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Livestock Sector Policy Making Process - Indonesia 2015


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From the FAO Seminar on Building Policy Capacity Towards Sustainable Livestock Development, Bangkok, Thailand, 2015

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Livestock Sector Policy Making Process - Indonesia 2015

  1. 1. Tjeppy D. Soedjana Indonesian Center for Animal Research and Development-ICARD Ministry of Agriculture LIVESTOCK SECTOR POLICY MAKING PROCESS: INDONESIA FAO Inception Meeting TCP/RAS/3507 Building Policy Capacity Towards Sustainable Livestock Development Bangkok, Thailand, 7-8 April 2015
  2. 2. Contents • Introduction • Livestock sector policy • Policy making process • Policy documents • Constitutions on livestock and animal health • Related livestock policy documents • Strengths and weakness of current policy; • Priority areas and institutions for policy analysis capacity enhancement;
  3. 3. Introduction (1) • In a developing economy, understanding policy and the policy processes that result in certain decisions on livestock sector at various levels is important, as growing middle and upper income groups demand more livestock products. • In such environment, livestock policy should be a statement of guiding principles and goals in addressing a certain issue, and it should be a means for the public including the farmers, to hold public institutions accountable for their actions. • However, this is not always the case as the policy processes are often quite complex, and policy making is mostly considered as an objective logical process which are expected to act rationally in the public interest.
  4. 4. Map of Indonesia
  5. 5. Organization Structure of MOA DGLAHS SEC. GEN Minister of Agric Assisntants INSP. GEN DG. AG. EQ & INFRSTR DG. FOOD CROP DG. HORT. CROP DG. EST. CROP DG. PROC. MKTG AARD DG. AG EXT DG. FOOD SEC. DG. AG QUAR
  6. 6. Livestock sector policy (1) Livestock Policy is perceived as: • A definite course of action in the livestock sector development selected by government or others, from among alternatives, in the given condition to guide or to determine present and future decision; • A projected livestock sector development program consisting of desired objectives and the means to achieve them; • Basic principles in the livestock sector development by which Government is guided; • Declared objectives which government seeks to achieve and preserve livestock development in the interest of national community.
  7. 7. Livestock sector policy (2) Therefore, livestock development policy is defined as: A decision-making framework, or course of action to achieve a desired effect or change in the livestock sector development. In the context of the public sector, livestock sector development policies also support political purposes by Government in response to the dynamic of the changing world.
  8. 8. Livestock sector policy (3) Livestock sector policy is mandated to the Directorate General of Livestock and Animal Health Services (DGLAHS), Ministry of Agriculture (MoA), with 6 Directorates: • Secretariat • Directorate of Animal Breeding; • Directorate of Animal Feeds; • Directorate of Livestock Farming; • Directorate of Animal Health; • Directorate of Public veterinary Health
  9. 9. Livestock sector policy (4) Livestock sector policy is formulated mandated to the Directorate General of Livestock and Animal Health Services (DGLAHS), Ministry of Agriculture (MoA), with 6 Directorates: • Secretariat • Directorate of Animal Breeding; • Directorate of Animal Feeds; • Directorate of Livestock Farming; • Directorate of Animal Health; • Directorate of Public veterinary Health
  10. 10. Livestock sector policy (5) Directorate General of Livestock and Animal Health Services (DGLAHS) formulates livestock sector policy in cooperation with working committees: • National Committee on Animal Breeding; • National Committee on Animal Feeds; • National Committee of Animal Medicines; • National Committee on Animal Health; • National Committee on Public Veterinary Health; • National Committee on Biosafety; • National Committee on Food Safety; • Other related Agencies and Ministries.
  11. 11. Identificati on of issues /problem Policy formulation Policy adoption/ legitimation Policy implementa tion Policy assessment /evaluation Stages of Policy Making Process Livestock policy making process (1)
  12. 12. Issue identification Publicized demands and attention from the general public that prompts the need for government action that will lead to identification of policy problems which then documented in the form of academic manuscript; Policy formulation Policy proposals are formulated through political channels (House of Representative/DPR) by policy planning organization (Legislation Division), interest groups, associations, government, state legislature and the president, depending on who has the initiative, followed by development of possible solutions and consideration of several alternatives. Livestock policy making process (2)
  13. 13. Policy Documents Hierarchical livestock related policy documents: • Constitution/National Laws • President’s Decree/Regulations • President’s Instructions • Central Government Regulations • Minister’s Decrees • Director General’s Regulations • Provincial and Regional Regulations • Governor’s Regulations • Regional/Municipal Regulations
  14. 14. 1. Constitution No. 6/1967 Constitution No. 6, 1967 on Livestock and Animal Health a. General Terms (Art 1-7) : definition, general objective, types of business, land, water and feeds, preventing of misconduct, grassland; b. Livestock (Art 8-18): objective of livestock farming, business, smallholders, large commercial, breeding and reproduction, region, industry, trade; sharing systems; c. Animal Health (Art 19-23): general, animal diseases, veterinary public health, animal welfare, animal medicines;
  15. 15. Constitution No. 6, 1967….. d. Others (Art 24-26): criminal acts, special investigator, transitional provision e. Concluding chapter(Art 27) Signed by President Soeharto, July 8, 1967
  16. 16. 2. Constitution No. 18/2009 Constitution No. 18, 2009 (Rev of Const No. 6/1967) I. General terms (Art 1); II. Principles and Objectives (Art 2-3); III. Resources (Art 4-12); IV. Livestock farming (Art 13-38); V. Animal Health (Art 39-55). Note Art 44; VI. Public Veterinary Health and Animal Welfare (Art 56-67). Note Art 59; VII. Veterinary Authority (Art 68-75). Note Art 68; VIII.Farmers Empowerment and Livestock and Animal Health Business (Art 76-77) IX. Human Resources Development (Art 78)
  17. 17. Constitution No. 18, 2009 (Rev of Const No. 6/1967) X. Research and Development (Art 79-83) XI.Education (Art 84) XII.Administrative Sanction (Art 85) XIII.Criminal Act (Art 86-93) XIV.Transitional Provision (Art-94) XV.Concluding chapter (Art 95-99) Signed by President Soesilo B. Yoedhoyono, June 4, 2009
  18. 18. Constitution No. 18, 2009 This Constitution has been gone through judicial review on three articles, for clauses namely: (a) Art 44, clause 3, government do not pay compensation for depopulated animals infected by serious diseases; (b) Art 59, clause 2 allow imports of animal products from FMD free country and zones; (c) Art 59, clause 4 import of animal products is also based on international regulation; (d) Art 68, clause 4, the Minister may delegate his/her authority to veterinary authority. The Constitutional Court has nullified points (b), (c) and (d).
  19. 19. 3. Constitution No. 41/2014 Constitution No. 41, 2014 (Rev. of Const. No. 18/2009) Major revisions are done basically on articles previously reviewed and nullified by the Constitutional Court. Point (b): recommendation and approval of imports of animal products from zoonosis disease risks areas will be the Minister’s discretion; Other clauses (c) and (d) were adapted accordingly. Signed by President Soesilo B. Yoedhoyono, October 17, 2014
  20. 20. Related important policy documents  Constitution No. 16.1992 on Agricultural Quarantine;  Constitution No. 16/2006 on Agricultural Extension System;  Presidential Instruction No. 1/2007 on HPAI Control;  Ministry of Trade Decree No. 46/2013 on Reference Price;  Ministry of Trade Decree No. 57/2013 on Imports and Exports of Animal Products;  Ministry of Industry Decree No. 4/2011 on Milk Processing;  Ministry of Agriculture Decree No. 19/2010 on Beef Self Sufficiency Program;  Ministry of Agriculture Decree No. 40/2009 on Cattle Breeding Farm Credit;  Provincial Regulation of Special District of Jakarta No. 4/2007 on Poultry Distribution.
  21. 21. • As a developing country Indonesia needs strong livestock policy framework which is formulated in the interest of the public including the farmers. • However, some of such policies arise from a centralized system often consider the majority of the public and the farmers are not considered as beneficiaries. • In some cases even where a policy has been formulated, it can not be implemented, because the policy is often influenced by internal dynamics of the implementing ministries or institutions and public interest. Overall strength and weakness of current policy process
  22. 22. • Ministry of Agriculture has formed Committees under supervision of the DGLAHS to review the performance of their sectors to prepare its policy framework statements; • The Committees constitute technical teams, which composed of ministry staffs and from various implementing agency including local government authorities, universities, research and training institutions, association, and the private sector; • These technical teams are to bridge the gap between policy makers and implementers, so as to ensure the smooth implementation of the policies.
  23. 23. • Livestock policy development process in Indonesia is supposed to use a bottom-up approach and to be participatory and consultative so as to ensure that people’s views are accommodated; • The process must recognize a problem that needs to be solved and identification of stakeholders upon who this problem impacts the most; • All key stakeholders i.e. government and its institutions as well as key actors in regions, local government authorities and local communities must take advantage their right to take part in the process.
  24. 24. • From the viewpoints of the performance of their sectors when preparing the framework and policy statements, Inter ministries coordination in livestock policy formulation has to be strengthened; • Given the complexities and time frame available for policy formulation participation of stakeholders has to be reinforced, especially from NGOs and the private sector; • Therefore, priority must be given to enhancing the capability of ministry staffs for policy analysis by involving institutions that have policy analysis capability to participate in policy formulation. Priority for policy analysis capacity enhancement
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