Regulatory trends ofNutrition labelling and trans fatty acid labelling October, 2010 Consumer Affairs Agency Food Labelling Division 1
Global regulatory trends on Nutrition labelling and trans fatty acid labelling Denmark Hong Kong South Korea Canada As of June, As of July 2010, nutrition As of 2006, nutrition labelling is mandatory. As of December 2005, 2003, trans labelling including trans As of December 2007, trans fatty acid nutrition labelling including fatty acids in fatty acids is mandatory. labelling is mandatory. trans fatty acids is mandatory. oils and fats must not exceed 2% of oil or fat.Switzerland As of April United States of America 2008, trans As of 1994, nutrition labelling is mandatory. fatty acids in As of January 2006, trans fatty acid oils and fats labelling is mandatory. must not 【Note】 exceed 2% New York City (2007) as a first city and California of oil or fat. State (2010) as a first state prohibited food service establishments using oils, shortening and margarine containing 0.5 grams or more of artificial trans fatty acids per serving. Paraguay Taiwan As of August 2006, nutrition labelling Austria As of 2002, including trans fatty acids is mandatory. As of September nutrition labelling 2009, trans fatty is mandatory. acids in oils and Chile As of January fats must not As of November 2006, 2008, trans fatty Brazil exceed 2% of oil nutrition labelling including or fat. acid labelling is As of 2001, trans fatty acids is mandatory. mandatory. nutrition labelling is mandatory. Argentina As of August Countries and regions mandating trans fatty acid labelling As of August 2006, Uruguay 2006, trans Nutrition labelling other than trans fatty acids (e.g., saturated fatty acids) is also mandatory. nutrition labelling As of August fatty acid including trans fatty 2006, nutrition labelling is Countries mandating nutrition labelling acids is mandatory. labelling mandatory. Israel, India, Australia, Cuba, China, New Zealand, Malaysia including trans Trans fatty acid labelling is voluntary (may have standards for Nutrition and Health Claims). fatty acids is mandatory. Japan：Nutrition labelling is voluntary, and standards for trans fatty acid labelling are not established. 【Note】 Countries regulating content of trans fatty acids in oils and fats 2
Fatty acids and Health Important roles of fatty acids Saturated fatty acids High saturated fatty acid intake increases LDL cholesterol level, the major risk factor coronary heart disease. Structural component of cell membranes. Individual saturated fatty acids [lauric acids (12:0), myristic acids (14:0), palmitic acids (16:0) or stearic acids (18:0)] have different Source of energy (provides more than twice amount effects on lipoprotein cholesterol levels. of energy compared with carbohydrates and proteins). Supports absorption of fat soluble vitamins (vitamins A・D・E・K) and carotenoids. Trans fatty acids Cholesterol constitutes cell membranes and serves as Trans fatty acids not only increase LDL cholesterol level, but also precursors for hormones and vitamin D. lower HDL cholesterol level. N-6 fatty acids and n-3 fatty acids, fatty acids not Trans fatty acids increase risk of coronary heart disease. synthesized in the body (essential fatty acids), must be In 2003, World Health Organization (WHO) recommended very low obtained from diets. intake of artificial trans fatty acids (less than 1% of daily energy intake). In 2008, Joint FAO/WHO expert consultation on Fats and Fatty acids in Human Nutrition, however, reported that possible need of revising the current recommendation in order to protect substantial subgroups from having dangerously high intakes.Dietary reference intakes for Japanese (2010) haveestablished adequate intake and dietary goals for Cholesterolfatty acids by age group and sex. Elevated LDL cholesterol level is a major risk factor for Reference: Ministry of Health and Welfare: coronary heart disease, and cholesterol intake may raise total and http://www.mhlw.go.jp/shingi/2009/05/s0529-4.html LDL cholesterol levels. However, association between cholesterol intake and cardiovascular diseases is inconsistently observed. Further studies are warranted to make conclusion on the effects of cholesterol on health. 3
Trans fatty acid labelling in Japan ○ Trans fatty acids increase risk of coronary heart disease. Several countries and regions in North America, South America, and Asia have mandated trans fatty acid labelling as one of the nutrients in the nutrition labelling regulations. ○ Estimated mean trans fatty acid intake among Japanese is 0.6% of total energy intake. However, intake of individuals with unbalanced diets (e.g., high amount of sweets, which are high in fats), may exceed this level. ○ Consumer Affairs Agency will release “Guidelines on trans fatty acid labelling” (tentative) for food industry to promote voluntary disclosure of information on trans fatty acid content. Considering to develop labelling systems of trans fatty acids, we will continue working on this issue. Trans fatty acids Current and future work regarding trans fatty acid labelling Trans fatty acids are type of fatty acids found in processed fats and oils, such as margarine and (As of 2010, March 9) shortening, as well as food products made with these fats. Also, trans fatty acids are found in meat and milk of cows and other ruminant animals. (1) Provide helpful information to 【Example of trans fatty acids：Elaidic acids】 Reference: Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Consumers ① Educate consumers about nutrition, Saturated fatty acids Cis oleic acids Trans elaidic acids (No double bonds) especially on fatty acids including trans Fatty acids fatty acids. Cis isomers Unsaturated fatty acids Released fact sheet on trans fatty acids (With double bonds) (2010, September 10) Trans isomers Example of nutrition labelling 【Estimated intake】 Reference: Food Safety Commission in the United States of America ② Promote industry efforts to reduce trans fatty acids in food products and to disclose ● Japanese population information of trans fatty acid content. 1. Estimated from consumption of food group data in the National Health and Nutrition Survey →0.7g/day (0.3% of total energy intake) Consider definitions, analytic methods, and 2. Estimated from Production data →1.3g/day (0.6% of total energy intake) acceptance criterion for trans fatty acid labelling, and develop “Guidelines on trans ● US population: 5.8g/day (2.6% of total energy intake) fatty acid labelling” for food industry by the ● EU population: men: 1.2-6.7g/day (0.5%-2.1% of total energy intake) summer, 2010. women: 1.7-4.1g/day (0.8%-1.9% of total energy intake) Request food industry to work on voluntary【2003：Diet, Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases, Report of a Joint disclosure of information on trans fatty acid WHO/FAO Expert Consultation】 content. Recommended trans fatty acid intake to less than 1% of daily energy intake.【2008：Joint FAO/WHO expert consultation on Fats and Fatty acids in Human (2) Continue considering to develop Nutrition】 labelling systems for trans fatty Reported that possible need of revising the current recommendation in order to acids. protect substantial subgroups from having dangerously high intakes. 4
Overview: Guidelines for trans fat labelling Along with accumulation of scientific evidence, information of fats has been important indices in order to enable consumers to make informed food choices. However, labelling rules for trans fatty acids had not existed as opposed to saturated fatty acids and cholesterol, whose standards set out in the Health Promotion Act. Therefore, Consumer Affairs Agency has published “Guidelines for trans fat labelling” and has described details for industry when trans fatty acids are declared on nutrition labelling. Definition Summary of Guidelines 【Presentation】 In this guidelines, trans fatty acids are defined in accordance Trans fatty acid information is expected to be presented on labelling of prepackaged with the definition adopted in the Codex Alimentarius foods offered for sale, at the company’s website, and in advertising materials. Committee, establishing international food standards. When declaring trans fatty acids, basic requirements (i.e., energy, protein, total fat,Codex definition: Trans fatty acids are all the geometrical and carbohydrate) as set out in the Nutrition Labelling Standards as well asisomers of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids saturated fatty acids and cholesterol must be declared.having non-conjugated, interrupted by at least one methylenegroup, carbon-carbon double bonds in the trans configuration. Name: Trans fatty acids should be listed as “Trans fatty acids” within the Nutrition labelling table with other nutrients.Note: Trans fatty acids may derive from artificial or natural Unit： Trans fatty acids should be declared in grams per 100g/100ml or per serving,sources; however, they can not be accurately differentiated in per package, or per reference amount of the foodanalysis. Thus, both of artificial and natural trans fatty acids Tolerance: Acceptable criterion is plus 20% of the declared value.are included in the definition. Note: As a general rule, declaring 0g is only allowed for a food product containing no trans fatty acids; however, when the food contains less than 0.3g/100g (100ml for soft Major Foods containing trans fatty acids drinks), the value can be rounded to 0g.【Industrially-produced trans fatty acids】 【Nutrient content claim】Margarine, fat spread, and shortening, made from partially- Free Claim (e.g., free, zero, no, without)hydrogenated liquid vegetable oils, as well as bakery, 1. The food contains less than 0.2g of trans fatty acids per 100g (100ml for soft drinks)sweets such as cakes and donuts, and frying foods, made andwith partially-hydrogenated fats contain trans fatty acids. 2. The food contains less than 1.5g of saturated fatty acids (0.75g per 100ml for softSmall amounts are found in vegetable oils, heated or cooked drinks) or the food provides less than 10% of energy from saturated fatty acids.at high temperature. Reduction Claim (e.g., reduced, low, less)【Naturally-derived trans fatty acids】 Declare the name of the reference food as well as the amount or percentage of theMilk, meat, and dairy products contain small amounts of trans reductionfatty acids as ruminant animals (cows and sheep) produce 【Methods of analysis】trans fatty acids by biohydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids Trans fatty acids should be analyzed using AOCS Ce1h-05 or AOAC 996.06, thein the rumen. major internationally recommended methods of analysis. Examples Firms may choose other method equivalent to AOCS and AOAC methods.
Nutrition Labelling Systems in Japan: situations and issues Nutrition labelling is voluntary in Japan. However, if nutrient declaration, nutrient content claim such as “X free”, “X% reduced,” and/or nutrient function claim is made on the label of foods offered for sale, nutrition information shall be provided in accordance with Nutrition Labelling Standards under the Health Promotion Act. ① Nutrient Declaration (Nutrition Labelling Standards Clause 2-4) Energy Protein ＜Required nutrition information when any nutrient is declared＞ Total fat 1. Energy value and amounts of core nutrients (Basic requirements) Carbohydrate expressed in kcal per 100g, 100ml, serving, package, or other standard size (or Available carbohydrate and Dietary fiber) Sodium ＜Voluntary nutrition information＞ 2. For the following nutrients, Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) have been established in the Nutrition Labelling Standards.＜Scope＞ 13 vitamins and 12 minerals Vitamins: Niacin, Pantothenic acid, Biotin, Vitamin A, Vitamin B1,• Prepackaged foods Sugars (Monosaccharides and Disaccharides) Vitamin B2, Vitamin B6, Vitamin B12, Vitamin C, Vitamin D,• Attached documents Saturated fats Vitamin E, Vitamin K, Folic acid or tags Cholesterol Minerals: Zinc, Potassium, Calcium, Chromium, Selenium, Iron, Copper, Sodium, Magnesium, Manganese, Iodine, Phosphorus 3. Nutrients whose DRIs not established in the Nutrition Labelling Standards may also be declared as long as they are based on scientific evidence.Nutrition information Collagen Per container （75g） Galactooligosaccharides ② Nutrient Content Claims (Nutrition Labelling Standards Clause 5-10) PolyphenolEnergy 390kcalProtein 5.3g When a nutrient content claim is made, required nutrition information shall be provided in accordance with theTotal fat 19.1g provisions set out in the Nutrition Labelling Standards.Carbohydrate 49.1g Content Claims (e.g., High, contains, Zero)Sodium 311mg Comparative Claims (e.g., X times, X% recued) ③ Nutrient Function Claims (Nutrition Labelling Standards Clause2 ) Nutrient function claims for 17 vitamins and minerals are permitted. However, contents shall not exceed the upper and lower tolerance level which have been established based on DRIs. 1
Labelling of origin of ingredient System History of regulation Packaged or bottled Discussion points green tea beverage ・ Frequent change of place of origin /Fried peanuts ・ Limited space available labelling ・Unknown place of origin in pre-processed imported food 20 categories 20 categories (See attached) individual Consumer Basic Plan (Mar 2010: Cabinet Decision)Dried or salted wakame・Dried or salted mackerel The Government will i l ddi continuously ensure adding of f Frozen vegetables Grilled eel ・ Pickles types of food productsShavings of dried skipjack applicable for mandatory 8 products 20 categories＋4 labelling of origin of ingredient. 2001-2003 2006 2009～ Labelling of origin of ingredient is mandatory for food products containing ingredients whose place of origin may significantly influence quality of the products. 1
Annex1. Dried mushrooms, vegetables and fruits (excluding those flaked or powdered)2. Salted2 S lt d mushrooms, vegetables and f it h t bl d fruits3. Boiled or steamed mushrooms, vegetables, pulses and bean jams (excluding those canned, bottled or retort pouched)4. Mixed vegetables, mixed fruits, other mixtures of vegetables, fruits and mushrooms ( (excluding those mixed without cut) g )5. Green tea and packaged or bottled green tea beverage6. Rice cake7. Roasted shelled peanuts, roasted peanuts, fried peanuts and roasted beans8. Alimentary k j products8 Ali t konjac d t9. Seasoned meat (excluding those processed by heating, or those frozen after processed)10. Boiled or steamed poultry meat and eggs (excluding those canned, bottled or retort pouched)11. Slightly roasted meat g y12. Prepared meat with deep-fry batter (excluding those processed by heating, or those frozen after heated)13. Ground meats and other mixed meats (including meats or ground meats with their form shaped)14. Unsalted and dried fish and shellfishes, salted and dried fish and shellfishes, boiled and dried fish and shellfish, tangle, shellfish tangle dried laver roasted laver and other dried seaweeds laver, (excluding those chopped, minced or powdered)15. Salted fish , shellfishes and seaweeds16. Seasoned fish, shellfishes and seaweeds , (excluding those processed by heating, those frozen after heated and those canned, bottled or retort pouched)17. Boiled or steamed fish, shellfishes and seaweeds (excluding those canned, bottled or retort pouched)18. Slightly roasted fish and shellfishes19.19 Prepared fish and shellfishes with deep fry batter ( l di those processed b h ti or th f deep-fry (excluding th d by heating, those frozen after h t d) ft heated)20. Mixtures of fresh foods other than those described in 4 and 13 (excluding those mixed without cut) 2