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Identifying and rectifying temperature and
humidity abuse in various fruit supply chains
from South Africa to the United K...
Background
• Cold supply chains are vital for food security.
• They enable the movement of essential food
stuffs over vast...
Fruit supply chain from pack houses in the Western Cape in South Africa to a
Sainsbury’s supermarket in the United Kingdom...
Fruit is still alive after being picked.
Oxygen
Carbon
dioxide
Heat of
respiration
4
Respiratory equation
SUGAR + 0XYGEN
ENERGY + CARBON DIOXIDE + WATER
5
6
THE COLD CHAIN
“ A cold chain is the seamless movement of chilled fresh produce
from production area to market through var...
Optimum storage/shipping conditions
“ Controlling product temperature and reducing
the amount of time the product is at le...
Cost item US$ value % of Sales price
Retail profit (Gross) 7.00 28
European transport 0.60 2.4
Importers commission 1.23 4...
Background
• To maximise value of fruit/perishables in the market place the quality
must be maintained throughout a long a...
The links within the supply chain where temperature is measured
(Blue oval) and where it should be measured (Green and ora...
Content
• Methodology for measuring from the beginning to
end of an intercontinental cold chain, M⁴ (Man must
measure to m...
Methodology 1
• The objective of the project was to map the cold supply chain in terms of
temperature and relative humidit...
Methodology 2
• There was a partnership with BT9-Tech of Israel, who
provided the Radio Communication Units (CU’s) for loa...
Methodology 3
• Sainsbury’s managed the radio devise equipped
pallets through from the receiving depot, either
Chingford’s...
Position of radio receivers in the supply chain .
16
BT9-Tech radio enable pulp temperature and relative
humidity recorder.
17
Data will be presented.
• Data on the fruit temperature of shipments of
plums, apples, pears and Clementine's will be
show...
Graph 1. Example of a graph of plum pulp temperatures measured along an
intercontinental (South Africa to United Kingdom) ...
Graph 2. Example of a graph of plum pulp temperatures measured along an
intercontinental (South Africa to United Kingdom) ...
Graph 3. Relative humidity in the storage air measured along an
intercontinental (South Africa to United Kingdom) cold sup...
Plums
22
Graph 4. Laetitia plums 1, pulp temperatures. Route: Fruit 2 U to Chingford’s DC to
Basingstoke DC to Kingsgate Store.
-2
...
Graph 5. Laetitia plums 1, relative humidity. Route: Fruit 2 U to
Chingford’s DC to Basingstoke DC to Kingsgate Store.
35
...
Graph 6. Angelino plums 3, pulp temperatures. Route: Ceres Cold Stores to
Chingford’s DC to Basingstoke DC to Kingsgate st...
Graph 7. Angelino plums 3, relative humidity. Route: Ceres Cold Stores to
Chingford’s DC to Basingstoke DC to Kingsgate st...
Apples and pears
27
Graph 8. Packham's Triumph pears 3, pulp temperatures. Valley Packers to Mack’s
DC, to Basingstoke DC to Kingsgate Store.
...
Graph 9. Packham's Triumph pears 3, relative humidity.
45
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
90
95
100
1 25 49 73 97 121 145 169 193 ...
Graph 10. Royal gala apples 2, pulp temperatures. Valley Packers to Mack’s
DC to Basingstoke DC to Kingsgate store.
-2
-1
...
Graph 11. Royal gala apples 2, relative humidity. Valley
Packers to Mack’s DC, to Basingstoke DC to Kingsgate Store.
60
65...
32
Graph 12. Satsumas 1, pulp temperatures.
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
1 25 49 73 97 121 145 169 193 217 241 26...
Graph 13. Satsumas 1, relative humidity.
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
90
95
100
1 25 49 73 97 121 145 169 193 217 241 265 289 3...
Summary
• This project revealed that the cold chain investigated
can be described as:
“Consistently inconsistent”
• Deviat...
Conclusion
• This project provided visibility into the temperature and
Relative humidity levels along a cold supply chain ...
Acknowledgements
• The department of science and Technology Post
Harvest Innovation Programme for funds.
• Dr Theresa Huxl...
THANK YOU
38
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Identifying and Rectifying Temperature and Humidity Abuse in Various Fruit Supply Chains from South Africa to the UK

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Identifying and Rectifying Temperature and Humidity Abuse in Various Fruit Supply Chains from South Africa to the UK

  1. 1. Identifying and rectifying temperature and humidity abuse in various fruit supply chains from South Africa to the United Kingdom. Malcolm Dodd Department of Horticultural Science, Stellenbosch University
  2. 2. Background • Cold supply chains are vital for food security. • They enable the movement of essential food stuffs over vast distances, whilst at the same time maintaining the quality and nutritive value of the produce. • Supply chains are also value chains requiring careful management to ensure that maximum returns are achieved. 2
  3. 3. Fruit supply chain from pack houses in the Western Cape in South Africa to a Sainsbury’s supermarket in the United Kingdom. 3
  4. 4. Fruit is still alive after being picked. Oxygen Carbon dioxide Heat of respiration 4
  5. 5. Respiratory equation SUGAR + 0XYGEN ENERGY + CARBON DIOXIDE + WATER 5
  6. 6. 6
  7. 7. THE COLD CHAIN “ A cold chain is the seamless movement of chilled fresh produce from production area to market through various storage and transport mediums without any change in the optimum storage temperature and relative humidity.” Points to remember: The quality of the fruit is at its highest when just picked. The value of the fruit is highest at the point of sale. This value will only be achieved if the fruit is excellent quality. 7
  8. 8. Optimum storage/shipping conditions “ Controlling product temperature and reducing the amount of time the product is at less-than- optimal temperatures are the most important methods of slowing quality loss in perishables”. Thompson, Mitchell and Kasmire, Chapter 11, Post Harvest Technology of Horticultural Crops. University of California, Publication 3311. 2004. 8
  9. 9. Cost item US$ value % of Sales price Retail profit (Gross) 7.00 28 European transport 0.60 2.4 Importers commission 1.23 4.92 European logistics 1.85 7.4 Europe duties - - Freight 3.84 15.36 Insurance 0.10 0.40 Exporters commission 0.72 2.88 Port costs 0.32 1.28 Cargo dues (conventional) 0.06 0.24 Transport to port 0.30 1.20 Finance charges 0.14 0.56 Hortgro Levies 0.04 0.16 PPECB 0.05 0.20 Packing materials 1.58 6.32 Packing charges 1.61 6.44 Farm costs 2.40 9.60 Nett Farm Income 3.16 12.62 Example of the costs within a cold/value chain for a 12.5kg. carton of apples shipped from South Africa to the United Kingdom. Sale price of the carton was US$ 25.00. 9
  10. 10. Background • To maximise value of fruit/perishables in the market place the quality must be maintained throughout a long and complex cold supply chain. • Intercontinental cold supply chains present many challenges. • To understand the efficacy of such a supply chain the methodology M⁴ (man must measure to manage) was used . • Radio enabled temperature and humidity recorders were used to capture product temperature and storage relative humidity from pallet birth up to point of sale. • Radio receivers placed at strategic points along the supply chain enabled the segmentation of data thereby allowing for identification of technologies or service providers that were not providing the required service. • Valuable lessons were learnt from this study which allowed for improvements in the supply chain. 10
  11. 11. The links within the supply chain where temperature is measured (Blue oval) and where it should be measured (Green and orange ovals). 11
  12. 12. Content • Methodology for measuring from the beginning to end of an intercontinental cold chain, M⁴ (Man must measure to manage). • Results • Summary • Conclusion 12
  13. 13. Methodology 1 • The objective of the project was to map the cold supply chain in terms of temperature and relative humidity from the birth of a pallet in South Africa through all transport and storage up until the supermarket in the United Kingdom. • BT9-Tech radio enabled data recorders were placed in cartons of fruit on two pallets per shipment. • The time when and place where the pallet was moved from storage to transport and the different storage zones along the chain was marked to provide segmentation of the data. • The first two objectives were achieved by placing radio receivers called communication units (CU’s) at strategic points in the supply chain. These collect the data from the recorders via radio signal. This data was then uploaded onto the internet. • Samples of fruit were taken as close to the end of the supply chain as possible for final quality evaluation. • This enabled the linking of possible quality defects to any temperature deviations. 13
  14. 14. Methodology 2 • There was a partnership with BT9-Tech of Israel, who provided the Radio Communication Units (CU’s) for loan (3 in S. Africa and 3 in the UK). • BT9-Tech also provided the radio enabled pulp temperature and relative humidity recorders. • BT9-Tech provided the ability to access the captured data on a web site. • The second partnership was with Sainsbury’s Supermarket Group in the United Kingdom who provided logistical support and QC reports of product. 14
  15. 15. Methodology 3 • Sainsbury’s managed the radio devise equipped pallets through from the receiving depot, either Chingford’s or Mack’s, to one of their DC’s, either at Basingstoke in the South West or Langland's in Scotland. • When the pallets were broken down the Sainsbury’s staff ensured that Quality Control samples were drawn and the cartons with the recorders were sent to the Kingsgate store in Dorset or the Livingstone in Scotland where Communication Units had been installed. 15
  16. 16. Position of radio receivers in the supply chain . 16
  17. 17. BT9-Tech radio enable pulp temperature and relative humidity recorder. 17
  18. 18. Data will be presented. • Data on the fruit temperature of shipments of plums, apples, pears and Clementine's will be shown. • This data will be “segmented” into the storage or shipping of transport link of the cold supply chain. • In addition the relative humidity of the air in the storage environment around the fruit will also be shown. 18
  19. 19. Graph 1. Example of a graph of plum pulp temperatures measured along an intercontinental (South Africa to United Kingdom) cold supply chain. -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 25 49 73 97 121 145 169 193 217 241 265 289 313 337 361 385 409 433 457 481 505 529 553 577 601 625 649 673 697 721 745 769 793 817 841 865 889 913 937 961 985 1009 1033 1057 1081 1105 1129 1153 1177 Temperaturein˚C 25 = 1 day Pulp temperature, Pallet 1.
  20. 20. Graph 2. Example of a graph of plum pulp temperatures measured along an intercontinental (South Africa to United Kingdom) cold supply chain. -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 25 49 73 97 121 145 169 193 217 241 265 289 313 337 361 385 409 433 457 481 505 529 553 577 601 625 649 673 697 721 745 769 793 817 841 865 889 913 937 961 985 1009 1033 1057 1081 1105 1129 1153 1177 Temperaturein˚C 25 = 1 day Pulp temperature, Pallet 1. Load container Unload container DC 2DC 1 20
  21. 21. Graph 3. Relative humidity in the storage air measured along an intercontinental (South Africa to United Kingdom) cold supply chain. 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 1 25 49 73 97 121 145 169 193 217 241 265 289 313 337 361 385 409 433 457 481 505 529 553 577 601 625 649 673 697 721 745 769 793 817 841 865 889 913 937 961 985 1009 1033 1057 1081 1105 1129 1153 1177 %Relativehumidity 25 = 1 day Angelino plums Trial 3. Relative humidity Relative humidity, Pallet 2.Average = 94.5% Relative humidity, Pallet 1. Ave = 87.4%. 21
  22. 22. Plums 22
  23. 23. Graph 4. Laetitia plums 1, pulp temperatures. Route: Fruit 2 U to Chingford’s DC to Basingstoke DC to Kingsgate Store. -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 1 50 99 148 197 246 295 344 393 442 491 540 589 638 687 736 785 834 Temperature˚C 50 = 1 day Laetitia plums Trial 1. Pulp temperatures Pallet 1 Pallet 2 Data recorders installed Load container DC 1 Supermarket DC 2 23
  24. 24. Graph 5. Laetitia plums 1, relative humidity. Route: Fruit 2 U to Chingford’s DC to Basingstoke DC to Kingsgate Store. 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 1 50 99 148 197 246 295 344 393 442 491 540 589 638 687 736 785 834 %relativehumidity 50 = 1 day Laetitia plums Trial 1. Relative humidity Pallet 1, relative humidity, 89.4%. Pallet 2, relative humidity, 85.4%. 24
  25. 25. Graph 6. Angelino plums 3, pulp temperatures. Route: Ceres Cold Stores to Chingford’s DC to Basingstoke DC to Kingsgate store. -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 25 49 73 97 121 145 169 193 217 241 265 289 313 337 361 385 409 433 457 481 505 529 553 577 601 625 649 673 697 721 745 769 793 817 841 865 889 913 937 961 985 1009 1033 1057 1081 1105 1129 1153 1177 Temperaturein˚C 25 = 1 day Angelino plums Trial 3. Pulp temperature. Pulp temperature, Pallet 1. Pulp temperature, Pallet 2. Supermarket Load container Unload container DC 2DC 1 25
  26. 26. Graph 7. Angelino plums 3, relative humidity. Route: Ceres Cold Stores to Chingford’s DC to Basingstoke DC to Kingsgate store. 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 1 25 49 73 97 121 145 169 193 217 241 265 289 313 337 361 385 409 433 457 481 505 529 553 577 601 625 649 673 697 721 745 769 793 817 841 865 889 913 937 961 985 1009 1033 1057 1081 1105 1129 1153 1177 %Relativehumidity 25 = 1 day Angelino plums Trial 3. Relative humidity Relative humidity, Pallet 2.Average = 94.5% Relative humidity, Pallet 1. Ave = 87.4%. 26
  27. 27. Apples and pears 27
  28. 28. Graph 8. Packham's Triumph pears 3, pulp temperatures. Valley Packers to Mack’s DC, to Basingstoke DC to Kingsgate Store. -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 1 25 49 73 97 121 145 169 193 217 241 265 289 313 337 361 385 409 433 457 481 505 529 553 577 601 625 649 673 697 721 Temperaturein˚C 25 = 1 day. Packham's Triumph pears. Trial 3. Pulp temperature. Pallet 1 Pallet 2. Load container Unload container 28
  29. 29. Graph 9. Packham's Triumph pears 3, relative humidity. 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 1 25 49 73 97 121 145 169 193 217 241 265 289 313 337 361 385 409 433 457 481 505 529 553 577 601 625 649 673 697 721 %Relativehumidity 25 = 1 day Packham's triumph pears. Trial 3. Relative humidity. Pallet 1. Relative humidity. Average = 78.1% Pallet 2. Relative humidity = 80.2%. 29
  30. 30. Graph 10. Royal gala apples 2, pulp temperatures. Valley Packers to Mack’s DC to Basingstoke DC to Kingsgate store. -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 1 36 71 106 141 176 211 246 281 316 351 386 421 456 491 526 561 596 631 666 701 736 771 806 841 876 911 946 981 1016 1051 1086 1121 1156 1191 1226 1261 1296 1331 1366 1401 1436 1471 1506 1541 1576 1611 Temperaturein˚C 35 = 1 day Royal Gala Apples, pulp temperature. Pulp temperature, Pallet 1. Pulp temperature, Pallet 2. Load container Unload container DC 1 SupermarketDC 2 30
  31. 31. Graph 11. Royal gala apples 2, relative humidity. Valley Packers to Mack’s DC, to Basingstoke DC to Kingsgate Store. 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 1 34 67 100 133 166 199 232 265 298 331 364 397 430 463 496 529 562 595 628 661 694 727 760 793 826 859 892 925 958 991 1024 1057 1090 1123 1156 1189 1222 1255 1288 1321 1354 1387 1420 1453 1486 1519 1552 1585 1618 %Relativehumidity 36 = 1 day Royal Gala, relative humidity. Relative humidity, Pallet 1,87.7%. Relative humidity, Pallet 2, 84.4%. 31
  32. 32. 32
  33. 33. Graph 12. Satsumas 1, pulp temperatures. 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 1 25 49 73 97 121 145 169 193 217 241 265 289 313 337 361 385 409 433 457 481 505 529 553 577 601 625 649 673 697 721 Temperaturein˚C 25 = 1 day Satsumas Trial 1 Pulp temperature, Pallet 1. Pulp Temperature, Pallet 2. Load container Unload container DC 1 DC 2 Supermarket 33
  34. 34. Graph 13. Satsumas 1, relative humidity. 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 1 25 49 73 97 121 145 169 193 217 241 265 289 313 337 361 385 409 433 457 481 505 529 553 577 601 625 649 673 697 721 %Relativehumidity 25 - 1 Day Satsumas Trial 1, Relative humidity. Relative humidity, Pallet 1. Relative humidity, Pallet 2. 34
  35. 35. Summary • This project revealed that the cold chain investigated can be described as: “Consistently inconsistent” • Deviations from the ideal occur in temperature and relative humidity in all links of the supply chain. • The longest period of time in the supply chain is spent inside a shipping container and this is where most of the inconsistent temperatures and Relative humidity were measured. • The temperature management during the shipping phase is very erratic. • What can be done about this ? 35
  36. 36. Conclusion • This project provided visibility into the temperature and Relative humidity levels along a cold supply chain that had never been available before. • The data showed that there are links in the cold supply chain where temperature and humidity management are not ideal. • The link in the cold chain that consistently has poor temperature and relative humidity management is the shipping phase, which is where the owners of the cargo have no control. • With the visibility created with this technology ,it is now possible for owners of the cargo to hold service providers to the terms of their service contracts and make them accountable for any deviations from expected service. 36
  37. 37. Acknowledgements • The department of science and Technology Post Harvest Innovation Programme for funds. • Dr Theresa Huxley of Sainsbury’s for logistical support. • BT9-Tech for radio enabled measuring equipment. 37
  38. 38. THANK YOU 38
  39. 39. AFRIS. AsianFoodRegulationInformationService. We have the largest database of Asian food regulations in the world and it’s FREE to use. We publish a range of communication services, list a very large number of food events and online educational webinars and continue to grow our Digital Library. We look forward to hearing from you soon! www.asianfoodreg.com adrienna@asianfoodreg.com

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