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Best practices in
solving PNT threats
in critical defense
communications
infrastructure
3/14/23 | 11:55-11:10a (15 min) | Nino De Falcis, director, sync business development, Americas, Oscilloquartz, Adtran
WSTS, March 13-16, Vancouver, BC
2023 © ADTRAN, INC.
2
• PNT stands for Positioning, Navigation & Timing. Timing enables P & N
• Protect defense/industry critical infrastructure (CI) against PNT services disruption from frequent
GPS & network timing attacks – GPS, commercial or M-Code, is a single point of failure & can no
longer be considered as a sole source for reliable PNT services in CI
• Deploy resilient, multisource and assured PNT systems
• Target critical infrastructure sectors under national security threats
• Use published resilient PNT guidelines & standard in progress
• DHS Resilient PNT Conformance Framework
• NIST Cybersecurity Framework for PNT Profile
• IEEE P1952 Resilient PNT for User Equipment Standard working group
DRIVEN BY US FEDERAL EXECUTIVE ORDER 13905
The new resilient PNT mandate & standard
Power grids Finance Transportation
DoD
Communications
DoD Data centers
2023 © ADTRAN, INC.
3
Why GPS alternatives are a high priority?
Sen. King Urges Top General to Make GPS
Alternatives a “High Priority”
LI post by Dana A. Goward, March 10, 2023
Senator Video
King says:
• “I believe GPS will be one of the first
targets in a conflict”
• “Are we developing alternatives to space-
based resources?”
General James H. Dickenson, Commander
of US Space Command, confirmed:
• “…I know there's efforts underway…
looking to alternative PNT and how we
can develop those types of capabilities.”
C5ISR - Command, Control, Communications, Computers,
Cyber, Intelligence, Surveillance & Reconnaissance
DISA/DISN
Army
Air Force
Navy
Space Force
C5ISR
land
sea
air
Data Centers
space
The current C5ISR infrastructure supports the Army’s combat capabilities with reliable & real-time
information for tactical battlefield decisions. Secure, resilient & synchronized datacomms support critical land,
sea, air & space missions
network
Centralized
JADC2 - Joint All-Domain Command & Control
DoD/DISN
Army
Air Force
Navy
Space Force
land
sea
air
Neural Data
Centers
space
The next-gen JADC2 is an AI-powered unified network, connecting sensors & weapons from all branches of the
armed forces. Tactical networks will utilize 5G ORAN capabilities for ubiquitous high-speed connectivity, to move
massive data to connect distant sensors into a dense & resilient battlefield network. Low-latency & synchronized
datacomms will enable next-gen connected unmanned/autonomous weapons systems across all domains
network
Decentralized
• National/Core
• Regional
• Local
• Edge & Mobile
C5ISR
JADC2
AI-Powered
5G
5G 5G
5G
5G
5G
2023 © ADTRAN, INC.
6
UNDER REVIEW
What are the PNT threats & GPS vulnerabilities?
jamming
environmental
satellite
attacks
adjacent-band transmitters
spoofing
External GPS/GNSS level
RARE
PNT threats
COMMON
GPS/GNSS
degradation
causes
sat ground
station
space
debris
Figure 4.1 – Known GPS vulnerabilities to telecom (updated)
RARE
Cyberattacks
Internal network level
COMMON
NTP
PTP
/ /
client clock
boundary
clock
network
interference
GPS/GNSS
receiver
2023 © ADTRAN, INC.
7
Are GPS/PNT threats real?
Oct 27, 2022
Jan 21, 2022
Disruption “lasted for 33.5 hours. Wireline and cellular
providers had timing backup systems and were unaffected.
A radio system with no backups suffered, as did a simulcast
radio system that used rubidium backup clocks”
March 19, 2022
Oct 19, 2022
March 1, 2023
2023 © ADTRAN, INC.
8
TaaS+GBaaS solution for DoD’s zero-trust PNT strategy for all-domain branches
New PNT requirements
• DoD zero-trust strategy “never
trust, always verify”
• GPS cannot be a single point of
failure in critical PNT services
• Secure, resilient & assured PNT
with six 9’s reliability
• DHS Resilient PNT guideline
specifies the use of multiple
sources vs. user’s risk profile
• PNT capability with end-to-end
defense-in-depth
resiliency
Next-gen PNT applications
• Resilient & assured PNT for all combat domains (land, sea, air, space)
• Secure & synchronized multidomain tactical datacomms network
• Accurate timing for real-time DISN/C5ISR information network
• Synchronized JADC2 network powered with AI, 5G & neural DCs
• Precise timing for connected weapons/radars (event trigger/timestamp)
Resilient & assured PNT solution
• GPS TaaS+GBaaS (Time-as-a-Service + GPS-Backup-as-a-Service)
MIL network timing requirements, applications and solutions
• GPS/M-Code
• LEO PNT
• Sat surveillance
Next-gen JADC2 unified battlefield network
2023 © ADTRAN, INC.
9
ITU-T standard-based GPS TaaS+GBaaS solutions
PRTC (G.8272 A/B)
frequency + phase
GPS (or Mcode)
Grandmaster time server
PRTC A accuracy: 100ns | PRTC B: 40ns
ePRTC* (G.8272.1)
frequency + phase
Zero-trust multisource
validator + combiner
Grandmaster time server
sync
network
ePRTC accuracy: 30ns
sync
network
NTP PTP NTP PTP
PTP PTP
Cesium (Cs) backup
TaaS
GPS
Other backup sources
GBaaS
*enhanced
Primary
Reference
Time Clock
PTP / NIST/ eLoran / LEO PNT
Cs
backup
1 2
2023 © ADTRAN, INC.
10
BITS
10 MHz
SyncE
PTP/NTP
IRIG
PPS
PPS+TOD
ePRTC solution configuration and performance
GPS/M-code
receiver
GPS
antenna
Zero-trust
multisource validator
+ combiner
GPS receiver and Zero-trust multisource validator + combiner
are integrated into the Grandmaster
Other backup sources
Time/Phase holdover if GPS goes down
SePRTC*: 100ns over typ. 55 days
1µs over typ. 4 months
14 days
Time error
100ns
30ns
Short-term GPS backup holdover performance
Long-term GPS backup holdover performance
35ns
Masks
Optical Cesium
clock backup
Grandmaster
time server
65ns
45ns
ePRTC
ePRTC+
SePRTC
*Super ePRTC solution
GPS/
Mcode
GBaaS
TaaS
PTP / NIST/ eLoran / LEO PNT
ePRTC (G.8272.1)
(functional diagram)
2023 © ADTRAN, INC.
11
WAN network
Networkwide
Sync Mgmt
packet LAN network
GPS TaaS+GBaaS architecture in Hi-Rel MIL networks
MIL Network Node
Site-1
PTP failover backup
cross reference monitoring
2
5
GM-2*
NTP
(ms accuracy)
*GPS/Mcode NTP/PTP
Grandmaster Time Server with
“zero-trust multisource validator
+ combiner” solution
GM-1*
Cesium, PTP, NIST,
eLoran, LEO PNT, etc.
GPS/
Mcode
7
PTP PTP
(sub-µs accuracy)
PNT backup
sources
Servers/VMs running critical JADC2 battlefield applications supported by zero-trust PNT services
AI-based timing
management system
3
4
PTP
1
2
MIL Data Center
Site-2
6
Receiver
2023 © ADTRAN, INC.
12
Managing GPS TaaS+GBaaS architecture in Hi-Rel MIL networks
AI-based timing management system with multilevel fault-tolerance for
end-to-end control, visibility and six 9’s reliability
geolocation Site-1 & Site-2
PTP backup monitoring
from GM-2 to GM-1
timing chain alert with Cesium/
PTP backup rearrangements
GM-1 alert with Cesium backup
timing topology with
Cesium/PTP backup
GPS attack
vendor-agnostic
analytics for GPS
assurance
GM-2 alert with PTP backup
from GM-1
Site-2
Site-1
Site-2
Site-1
GM-2
GM-2 GM-1
PTP
ePRTC
Site-1
Site-2
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Networkwide
Sync Mgmt
PTP
PTP
backup
Cesium
backup
Thank you!

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Best practices in solving PNT threats in critical defense communications infrastructure

  • 1. Best practices in solving PNT threats in critical defense communications infrastructure 3/14/23 | 11:55-11:10a (15 min) | Nino De Falcis, director, sync business development, Americas, Oscilloquartz, Adtran WSTS, March 13-16, Vancouver, BC
  • 2. 2023 © ADTRAN, INC. 2 • PNT stands for Positioning, Navigation & Timing. Timing enables P & N • Protect defense/industry critical infrastructure (CI) against PNT services disruption from frequent GPS & network timing attacks – GPS, commercial or M-Code, is a single point of failure & can no longer be considered as a sole source for reliable PNT services in CI • Deploy resilient, multisource and assured PNT systems • Target critical infrastructure sectors under national security threats • Use published resilient PNT guidelines & standard in progress • DHS Resilient PNT Conformance Framework • NIST Cybersecurity Framework for PNT Profile • IEEE P1952 Resilient PNT for User Equipment Standard working group DRIVEN BY US FEDERAL EXECUTIVE ORDER 13905 The new resilient PNT mandate & standard Power grids Finance Transportation DoD Communications DoD Data centers
  • 3. 2023 © ADTRAN, INC. 3 Why GPS alternatives are a high priority? Sen. King Urges Top General to Make GPS Alternatives a “High Priority” LI post by Dana A. Goward, March 10, 2023 Senator Video King says: • “I believe GPS will be one of the first targets in a conflict” • “Are we developing alternatives to space- based resources?” General James H. Dickenson, Commander of US Space Command, confirmed: • “…I know there's efforts underway… looking to alternative PNT and how we can develop those types of capabilities.”
  • 4. C5ISR - Command, Control, Communications, Computers, Cyber, Intelligence, Surveillance & Reconnaissance DISA/DISN Army Air Force Navy Space Force C5ISR land sea air Data Centers space The current C5ISR infrastructure supports the Army’s combat capabilities with reliable & real-time information for tactical battlefield decisions. Secure, resilient & synchronized datacomms support critical land, sea, air & space missions network Centralized
  • 5. JADC2 - Joint All-Domain Command & Control DoD/DISN Army Air Force Navy Space Force land sea air Neural Data Centers space The next-gen JADC2 is an AI-powered unified network, connecting sensors & weapons from all branches of the armed forces. Tactical networks will utilize 5G ORAN capabilities for ubiquitous high-speed connectivity, to move massive data to connect distant sensors into a dense & resilient battlefield network. Low-latency & synchronized datacomms will enable next-gen connected unmanned/autonomous weapons systems across all domains network Decentralized • National/Core • Regional • Local • Edge & Mobile C5ISR JADC2 AI-Powered 5G 5G 5G 5G 5G 5G
  • 6. 2023 © ADTRAN, INC. 6 UNDER REVIEW What are the PNT threats & GPS vulnerabilities? jamming environmental satellite attacks adjacent-band transmitters spoofing External GPS/GNSS level RARE PNT threats COMMON GPS/GNSS degradation causes sat ground station space debris Figure 4.1 – Known GPS vulnerabilities to telecom (updated) RARE Cyberattacks Internal network level COMMON NTP PTP / / client clock boundary clock network interference GPS/GNSS receiver
  • 7. 2023 © ADTRAN, INC. 7 Are GPS/PNT threats real? Oct 27, 2022 Jan 21, 2022 Disruption “lasted for 33.5 hours. Wireline and cellular providers had timing backup systems and were unaffected. A radio system with no backups suffered, as did a simulcast radio system that used rubidium backup clocks” March 19, 2022 Oct 19, 2022 March 1, 2023
  • 8. 2023 © ADTRAN, INC. 8 TaaS+GBaaS solution for DoD’s zero-trust PNT strategy for all-domain branches New PNT requirements • DoD zero-trust strategy “never trust, always verify” • GPS cannot be a single point of failure in critical PNT services • Secure, resilient & assured PNT with six 9’s reliability • DHS Resilient PNT guideline specifies the use of multiple sources vs. user’s risk profile • PNT capability with end-to-end defense-in-depth resiliency Next-gen PNT applications • Resilient & assured PNT for all combat domains (land, sea, air, space) • Secure & synchronized multidomain tactical datacomms network • Accurate timing for real-time DISN/C5ISR information network • Synchronized JADC2 network powered with AI, 5G & neural DCs • Precise timing for connected weapons/radars (event trigger/timestamp) Resilient & assured PNT solution • GPS TaaS+GBaaS (Time-as-a-Service + GPS-Backup-as-a-Service) MIL network timing requirements, applications and solutions • GPS/M-Code • LEO PNT • Sat surveillance Next-gen JADC2 unified battlefield network
  • 9. 2023 © ADTRAN, INC. 9 ITU-T standard-based GPS TaaS+GBaaS solutions PRTC (G.8272 A/B) frequency + phase GPS (or Mcode) Grandmaster time server PRTC A accuracy: 100ns | PRTC B: 40ns ePRTC* (G.8272.1) frequency + phase Zero-trust multisource validator + combiner Grandmaster time server sync network ePRTC accuracy: 30ns sync network NTP PTP NTP PTP PTP PTP Cesium (Cs) backup TaaS GPS Other backup sources GBaaS *enhanced Primary Reference Time Clock PTP / NIST/ eLoran / LEO PNT Cs backup 1 2
  • 10. 2023 © ADTRAN, INC. 10 BITS 10 MHz SyncE PTP/NTP IRIG PPS PPS+TOD ePRTC solution configuration and performance GPS/M-code receiver GPS antenna Zero-trust multisource validator + combiner GPS receiver and Zero-trust multisource validator + combiner are integrated into the Grandmaster Other backup sources Time/Phase holdover if GPS goes down SePRTC*: 100ns over typ. 55 days 1µs over typ. 4 months 14 days Time error 100ns 30ns Short-term GPS backup holdover performance Long-term GPS backup holdover performance 35ns Masks Optical Cesium clock backup Grandmaster time server 65ns 45ns ePRTC ePRTC+ SePRTC *Super ePRTC solution GPS/ Mcode GBaaS TaaS PTP / NIST/ eLoran / LEO PNT ePRTC (G.8272.1) (functional diagram)
  • 11. 2023 © ADTRAN, INC. 11 WAN network Networkwide Sync Mgmt packet LAN network GPS TaaS+GBaaS architecture in Hi-Rel MIL networks MIL Network Node Site-1 PTP failover backup cross reference monitoring 2 5 GM-2* NTP (ms accuracy) *GPS/Mcode NTP/PTP Grandmaster Time Server with “zero-trust multisource validator + combiner” solution GM-1* Cesium, PTP, NIST, eLoran, LEO PNT, etc. GPS/ Mcode 7 PTP PTP (sub-µs accuracy) PNT backup sources Servers/VMs running critical JADC2 battlefield applications supported by zero-trust PNT services AI-based timing management system 3 4 PTP 1 2 MIL Data Center Site-2 6 Receiver
  • 12. 2023 © ADTRAN, INC. 12 Managing GPS TaaS+GBaaS architecture in Hi-Rel MIL networks AI-based timing management system with multilevel fault-tolerance for end-to-end control, visibility and six 9’s reliability geolocation Site-1 & Site-2 PTP backup monitoring from GM-2 to GM-1 timing chain alert with Cesium/ PTP backup rearrangements GM-1 alert with Cesium backup timing topology with Cesium/PTP backup GPS attack vendor-agnostic analytics for GPS assurance GM-2 alert with PTP backup from GM-1 Site-2 Site-1 Site-2 Site-1 GM-2 GM-2 GM-1 PTP ePRTC Site-1 Site-2 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Networkwide Sync Mgmt PTP PTP backup Cesium backup