Post Harvest Handling System of Tropical Fruits in Malaysia 2012
“Post Harvest Quality and Food Safety of Tropical FruitProduction in South East Asian Countries”, Bangkok, Thailand, 30 April – 4 May 2012 POST HARVEST HANDLING SYSTEM OF TROPICAL FRUITS IN MALAYSIA NUR IZALIN MOHAMAD ZAHARI SAIFUL BAHRI SA’ARI FOOD TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH CENTRE, MARDI G.P.O. BOX 12301, 50774 KUALA LUMPUR 12301,
1.0 Introduction Malaysia comprises Peninsular Malaysia and the state of Sabahand Sarawak. Peninsular Malaysia borded by Thailand in theNorth and Singapore in the South. Across the sea from thePeninsular are the Bornean states of Sarawak and Sabah. Peninsular Malaysia covers an area of 132 000 km2, whilethe combined of Sabah and Sarawak covers area of 198 000km2. The capital city, Kuala Lumpur is located in WilayahPersekutuan on the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Apopulation of Malaysia is approximately 27 million people.
Agriculture represents about 26% of the GrossDomestic Product. From total cultivated area inMalaysia, 90% was industrial crops (oil palm, rubber,paddy, herbs, coconut, flowers) and 6.4% for fruits and3.6% for vegetables. The commercial fruit types devidedin two categories; seasonal (mango, rambutan, durian, dokong, mangosteen) non-seasonal (carambola, pineapple, melons, guava, banana).There are also new potential fruits increased inMalaysian production such as dragon fruit, wax apple,snake fruit (salak) and pulasan.
Consumption of fruits per capita: 2005 2010 65 kg 75 kg -90% Fruits: locally marketed - watermelon (23%) -10% - exported : - papaya (13%) (RM433 M (1998) - durian (10%) To RM514 M (2003) - carambola (9%) - banana (5%)
Table 1: Typical tropical fruits planted in Malaysia *Source: Department of Agriculture, 2010 statistics
Fig. 1: Example of tropical fruits cultivated in Malaysia
New distribution of fruits in Malaysia as shown in Figure2. Malaysia has planned to have a modern and systematicwholesale market. In achieving this plan, TEMAN(National Food Terminal) was proposed by governmentagency, FAMA (Federal Agricultural MarketingAuthority).
Figure 2: Current system of Malaysian wholesale market
To protect consumer healthTo gain market access- Retailer requirements- Governmentrequirements
In the new system of wholesale market: the systematic distribution system of fruit, vegetables, flower, marine products, meats and grocery are needed. cooperation and effort between producers, government agencies and private sectors is important to realized this program supported by the improvement in whole sector production, handling, retailing and marketing technologies.
DOA (Department of Agriculture) productionMARDI development and transfer of tech.(Malaysian Agricultural Researchand Development Institute)FAMA marketing of agri produce(Federal Agricultural MarketingAuthority) Agriculture in Malaysia, was successfully increased Malaysian economic for commercial commodities such as palm oil, rubber and herbs. Production and commercialization of fruits and vegetables was increased gradually in the past 10 years. Recently, this sector is given priority by Malaysian government to increased national food security.
MARDI - high responsibility to lead in science andtechnology for transformation of the food andagriculture industries, to develop and promoteleading edge technologies for the advancement offood and agriculture industries.In terms to develop new distribution of fruits in thenew system of wholesale market, postharvesthandling system are one of the most important toimprove in most of the activities from production toconsumers.
1.2 Current Status of Post Harvest Handling in Malaysia Post-Harvest handling - a major problem in the development of the fruit industry in Malaysia. Rough handling - resulted in severe damage and losses to the fruits when the products reach to the market. The need for proper handling of produce at post harvest stage is not given proper attention - most cases better handling practices may not necessarily benefit the fruit producers in term of monetary return. However, better handling systems have been practiced by some growers on highly priced fruits such as starfruit, jackfruit and guava, especially for export markets. Further improvement is needed as to give better return to the growers and producers.
Harvesting and handling produce Product QualityQuality is the combination of a product’s characteristics that are critical to meet customers expectations and needs.
The main problems of post harvest handling of fruits inMalaysia: (i) In appropriate production practices – small farm size and poor production practices cause by insufficient knowledge and high production cost. (ii) Rough jungle tracking - leads to mechanical injury of fruits and vegetables.(iii) Poor agri-business management – improper practices from farm to market, affecting fruit quality control for example, used of unsuitable container or without container during transportation.
(iv) Inadequate post harvest management systems throughout the commodity chain, horticulture production suffer from high pre and post harvest losses mainly due to inadequate and insufficient knowledge about managed processing capacity, cold chain infrastructure, packaging material and post harvest system.(v) Improper pest and diseases managements – fruits was infected with bacteria and viruses even at farm level and also the various post harvest handling stages and market distribution.(vi) Limited training capacity – the need for well trained farm worker at all levels to assure product quality.
(vii) Lack of packing house and cooling facility and cold chain maintenance. There are many cold rooms are available at FAMA packing house complexes for temporary storage. It is important to provide enough cold chain facilities throughout the handling path taken by the produce right after harvesting until the market. Sufficient number of cold truck must be provided to transport the produce under continuously refrigerated condition. Proper packing house operation has been practiced only by several large fruit producers and exporters. Small fruit and vegetable growers handle their produce in small packing sheds nearly the farm itself.
(viii) Fruits and vegetables in Malaysia normally been graded to the grade system agreed by both the seller and buyer. Uniform standards for some fruits (such as papaya, carambola, pineapple) and vegetables (such as chilli) have been produced by the Standards and Industrial Research Institute of Malaysia (SIRIM).
1.3 Solution of the ProblemTo provide effective technology transfer for post harvesthandling system (techniques of harvesting, transportation,pre-cooling, sorting, grading, washing, treatments,packaging, labelling, ripening/degreening/flavourdevelopment, storage, distribution): Increased promotion for agri-business and technology transfer by government and private sector More cooperation between government agencies (from production to marketing)
Increased training, seminar, conference, symposium,exhibitionIntroduce licence/certificate to company who adoptgood post harvest technology handling (to createcompetition and enforcement)Cooperation with mass media for education andpromotion
FAMA has already planned for this activities andthe project is ongoing. Therefore, only the postharvest handling system need to be improvefurther.
There are many aspects of postharvest handlingoperations that need to be looked into in futureresearch and some of them are listed below: Pre-cooling of produce Physical and chemical postharvest treatments Modified and controlled atmosphere packaging Cold chain system Refrigerated transport
Improved packaging for distributionPesticide residue monitoringCooperative handling systemsMinimal processingGrading and standardisationNon-destructive measurementModelling and simulation
Domestic markets (retail shops,supermarkets, hypermarkets)Regional markets (Singapore,Brunei)Distant markets By air and sea(Hong Kong, Japan, Europe)
Challenges of the Agricultural Sector 1. Globalization and Free Trade - world market trade is now open – competition is very intense 2. High Expectation of Consumers - demand for safe and high quality food.35
Challenges of the Agricultural Sector 3. Commitment to sustainable agriculture - food importers and buyers are committed to the principles of sustainable agriculture. 4. Sanitary and Phytosanitary controls imposed by importers are critical for the international trade of fresh fruit and vegetables. 5. Bottom line – major manufacturers and buyers are now demanding agricultural products that are produced in a safe and sustainable way and conforming to standards of GAP.36
GAP – MALAYSIA CROP Malaysian Farm Good Agricultural practice ( SALM- Skim Amalan Ladang Malaysia) Malaysian Organic Skim ( SOM – Skim Organic Malaysia)38
WHAT IS SALM ? A certification program to recognize farms that adopt Good Agricultural Practices (GAP), operate in a sustainable and an environmentally friendly way, considering workers health and safety and yield produces that are of quality and safe for consumption
MALAYSIAN FARM CERTIFICATION SCHEME FOR GOOD AGRICULTURAL PRACTICE (SALM) Launched by DOA (2002) Malaysian GAP Aimed at giving recognition to farms adopting GAP Produce high quality and safe produce for consumers
MALAYSIAN ORGANIC SCHEME (SOM) Skim Organik Malaysia (SOMA certification programme underDepartment Of Agriculture that givesrecognition to growers who cultivatetheir crop plants according to thecriteria/requirements spelt out in theMalaysian Standard MS 1529 : 2001 TheProduction, Processing, Labelling andMarketing of Plant Based OrganicallyProduced Foods.
ProcedureApplicationSite inspection/evaluationVerification of farm practicesAnalysis of farm produce, water and inputs
SOM CERTIFIED FARMKAHANG ORGANICRICE ECO FARM(SOM 1.03)
FOOD SAFETY Food Assurance – Hazard Analysis and Control Critical Point ( HACCP)The HACCP system is a science basedand systematic method that identified specific Hazards and measures for ensuring food safety
FOOD SAFETYIn Malaysia , Food safety system involve:Ministry of HealthMinistry of Agriculture and AgrobaseIndustry
FOOD SAFETYThis system being adopted by the agricultureoperators as a guide to food production.Safety assurance are :GAP, Good Animal Husbandry Practice (GAHP),Code of Practice for Aquaculture, GoodManufacturing Practice (GMP), Good HygienePractice ( GHP)
:: WELCOME TO THE 7TH INTERNATIONAL POSTHARVEST SYMPOSIUM 2012 :: •Pre-harvest Effects on Postharvest •Postharvest Physiology •Postharvest Technology •Postharvest Pathology and Entomology •Quality, Safety and Security •Handling, Packaging and Shipping Technology •Consumers and Marketing Visit- http://www.mardi.gov.my