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Economically Motivated Adulteration


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Food fraud is becoming a big problem. The Michigan State University provides a brief outline and offers courses to industry professionals

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Economically Motivated Adulteration

  1. 1. Food Fraud Economically Motivated Adulteration (EMA): Identifying Challenges Ahead and Mitigation Strategies World of Food Safety Conference May 22, 2013 – Session 5 -- 13:45 to 14:30 John Spink, PhD Director, Food Fraud Initiative Michigan State University 517.381.4491 Http:// -- Twitter @FoodFRaud and #FoodFraud htt *
  2. 2. (c) 2013 Michigan State University© 20311 Michigan State University 2 Interdisciplinary Engagement • Leadership, training & collaboration initiatives • Food safety, education, training, and outreach initiatives • Enhancing communication • Evolving role of science and academia • Partnerships in action – State of Michigan – GFSI, ISO, US Pharmacopeia/ Food Chemicals Codex, etc.
  3. 3. (c) 2013 Michigan State University© 20311 Michigan State University 3
  4. 4. (c) 2013 Michigan State University© 20311 Michigan State University 4 What is Food Fraud? Food Fraud Dilution Contaminant Grey Market/ Theft/ DiversionCounterfeiting Unapproved Enhancements Mislabeling Substitution Source: Food Fraud Think Tank Presentation, GFSI, 10/2012
  5. 5. (c) 2013 Michigan State University© 20311 Michigan State University 5 Defining Food Fraud • Action: Deception Using Food – Including “Intentional Adulteration” • Motivation: Economic Gain – Food Defense motivation is harm or terror • Effect: – Economic Threat – Public Health Vulnerability or Threat • Examples – Horsemeat in ground beef – Peanut Corporation selling known contaminated product – Diluted or extra virgin olive oil – Melamine in pet food and infant formula – Over-icing with unsanitary water – Unauthorized unsanitary repackaging (up-labeling or origin-laundering)
  6. 6. (c) 2013 Michigan State University© 20311 Michigan State University 6 FoodSecurity The Food Risk Matrix Action IntentionalUnintentional Harm: Public Health, Economic, or Terror Food Defense Food Safety Motivation Gain: Economic Food Fraud(1) Food Quality The Cause leading to the Effect of Adulteration Source: Adapted from: Spink (2006), The Counterfeit Food and Beverage Threat, Association of Food and Drug Officials (AFDO), Annual Meeting 2006; Spink, J. & Moyer, DC (2011) Defining the Public Health Threat of Food Fraud, Journal of Food Science, November 2011
  7. 7. (c) 2013 Michigan State University© 20311 Michigan State University 7 The Chemistry of the Crime Brand Protection • Management/ IT • Market Monitoring • Supply Chain Integrity • Product Protection • Tampering • Traceability • Authentication • Security • Safety The Fraud Opportunity VictimGuardians/ Hurdles Fraudsters Traditional Criminology Environmental Criminology Reference: Spink 2010, Adapted from: Felson’s Crime in Everyday Life, 1998
  8. 8. (c) 2013 Michigan State University© 20311 Michigan State University 8 Application to Food • Regardless of the cause of the food risk, food adulteration is a food issue. • Food safety, food fraud, and food defense can create food adulteration risks. • Economically motivated adulteration is economically motivated, but the food public health risks are probably more risky than the traditional food safety threats… • …because the contaminants are unconventional… • …we’re not specifically looking for them.
  9. 9. (c) 2013 Michigan State University© 20311 Michigan State University 9 Graduate Courses (Online, Three Credits) • Anti-Counterfeit & Product Protection (Food Fraud) • Quantifying Food Risk (including Food Fraud) • Food Protection and Defense (Packaging Module) • Packaging for Food Safety Certificate (Online, Four Courses Each) • Certificate in Food Fraud Prevention (Food Safety) • Certificate in Counterfeit Medicines (Public Health) • Certificate in Counterfeiting Criminology (Criminal Justice) Graduate Degree (Online) • Master of Science in Food Safety Curriculum
  10. 10. (c) 2013 Michigan State University© 20311 Michigan State University 11© 2012 Michigan State University 11 Acknowledgements • MSU NFSTC: Dr. Scott Winterstein, Trent Wakenight, Kristi Gates, Dr. Kevin Walker, Sandy Enness, Jen Sysak, Dr. Rick Foster, to name a few critical contributors and supporters. • MSU Food Safety Policy Center: Dr. Ewen Todd • MSU School of Packaging: Dr. Bruce Harte, Dr. Robb Clarke, Dr. Laura Bix, Dr. Paul Singh, Dr. Diana Twede, Dr. Gary Burgess, Dr. Harold Hughes, Dr. Mark Uebersax, Dennis Young, and Dr. Joseph Hotchkiss • MSU Communication Arts/ Consumer Behavior: Dr. Maria Lapinski and Dr. Nora Rifon • MSU Supply Chain Management: Dr. Cheryl Speier, Dr. Ken Boyer, Dr. John MacDonald, Dr. David Closs, Dr. Stan Griffis, Dr. Judy Whipple • MSU College Social Science: Dean Marietta Baba and Assoc Dean Chris Maxwell • MSU College of Law: Dr. Neil Fortin and Dr. Peter Yu • MSU Veterinary Medicine: Dr. Wilson Rumbeiha and Dr. Dan Grooms • MSU Program in Public Health: Dr. Michael Rip and Douglas C Moyer • MSU Global: Dr. Christine Geith, Jerry Rhead, Gwyn Shelle, Lauren Zavala, Dr. Karen Klomparens • MSU Libraries: Anita Ezzo, Nancy Lucas, Kara Gust • MSU International Programs: Dr. Mary Anne Walker, Dr. John Whimms • MSU Criminal Justice: Dr. Jeremy Wilson, Dr. Ed McGarrell, Dr. Justin Heinonen, Roy Fenoff, Zoltan Fejas, Barbara Sayre, and Sara Heeg • State of Michigan’s Ag & Food Protection Strategy Steering Committee: Dr. John Tilden, Brad Deacon, Gary Wojtala
  11. 11. (c) 2013 Michigan State University© 20311 Michigan State University 12 Discussion John Spink, PhD 517-381-4491
  12. 12. AFRIS. AsianFoodRegulationInformationService. We have the largest database of Asian food regulations in the world and it’s FREE to use. We publish a range of communication services, list a very large number of food events and online educational webinars and continue to grow our Digital Library. We look forward to hearing from you soon!