Food Security & Challenges 2010


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Food Security & Challenges 2010

  1. 1. Food Security & Challenges Faced by Food Industry Nik Ismail Nik Daud UKM Holdings Sdn Bhd/ Malaysian Institute of Food Technology nind@ukm.myPaper Presented at the Food Science Student Annual Seminar, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, Kuala Terengganu, 19 March 2010
  2. 2. content• Introduction – Hunger Statistics – Elements of Food security• Factors affecting or aggravating food insecurity• National Food Security Policy• Managing food insecurity by Industry• Role of food science and technology• Food science students and food security
  3. 3. FACTS and FIGURESGLOBAL HUNGER 1925 million people do not have enough to eat - morethan the populations of USA, Canada and theEuropean Union;(Source: FAO news release, 14 September 2010)
  4. 4. FACTS and FIGURESGLOBAL HUNGER 298 percent of the worlds hungry live in developingcountries;(Source: FAO news release, 2010)
  5. 5. FACTS and FIGURESGLOBAL HUNGER 3Asia and the Pacific region is home to over half theworld’s population and nearly two thirds of the world’shungry people;(Source: FAO news release, 2010)
  6. 6. FACTS and FIGURESGLOBAL HUNGER 4Women make up a little over half of the worldspopulation, but they account for over 60 percent ofthe world’s hungry.(Source: Strengthening efforts to eradicatehunger..., ECOSOC, 2007)
  7. 7. FACTS and FIGURESGLOBAL HUNGER 565 percent of the worlds hungry live in only sevencountries: India, China, the Democratic Republic ofCongo, Bangladesh, Indonesia, Pakistan andEthiopia.(Source: FAO news release, 2010)
  8. 8. FACTS and FIGURESCHILD HUNGER 1More than 70 percent of the worlds 146 millionunderweight children under age five years live in just10 countries, with more than 50 per cent located inSouth Asia alone;(Source: Progress for Children: A Report Card onNutrition, UNICEF, 2006)
  9. 9. FACTS and FIGURESCHILD HUNGER 210.9 million children under five die in developingcountries each year. Malnutrition and hunger-related diseases cause 60 percent of the deaths;(Source: The State of the Worlds Children,UNICEF, 2007)
  10. 10. FACTS and FIGURESCHILD HUNGER 3The cost of under-nutrition to national economicdevelopment is estimated at US$20-30 billion perannum;(Source: Progress for Children: A Report Card onNutrition, UNICEF, 2006)
  11. 11. FACTS and FIGURESCHILD HUNGER 4Every year WFP feeds more than 20 millionchildren in school feeding programmes in some 70countries. In 2008, WFP fed a record 23 millionchildren.(Source: WFP School Feeding Unit)
  12. 12. FACTS and FIGURESMALNUTRITION 1It is estimated that 684,000 child deaths worldwidecould be prevented by increasing access to vitaminA and zinc(Source: WFP Annual Report 2007)
  13. 13. FACTS and FIGURESMALNUTRITION 2Undernutrition contributes to 53 percent of the 9.7million deaths of children under five each year indeveloping countries.(Source: Under five deaths by cause, UNICEF, 2006)
  14. 14. FACTS and FIGURESMALNUTRITION 3Lack of Vitamin A kills a million infants a year(Source: Vitamin and Mineral Deficiency, A GlobalProgress Report, UNICEF)
  15. 15. FACTS and FIGURESMALNUTRITION 4Iron deficiency is the most prevalent form ofmalnutrition worldwide, affecting an estimated 2 billionpeople. Eradicating iron deficiency can improvenational productivity levels by as much as 20 percent.(Source: World Health Organization, WHO GlobalDatabase on Anaemia)
  16. 16. FACTS and FIGURESMALNUTRITION 5Iron deficiency is impairing the mental development of40-60 percent children in developing countries(Source: Vitamin and Mineral Deficiency, A GlobalProgress Report, p2, UNICEF)
  17. 17. FACTS and FIGURESMALNUTRITION 6Vitamin A deficiency affects approximately 25 percent ofthe developing world’s pre-schoolers. It is associatedwith blindness, susceptibility to disease and highermortality rates. It leads to the death of approximately 1-3 million children each year.(Source: UN Standing Committee on Nutrition. WorldNutrition Situation 5th report. 2005)
  18. 18. FACTS and FIGURESMALNUTRITION 7Iodine deficiency is the greatest single cause of mentalretardation and brain damage. Worldwide, 1.9 billionpeople are at risk of iodine deficiency, which can easilybe prevented by adding iodine to salt(Source: UN Standing Committee on Nutrition. WorldNutrition Situation 5th report. 2005)
  19. 19. FACTS and FIGURESFOOD & HIV/AIDS 1In the countries most heavily affected, HIV hasreduced life expectancy by more than 20 years,slowed economic growth, and deepened householdpoverty.(Source: 2008 UNAIDS Global Report on the AIDSEpidemic)
  20. 20. FACTS and FIGURESFOOD & HIV/AIDS 2In sub-Saharan Africa alone, the epidemic hasorphaned nearly 12 million children aged under 18years.(Source: 2008 UNAIDS Global Report on the AIDSEpidemic).
  21. 21. FACTS and FIGURESFOOD & HIV/AIDS 3WFP and UNAIDS project that it will cost onaverage US $0.70 cents per day to nutritionallysupport an AIDS patient and his/her family.(Source: Cost of Nutritional Support for HIV/AIDSProjects, WFP, July 2008)
  22. 22. FACTS and FIGURESFOOD & HIV/AIDS 4Assistance for orphans and vulnerable children isestimated at US$0.31 per day.(Source: Cost of Nutritional Support for HIV/AIDSProjects, WFP, July 2008)
  23. 23. Availability AccessibilityFOOD SECURITY Utilization Stability FAO 2006
  24. 24. Levels of Food SecurityIndividual Household National Regional Global
  25. 25. Terms Related to Food SecurityNutrition Security meeting all nutritional needsFood Insecurity ability to acquire is limited or uncertainHunger pain due to lack of foodUnder-nourishment not meeting nutritional needsMalnutrition deficiencies, excesses or imbalances
  26. 26. Food SecurityHappens when all people and at all timeshave access to enough food that are:– affordable, safe and healthy– culturally acceptable– meets specific dietary needs– is obtained in a dignified manner– is produced in ways that are environmentally sound and socially just
  27. 27. Continuous increase inworld population Agriculture land is decreasing Poverty Increase Food prices Factors Contributing or Aggravating Food Insecurity Climate Change Natural Calamities Rise of oil price Biofuel production Wars & Conflicts World trade rules
  28. 28. Continuous increase in worldpopulation mostly in poorest and leastdeveloped countries Year World population (Billion) 1950 2.5 2000 6.5 2011 7.0 2050 9.0
  29. 29. Agriculture land is Decreasing Housing, urbanization, roads, soil erosion, expansion of desert, water crisis
  30. 30. Climate Change
  31. 31. Natural Calamities
  32. 32. Volcano eruptions in Indonesia 2010
  33. 33. Volcano eruptionsin Indonesia 2010
  34. 34. Natural Calamities
  35. 35. Flooding in Australia 2011
  36. 36. Draughtin India1999
  37. 37. Draught in China 2009
  38. 38. Rise of oil price
  39. 39. Biofuels production Environmentalist promote biofuel to reduce pollution but plantations reduce farm crops - Corn, sugarcane, oilpalm, jatropha
  40. 40. WARS & CONFLICTS (2009)
  41. 41. Increase Food prices
  42. 42. Country Rice Production (million mt/year)• China 166 (32.7%)• India 132 (26.0%)• Indonesia 52 (10.2%)• Bangladesh 38 (7.5%)• Vietnam 36 (6.8%)• Thailand 27 (5.3%)• Myanmar 24 (4.8%)• Philippines 14 (2.8%)• Brazil 10 (2.0%)• Japan 9.7 (1.9%)
  43. 43. Rice is one of top grains consumed but only 6-7% of production globally traded.( wheat 20%, corn 11%, soya bean 35%) FAO
  44. 44. Grain importers
  45. 45. Poverty% total household expenditure on food• US 7 • Pakistan 46• Britain 9 • Kenya 45• Australia 11 • Indonesia 43• Malaysia 6-15 • Nigeria 40 • Egypt 38 USDA
  46. 46. World trade rules– Free market monopolised by huge corporations affecting local market and producers– Subsidies to western farmers • US provide US$300bil subsidy • OECD provide ~US$20,000/farmer/year– Develop trade barriers
  47. 47. Malaysia’s Food Security Initiatives• National food security policy formulated in 2008 following the world food crisis• RM3billion was allocated (2008-2010)• objectives are: – Increase output and productivity of agro-food sector to SSL – Enough food of quality and safe to consume – Promote agriculture entrepreneurship MoA
  48. 48. Paddy and Rice Programs in NFS Policy• Agriculture inputs subsidy: Irrigation, pest control, fertilizers, land levelling, lime application, mechanization, miller subsidy, productivity incentives, etc• Subsidized 15% broken rice• Promote R&D to increase productivity• Increase stockpile level from 92k to 239k MT. Tey 2010
  49. 49. For 2011, MoA was allocated RM2.77billion to:• Help farmers to increase rice production• Ensure adequate supply of rice in the market• Develop large scale aquaculture zone• Expand livestock breeding-oil palm plantation integration Bernama Jan 10, 2011
  50. 50. Malaysia announces plans to boost rice production, RM1billion earmarked Pacific/Malaysia, posted on Apr 2008Indonesia and Malaysia look to cooperateon food security in ASEAN The Jakarta Post, March 08, 2011
  51. 51. Malaysia Targets 45-Day Rice Stockpile, FoodSecurity (Update 1) so that foodstuff remainsaffordable for allFood security will be strategically addressed under10th Malaysia Plan Bloomberg Businessweek, June 10, 2010
  52. 52. Raw material supply for local industry• We do not produce enough for the industry• We are a net importer of food even during normal times• Industry has little control over prices of imports• Generally we are not a low cost producer• The situation worsens in times of uncertainty in supply
  53. 53. Foods we bring inIn 2008, Malaysias food imports totaled RM28billion. Major food imports were cereal and cereal preparations, cocoa, vegetables and fruits, dairy products and animal feed. Malaysia imports 70-80% of its beef and 90% of its mutton requirements. Raw materials such as cereals and dairy products will continue to be imported for further processing for human consumption as well as for the production of animal feed. 70 per cent of its food ingredient requirement are imported
  54. 54. Managing food security by industry• Secure long term arrangement with suppliers – Manufacturer – farmers partnership – Acquisition of primary producers• Apply food supply chain management tools• Adopt appropriate operation management approach
  55. 55. Managing food security by industry
  56. 56. A Manufacturing facilityMany suppliers supplier processing processing Customers RM inventory FP inventory Supply Chain Management Manufacturing facility B Few suppliers f processing Outbound Logistic Customers
  57. 57. Managing food security by industry (and government)
  58. 58. aims to increase the content of value-added activities in any given process
  59. 59. Managing food security by industry
  60. 60. Role of Food Science and Technology• Factors contributing to food insecurity ( current and future) are many and multi- dimensional• Many of these factors cannot be controlled or solved by FST alone• But food insecurity cannot be solved without the contribution of FST.
  62. 62. Role of Food Sci & Technologist• Reduce waste throughout supply chain• Make food more shelf-stable and retain nutritional value• Ensure food are safe and fulfill nutritional needs of all individuals• Produce food which are culturally/socially/ religiously acceptable• Develop food and processes during crisis• Develop production systems that are environmentally sustainable.
  63. 63. Role of Food Sci & Technologist• Improve or adapt traditional food and processes to exploit locally available resources• To develop alternative staple food to reduce over- dependence on a single commodity.• Develop and apply new S&T to improve food safety, quality and processes e.g. nanotechnology, biotechnology, etc• To improve functionality of food• Education in FS&T to all stakeholders• Contribute in decision making affecting food security
  64. 64. IUFoST delegates recognise the indispensable role of food science and technology in eliminating or reducing food insecurity worldwide• Promotion of the safety and quality of all foods• Reduction of physical and nutritional losses in the food value chain• Adaptation and improvement of traditional foods and processes, while respecting the traditional, ethical, cultural and religious aspects involved• Beneficial application of science and technology• Development and dissemination of improved knowledge of food composition• Facilitation of domestic and international food trade• Development of food materials with improved functionality• More efficient and environmentally sustainable food production, processing and packaging• Education in nutrition, food science and technology at all levels 15th World Congress in Food Science & Technology 2010
  65. 65. For FST Students and Food Security• Improve understanding on the complexity of food security• Involve in voluntary work to fight food insecurity• Organize or participate in public awareness programs on food security
  66. 66. Conclusion
  67. 67. Thank you