Representation, identity and
      culture in global cities
                                                       Global ...
Presentation Outline
                                     Context: Intro

   Transnational Networks &         Multicultura...
Wednesday, November 18, 2009
Introduction
      “Culture is one of the
      two or three most
      complicated words in
      the English language.”
...
ˈkəl ch ər: the arts and other manifestations of
      human intellectual achievement regarded collectively


           C...
Who are we anyway?
          “Identity choices are
          made by individuals as
          they respond to social,
    ...
Types of
      Culture
            pop culture
            high culture
            free culture
            tree culture
...
Authors: clip/video to music
          Leonie Sandercock
          Ulf Hannerz (Swedish, Sociologist)
          Anthony D....
Ulf Hannerz
     White male, Swedish
     Professor of Sociology, Stockholm University, Sweden
     Sociologist

     Rese...
Back In Time, video



          http://www.torontourbanfilmfestival.com/films/back-time




Wednesday, November 18, 2009
Art Gallery of Metropolitan
      Moments - 3 exhibits
      The global city is “a fluidly demarcated global urban
      fie...
Exhibit I
      Vivaldi’s violin VS.
      MacIsaac’s fiddle ~
      16th century-timeless




Wednesday, November 18, 2009
Transnational Networks &
              Production
                                         Flows of Culture
              ...
Flows of Culture ~ Ulf Hannerz

     1) Corporate elites (managerial
     and entrepreneurial class)        “Market”: cult...
“What they have in common is the fact they are in one way or other transnational;
    the people involved are physica%y pr...
Cultural Consciousness
     ~ Steven Flusty


         “We carry our worlds with us, refit them to the cities in which we
 ...
Wednesday, November 18, 2009
“Commerce bedecked itself irrevocably in
          Culture, and to this day the contemporary world
          city is witho...
Internal
            Diversity
                     Inhibitions
                      Restraints
                    Socia...
Politics of difference (hybrid identities)

         Subcultures




Wednesday, November 18, 2009
http://losangeles.cacophony.org/consume.htm




                 Commodity Clusters
Wednesday, November 18, 2009
The cultural market-place
     (Hannerz, p. 316)


         Presence of expressive specialists (intellectual/aesthetic sti...
Wednesday, November 18, 2009
Materiality
                    wood vs. metal
                 nature vs. technology


                      Cyborg citie...
Globalization
Wednesday, November 18, 2009
Subcultural, transnational communities

          Centre-periphery relationships (Hannerz, p. 318)

               “The wo...
Metapolis rising


         “The metapolis, then, is not simply a world city system but system of
         world city syst...
Perspectives
Wednesday, November 18, 2009
Reactions to diversity (Hannerz, p.315)
                     centre vs. periphery


          Refunctionalizing (Hannerz, ...
Wednesday, November 18, 2009
Wednesday, November 18, 2009
"I Will Not Lose" ~ a Haitian
              Identity poem by Wilkine Brutus

     http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=o6p5npKLI...
Cultural Interactions
Wednesday, November 18, 2009
Cultural Convergences
Wednesday, November 18, 2009
Xenophobia = Fear of the “other”

         Xenophilia = an affection for unknown/foreign objects or human
         beings
...
“Foundations of resistance (for being Indigenous) include: strong families, grounding
     in community, connection to lan...
Polarization



         Economic

         Social

         Spatial




Wednesday, November 18, 2009
Economic Injustice
Wednesday, November 18, 2009
Social
        Polarization
                       Stereotypes
                    Class structures
             Segregati...
Spatial Polarization
                               Scalar injustices
                                    Access


Wednesd...
“Suburbia is where the developer bu%dozes out the trees
                          then names the streets a'er them.”




 ...
Wednesday, November 18, 2009
Wednesday, November 18, 2009
Wednesday, November 18, 2009
Wednesday, November 18, 2009
Highlights
         Hannerz:

                inhabitants of urban spaces are active co-producers and participant
        ...
“Which sha% it [the world city] be?
     A place where difference divides,
      privilege is conserved, and the
       dev...
Exhibit II
      The Tim Horton’s
      Phenomenon - on
      consignment ~
      1964-timeless




Wednesday, November 18...
Multiculturalism and
                         Belonging

                                                    

           ...
Cosmopolitanism and Global
                    Identity
     • Cosmopolitanism: vagueness of
       definition
     
 

   ...
Cosmopolitanism and Global
                    Identity

     • As liberal, western values



     • Identity Politics



...
Canada
     • Global City: Toronto

     • Canadian Identity as global identity

     • Tim Hortons- Symbol of Canada

   ...
Global Identity and Class
                     Struggle

     Hegemony of Multiculturalism

     Bourgeois Urbanism




We...
Migration
     • Migration of People



     • Migration of Ideas



     • Global Culture


Wednesday, November 18, 2009
Modernism and Post-
                       modernism
     • Ulrich Beck


     • Challenge of cultural relativism


     •...
Exhibit III
      Hipsters, holsters,
      whores and homies ~
      20,000 BCE-timeless




Wednesday, November 18, 2009
CONSUMING GLOBAL
                                       CULTURES


Wednesday, November 18, 2009
Krätke’s


    Global
    Media
    Cities:
    Major
    Nodes of
    Globalizing
    Culture

    Photo Credits:
    htt...
“the positions in societies characterisedindividuals competing
       for
           market-related self-stylization of
  ...
“incorporates different sectors and functions
           as agents of information, influence and
                          ...
“Seek a ‘subcultural’ urban district they can
     use as an extended stage for self-portrayal.”
Wednesday, November 18, 2...
Wednesday, November 18, 2009
“a flourishing
     creative and
     knowledge economy
     is based on place-
     specific socio-
     cultural milieus
 ...
“Islands of
     renewal in
     seas of
     decay.”
     Urban Pioneers .




Wednesday, November 18, 2009
Critical
     Infrastructure




     Hipster Olympics: youtube.com/
     watch?v=kAO4EVMlpwM




Wednesday, November 18, ...
http://highrise.nfb.ca

Wednesday, November 18, 2009
Art Gallery of Metropolitan
      Moments ~ is now open for discussion...




Wednesday, November 18, 2009
Quotes for discussion
          “Identities are (re)constructed at multiple levels - global
          scale, state, commun...
Discussion Questions
          Given the constant change in urban multiculturalism, how
          do these various compone...
Wednesday, November 18, 2009
The Location
       of Culture
          Homi Bhabha (1994), Routledge




Wednesday, November 18, 2009
References
          Towards cosmopolis: a postmodern agenda (2002) - Leonie Sandercock

          The cultural role of wo...
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Global Cities Culture November 23

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Global Cities Culture November 23

  1. 1. Representation, identity and culture in global cities Global Cities - November 23, 2009 Adrina Ambrosii, Hani El Masry, Kerry Girvan, Chiara Camponeschi Wednesday, November 18, 2009
  2. 2. Presentation Outline Context: Intro Transnational Networks & Multiculturalism & Consuming Global Cultures Production Belonging Leads: Adrina & Hani Lead: Kerry Lead: Chiara Culture flows Cosmopolis Media production centers Cultural consciousness Global identity Technology, internet Perspectives Post-modernism Creative City Social & spatial polarization Global culture Subcultures Postcolonialism Ulf Hannerz Steven Flusty Leonie Sandercock Stefan Krätke Anthony D. King Ute Lehrer Nihal Perera DISCUSSION: Debate ? Wednesday, November 18, 2009
  3. 3. Wednesday, November 18, 2009
  4. 4. Introduction “Culture is one of the two or three most complicated words in the English language.” ~ Raymond Williams, 1976 -materialproduction -symbolic systems -sociological differences Wednesday, November 18, 2009
  5. 5. ˈkəl ch ər: the arts and other manifestations of human intellectual achievement regarded collectively Civilization Language Nationalism Religion Ethnicity Politics Gender Literature Beauty Theatre Art History Music Heritage Identity Traditions Wednesday, November 18, 2009
  6. 6. Who are we anyway? “Identity choices are made by individuals as they respond to social, economic and political influences around them” (Taiaiake and Corntassel, 2005). Is it possible to choose our own identity? Wednesday, November 18, 2009
  7. 7. Types of Culture pop culture high culture free culture tree culture urban culture rural culture Wednesday, November 18, 2009
  8. 8. Authors: clip/video to music Leonie Sandercock Ulf Hannerz (Swedish, Sociologist) Anthony D. King Stefan Krätke Ute Lehrer Nihal Perera Steven Flusty (American, Geographer) Wednesday, November 18, 2009
  9. 9. Ulf Hannerz White male, Swedish Professor of Sociology, Stockholm University, Sweden Sociologist Research: - urban societies - local media cultures - transnational cultural processes - globalization Most known for: - His works Soulslide and Exploring the City are classic books in the area of urban anthropology. - In 2000, Hannerz delivered the Lewis Henry Morgan Lecture at the University of Rochester, considered by many to be the most important annual lecture series in the field of Anthropology. Steven Flusty White male, American Professor of Geography, University of Toronto Geographer Research: Global formation 9 Wednesday, November 18, 2009
  10. 10. Back In Time, video http://www.torontourbanfilmfestival.com/films/back-time Wednesday, November 18, 2009
  11. 11. Art Gallery of Metropolitan Moments - 3 exhibits The global city is “a fluidly demarcated global urban field upon which we all wrestle with the very definitions of alien and native, foreign and domestic, cosmopolitanism and locality.” ~ Steven Flusty Wednesday, November 18, 2009
  12. 12. Exhibit I Vivaldi’s violin VS. MacIsaac’s fiddle ~ 16th century-timeless Wednesday, November 18, 2009
  13. 13. Transnational Networks & Production Flows of Culture Cultural Consciousness (internal diversity, identity) Commodity clusters (materiality) Globalization Perspectives Cultural Interactions Cultural Convergences Polarization (economic, social, spatial) Wednesday, November 18, 2009
  14. 14. Flows of Culture ~ Ulf Hannerz 1) Corporate elites (managerial and entrepreneurial class) “Market”: culture flow as buyer and seller 2) Third world migrant populations “Form-of-life”: free reciprocal cultural 3) Cultural producers/ exchanges consumers 4) Tourists - turnover Wednesday, November 18, 2009
  15. 15. “What they have in common is the fact they are in one way or other transnational; the people involved are physica%y present in the world cities for some larger or sma%er parts of their lives, but they also have strong ties to some other place in the world...Without these people, in one conste%ation or other, however, these cities would hardly have their global character” (Hannerz, p. 314). Wednesday, November 18, 2009
  16. 16. Cultural Consciousness ~ Steven Flusty “We carry our worlds with us, refit them to the cities in which we find ourselves, and transmute the city as best we can to accommodate our worlds” (Flusty, p. 351). Icons, idols and representations World city systems/citydom = metapolis Wednesday, November 18, 2009
  17. 17. Wednesday, November 18, 2009
  18. 18. “Commerce bedecked itself irrevocably in Culture, and to this day the contemporary world city is without a soul in the absence of the art museum and the concert hall - without the cultural capital, the intellectual capital at the helm of fiduciary capital will not come” (Flusty, p. 348) Wednesday, November 18, 2009
  19. 19. Internal Diversity Inhibitions Restraints Social stigma Social Pressure Conformity Freedom of choice? Individual Co%ective Wednesday, November 18, 2009
  20. 20. Politics of difference (hybrid identities) Subcultures Wednesday, November 18, 2009
  21. 21. http://losangeles.cacophony.org/consume.htm Commodity Clusters Wednesday, November 18, 2009
  22. 22. The cultural market-place (Hannerz, p. 316) Presence of expressive specialists (intellectual/aesthetic stimulation) “local potentialities of world city interrelations” (ie. where it all happens). 3 phases in the “career of cultural commodities”: Meanings and meaningful form in subcultural communities Communities at large Wider market for more agreeable consumption Wednesday, November 18, 2009
  23. 23. Wednesday, November 18, 2009
  24. 24. Materiality wood vs. metal nature vs. technology Cyborg cities Wednesday, November 18, 2009
  25. 25. Globalization Wednesday, November 18, 2009
  26. 26. Subcultural, transnational communities Centre-periphery relationships (Hannerz, p. 318) “The world cities are no doubt still frequently the points of origin of global cultural flow, but they also function as points of global cultural brokerage” (Hannerz, p.318) Wednesday, November 18, 2009
  27. 27. Metapolis rising “The metapolis, then, is not simply a world city system but system of world city systems, and at these systems’ proliferating intersections divergent cities manifest within one another across wide distances” (Flusty, p. 350). Wednesday, November 18, 2009
  28. 28. Perspectives Wednesday, November 18, 2009
  29. 29. Reactions to diversity (Hannerz, p.315) centre vs. periphery Refunctionalizing (Hannerz, p.315) tourists “typifying” everything Inseparability of sense from place (Hannerz, p.316) spectacle is part of local setting Wednesday, November 18, 2009
  30. 30. Wednesday, November 18, 2009
  31. 31. Wednesday, November 18, 2009
  32. 32. "I Will Not Lose" ~ a Haitian Identity poem by Wilkine Brutus http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=o6p5npKLIfY&feature=player_embedded Wednesday, November 18, 2009
  33. 33. Cultural Interactions Wednesday, November 18, 2009
  34. 34. Cultural Convergences Wednesday, November 18, 2009
  35. 35. Xenophobia = Fear of the “other” Xenophilia = an affection for unknown/foreign objects or human beings Wednesday, November 18, 2009
  36. 36. “Foundations of resistance (for being Indigenous) include: strong families, grounding in community, connection to land, language, storyte%ing and spirituality” (Taiaiake and Corntassel, 2005). Wednesday, November 18, 2009
  37. 37. Polarization Economic Social Spatial Wednesday, November 18, 2009
  38. 38. Economic Injustice Wednesday, November 18, 2009
  39. 39. Social Polarization Stereotypes Class structures Segregation within the city Mobility between cities Wednesday, November 18, 2009
  40. 40. Spatial Polarization Scalar injustices Access Wednesday, November 18, 2009
  41. 41. “Suburbia is where the developer bu%dozes out the trees then names the streets a'er them.” Scalar injustices Access Wednesday, November 18, 2009
  42. 42. Wednesday, November 18, 2009
  43. 43. Wednesday, November 18, 2009
  44. 44. Wednesday, November 18, 2009
  45. 45. Wednesday, November 18, 2009
  46. 46. Highlights Hannerz: inhabitants of urban spaces are active co-producers and participant observers in the process of cultural production culture is not fixed within dominant societal institutions socio-cultural formations in world-cities do not represent linear outcomes of abstract socioeconomic forces and hierarchical power relationships. Flusty: icons, idols and representations of cultural consciousness Xenophilia, appreciation for the unfamiliar Wednesday, November 18, 2009
  47. 47. “Which sha% it [the world city] be? A place where difference divides, privilege is conserved, and the devil take the hindmost? Or a place where the otherness engages, disparity is dismantled, and the production of a metapolitan culture becomes a common, conscious project? We culture the world city, so the choice is ours” (Flusty, p. 352). Wednesday, November 18, 2009
  48. 48. Exhibit II The Tim Horton’s Phenomenon - on consignment ~ 1964-timeless Wednesday, November 18, 2009
  49. 49. Multiculturalism and Belonging      Cosmopolitanism and Global Identity     Capitalism- global identity and class struggle     Migration     Modernism and Post-modernism   Wednesday, November 18, 2009
  50. 50. Cosmopolitanism and Global Identity • Cosmopolitanism: vagueness of definition 1) ideal 2) quantifiable; as analytic tool Wednesday, November 18, 2009
  51. 51. Cosmopolitanism and Global Identity • As liberal, western values • Identity Politics Wednesday, November 18, 2009
  52. 52. Canada • Global City: Toronto • Canadian Identity as global identity • Tim Hortons- Symbol of Canada • Who’s Canada, who’s values? Wednesday, November 18, 2009
  53. 53. Global Identity and Class Struggle Hegemony of Multiculturalism Bourgeois Urbanism Wednesday, November 18, 2009
  54. 54. Migration • Migration of People • Migration of Ideas • Global Culture Wednesday, November 18, 2009
  55. 55. Modernism and Post- modernism • Ulrich Beck • Challenge of cultural relativism • Belonging and Solidarity What do you think? Wednesday, November 18, 2009
  56. 56. Exhibit III Hipsters, holsters, whores and homies ~ 20,000 BCE-timeless Wednesday, November 18, 2009
  57. 57. CONSUMING GLOBAL CULTURES Wednesday, November 18, 2009
  58. 58. Krätke’s Global Media Cities: Major Nodes of Globalizing Culture Photo Credits: http://bit.ly/3dTnWI Wednesday, November 18, 2009
  59. 59. “the positions in societies characterisedindividuals competing for market-related self-stylization of by the all-embracing mediatisation of social communication, consumption patterns and lifestyles. ” Wednesday, November 18, 2009
  60. 60. “incorporates different sectors and functions as agents of information, influence and persuasion” Wednesday, November 18, 2009
  61. 61. “Seek a ‘subcultural’ urban district they can use as an extended stage for self-portrayal.” Wednesday, November 18, 2009
  62. 62. Wednesday, November 18, 2009
  63. 63. “a flourishing creative and knowledge economy is based on place- specific socio- cultural milieus which positively combine with the dynamics of cluster formation within the urban economic space. ” Wednesday, November 18, 2009
  64. 64. “Islands of renewal in seas of decay.” Urban Pioneers . Wednesday, November 18, 2009
  65. 65. Critical Infrastructure Hipster Olympics: youtube.com/ watch?v=kAO4EVMlpwM Wednesday, November 18, 2009
  66. 66. http://highrise.nfb.ca Wednesday, November 18, 2009
  67. 67. Art Gallery of Metropolitan Moments ~ is now open for discussion... Wednesday, November 18, 2009
  68. 68. Quotes for discussion “Identities are (re)constructed at multiple levels - global scale, state, community, individual. Group identity varies with time and place” as such “Identity can only be confirmed by others who share that identity.” (Taiaiake and Corntassel, 2005). If this is true, then what are the implications in a multicultural, neoliberal city such as Toronto? “If you do not sing the songs - if you do not tell the stories and if you do not speak the language - you will cease to exist (as Apache)” (Taiaiake and Corntassel, 2005). Can culture and/or identity disappear? Wednesday, November 18, 2009
  69. 69. Discussion Questions Given the constant change in urban multiculturalism, how do these various components (ie. culture, identity, etc.) influence the built environment? Does being part of a culture that’s “less dominant” make it less of a culture? Are we in North America becoming isolated in our individualistic “culture”? Is this a direct result of capitalism? Is it possible to be objective when it comes to culture? Wednesday, November 18, 2009
  70. 70. Wednesday, November 18, 2009
  71. 71. The Location of Culture Homi Bhabha (1994), Routledge Wednesday, November 18, 2009
  72. 72. References Towards cosmopolis: a postmodern agenda (2002) - Leonie Sandercock The cultural role of world cities (1996) - Ulf Hannerz World cities: Global? Postcolonial? Postimperial? Or just the result of happenstance? Some cultural comments (2005) - Anthony D. King ‘Global media cities:’ major nodes of globalizing culture and media industries (2005) - Stefan Krätke Willing the global city: Berlin’s cultural strategies of interurban competition after 1989 (2005) - Ute Lehrer Exploring Colombo: the relevance of a knowledge of New York (1996) - Nihal Perera Culturing the world city: an exhibition of the global present (2005) - Steven Flusty Taiaiake Alfred and Jeff Corntassel’s “Being Indigenous: Resurgences against Contemporary Colonialism,” Government and Opposition, 40, 4 (2005), 597-614. Wednesday, November 18, 2009

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