering process. By means of solar concentration, microwaves or radial heating elements, this process would create solid building elements that could be used for roads, launch pads or habitats. Additive manufacturing (AM) technology, commonly called 3D-printing, is widely used on Earth. Building parts layer by layer allows the realization of complex shapes, does not create wasted material, and requires low post-processing work. The shift from casting to AM in aerospace and automotive industries shows the leading place given today to such technology. AM in microgravity has already been used in space since 2014 with a first polymer 3D printer on-board the International Space Station (ISS). Combining AM with ISRU offers a way of building-up a permanent lunar outpost with a limited amount of upload from Earth. Proof of concepts using lunar regolith as main building material were given with the contour crafting and D-shape approaches. Both technologies create a mixture similar to concrete with the lunar soil and terrestrial consumable materials. Making any large-scale construction is therefore dependent on Earth shipments which is not viable for long term missions. In this work we demonstrate how, only using concentrated sunlight, we can 3D print a solid material from lunar regolith.
In the DLR solar oven, a custom solar 3D printer was constructed capable of sintering building elements using only lunar regolith simulants and concentrated sunlight. The realisation of various shapes has proven the concept, opening the path to further improvements and more challenging constructions designs.

Published in: Science
  • My personal experience with research paper writing services was highly positive. I sent a request to ⇒ www.WritePaper.info ⇐ and found a writer within a few minutes. Because I had to move house and I literally didn’t have any time to sit on a computer for many hours every evening. Thankfully, the writer I chose followed my instructions to the letter. I know we can all write essays ourselves. For those in the same situation I was in, I recommend ⇒ www.WritePaper.info ⇐.
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here

ACT Sicence Coffee - Alexandre Meurisse

  1. 1. Solar 3D printing of lunar regolith Alexandre Meurisse April 12th 2018
  2. 2. The project aims at developing a 3D-printing process for fusing/melting/sintering model lunar soil material with the use of concentrated solar energy. The intended first result is a brick-sized model building block of a lunar base outer shell made from model material. The project shall study various parameters of the production process as well as of the model lunar soil in order to better understand and optimise the overall process also in view of application on the Moon. ESA-GSTP: 3D printing of a model building block for a lunar base outer shell (2015-2017) Background & Context The establishment of a permanent base on the lunar surface will require the construction of roads and habitats shielding from meteoroids and space radiation. In-Situ Resource Utilisation (ISRU) would be a solution to reduce up-mass, cost, and risk of such lunar mission. Solar sintering of lunar regolith
  3. 3. ESA-GSTP: 3D printing of a model building block for a lunar base outer shell Solar 3D printing of lunar regolith DLR-Cologne Solar Oven
  4. 4. Solar 3D printing of lunar regolith
  5. 5. Powder dispenser Solar 3D printing of lunar regolith
  6. 6. 12 3 4 Testbed 2D 190 mm 60 mm Thickness ≈1 mm Solar 3D printing of lunar regolith
  7. 7. SEM images of solar sintered JSC-1A
  8. 8. Xenon High-Flux Solar Simulator Steady light conditions Higher sintering quality Closer to the lunar environment Power density 1.2 MW/m² ESA-GSTP: 3D printing of a model building block for a lunar base outer shell
  9. 9. ESA-GSTP: 3D printing of a model building block for a lunar base outer shell Solar 3D printing of lunar regolith
  10. 10. Solar 3D printing of lunar regolith ESA-GSTP: 3D printing of a model building block for a lunar base outer shell
  11. 11. Solar 3D printing of lunar regolith
  12. 12. 150 mm 180 mm 200 mm 20 mm 50 mm http://www.esa.int/spaceinvideos/Videos/2017/03/3D- printing_moondust_bricks_with_focused_solar_heat Solar 3D printed parts ESA-GSTP: 3D printing of a model building block for a lunar base outer shell
  13. 13. COMSOL solar 3D printing simulations Model Loose
  14. 14. Solar 3D printing of lunar regolith ESA-GSTP: 3D printing of a model building block for a lunar base outer shell ESA-RAL AML: Particle size analyser
  15. 15. Differential scanning calorimetry
  16. 16. Temperature XRD
  17. 17. Traditional sintering Commun sintering parameters Pre-compaction 255MPa Sintering time 3h Heating rate 400°C/h JSC-1A sintered in air JSC-1A sintered in vacuum 25mm 20mm Simulant JSC-1A JSC-2A DNA FJS-1 NULHT Environement Air Vac. Air Vac. Air Vac. Air Vac. Air Vac. T(°C) 1125 1100 1130 1090 1100 1070 1125 1090 1200 1200
  18. 18. Scanning electron microscopy JSC-1A sintered under vacuum JSC-1A sintered in air
  19. 19. JSC-1A with ilmenite addition Ilmenite: FeTiO3
  20. 20. Radiation shielding HZE, High energy ions neutrons - “The purpose of shielding is to reduce exposure […] as low as reasonably achievable.” Ref: Turner, Ronald. "Solar particle events from a risk management perspective." IEEE transactions on plasma science 28.6 (2000): 2103-2113. Ref: C. Zeitlin, S. B. Guetersloh, L. H. Heilbronn, and J. Miller. Measurements of materials shielding properties with 1GeV/nuc 56Fe. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, 252(2):308–318, 2006.
  21. 21. ISIS Neutron and Muon Source RAL Space Harwell Science & Innovation Campus
  22. 22. ISIS spallation source CHIP-IR Atmospheric neutrons
  23. 23. Radiation shielding We count the neutrons with a silicon detector before and after the samples Samples Powder samples were placed in an aluminium tube and then wrapped in aluminium foil. Neutron flux Si Detector Si Detector Sample holder
  24. 24. Radiation shielding Experimental set-up We count the neutrons with a silicon detector before and after the samples A second device « ESA-SRAM » cross-checks the neutron counts Counter 1, 2 and 3 is the same counter with different thresholds
  25. 25. Radiation shielding Interaction Depth: X= ρ . 𝑑𝑟 Results We measured JSC-2A at powder state, traditionally sintered in vacuum and solar sintered. Also aluminium for comparison purposes. The results are compared with Monte-Carlo simulations The depth is in g.cm-2 as the material density is integrated by its thickness in order to plot all the results together. In principle, all JSC-2A samples should be aligned. ρ: 𝑚𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑎𝑙′ 𝑠 𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦
  26. 26. TRL 5 TRL 4 TRL 3 TRL 2 TRL 1 TRL 6 p. 26Funded by EU-Horizon 2020 Planning the next step • First solar 3D printing of lunar regolith • Mobile 3D printing head • Solar sintering in vacuum • Traditional sintering of lunar regolith * Building bigger elements in a relevant environment (vacuum, reduced gravity) * Mission scenario & Readiness * Improved mechanical properties * Material scientific understanding of material
  27. 27. p. 27Funded by EU-Horizon 2020 Solar sintering Mobile 3D printer • demonstrates printing operations in an operational setting closer in scale to one that would be used on the moon surface • comprised of a lightweight lens oriented in a 3-dimensional space • lens moves, as opposed to the sintering bed • allows the construction of larger building blocks reuses: feeder (FEMA) software components (NCGU)
  28. 28. p. 28Funded by EU-Horizon 2020 Solar sintering Mobile 3D printer Campaign II - Example of printed layer with enhanced resolution of mobile printing head
  29. 29. p. 29Funded by EU-Horizon 2020 Solar sintering Vacuum 3D printer • similar to the ambient 3D printing system • compatible with a vacuum chamber • modifications include: • reduction in capacity of the hopper (FEMA) • disposition and geometry of the auger conveyors (FEMA)
  30. 30. p. 30Funded by EU-Horizon 2020 Building Elements Interlocking building elements • Extensive geometric studies were undergone • geometries are adapted in an iterative process after each sintering campaign in coordination with the material tests Tetrahedron • self-centers during construction - eliminating the need for external scaffolding • has sharp edges and allows the construction of a completely sealed habitat envelope Optimization of the tetrahedron interlocking building element; final geometry pictured in version 13.
  31. 31. p. 31Funded by EU-Horizon 2020 Building Elements Lunar habitat envelope constructed through tetrahedron elements The interior can be outfitted with inflatable pressure-bearing volumes to create inhabitable zones
  32. 32. Thank you for your attention

×