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Developing Precision Cold Chain Systems for Tropical Fruits


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Covers: (1) Introduction; (2) Tropical fruit challenges; (3) Cold chain development strategy; (4) Handling components; (5) Strengthening technology; (6) Commercial adoption; and (7) Conclusion

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Developing Precision Cold Chain Systems for Tropical Fruits

  1. 1. Dr.Dr. MohdMohd.. SallehSalleh PunanPunan Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development InstituteMalaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI)(MARDI) Kuala Lumpur, MalaysiaKuala Lumpur, Malaysia DEVELOPING PRECISIONDEVELOPING PRECISION COLD CHAIN SYSTEMCOLD CHAIN SYSTEM FOR TROPICAL FRUITSFOR TROPICAL FRUITS Cold Chain World, 22Cold Chain World, 22--23 May 2013, Bangkok, Thailand,23 May 2013, Bangkok, Thailand,
  2. 2. • Introduction • Tropical fruit challenges • Cold chain development strategy • Handling components • Strengthening technology • Commercial adoption • Conclusion CONTENTSCONTENTS
  4. 4. Welcome to MalaysiaWelcome to Malaysia Basic Statistics Total area 330,000 sq. km. Population 29 million GDP (2011) US$278.67 billion Agriculture 8.6% Industry 47.8% Services 43.6% Agricultural Economic Contribution An increasing trend 1987 RM16.2 bil. (US$5.1 bil.) 2000 RM18.7 bil. (US$5.9 bil.) 2009 RM20.0 bil. (US$6.4 bil.) 2020 (target) RM49.0 bil. (US$15.7 bil.) MALAYSIA
  5. 5. Southeast Asia has traditionally beenSoutheast Asia has traditionally been recognized as a tropical agricultural regionrecognized as a tropical agricultural region Banana, durian,Banana, durian, jackfruit, mango,jackfruit, mango, mangosteenmangosteen,, papaya, pineapple,papaya, pineapple, pomelopomelo,, rambutanrambutan andand starfruitstarfruit areare among the popularamong the popular tropical fruitstropical fruits available in theavailable in the region, includingregion, including MalaysiaMalaysia Tropical Fruit ProducerTropical Fruit ProducerTropical Fruit ProducerTropical Fruit ProducerTropical Fruit ProducerTropical Fruit ProducerTropical Fruit ProducerTropical Fruit Producer
  6. 6. Domestic marketDomestic market Regional marketRegional market Export marketExport market Hong KongHong Kong Middle EastMiddle East EuropeEurope Tropical Fruit MarketsTropical Fruit MarketsTropical Fruit MarketsTropical Fruit MarketsTropical Fruit MarketsTropical Fruit MarketsTropical Fruit MarketsTropical Fruit Markets MALAYSIA
  7. 7. Contribution in the World Market Latin America &Latin America & Caribbean: 40%Caribbean: 40% Asia: 20%Asia: 20% Malaysia: 3Malaysia: 3--5%5% Africa: 14%Africa: 14% Others: 26%Others: 26%
  8. 8. Malaysia’s Fruits Exported Pineapple Starfruit Papaya Banana Durian Watermelon
  10. 10. High Postharvest losses Average losses: About 25% Could be 0 to 100%
  11. 11. Highly sensitive to chilling injury Tropical fruits be kept between 10-15 oC Ethylene producer or ethylene sensitive Ethylene producers should be separated from ethylene sensitive fruit Use MAP technique
  12. 12. Limited storage life Less than 1 week at ambient 2-3 weeks at low temperature Not all responding well with CA
  14. 14. R&D StrategyR&D Strategy Temperature risk assessmentTemperature risk assessment Extending storage lifeExtending storage life Establishment of cold chainEstablishment of cold chain facilitiesfacilities Implement cold chain handlingImplement cold chain handling systemsystem
  15. 15. Produce temperatures during handlingProduce temperatures during handling Retailing Warehouse Transportation Storage Packinghouse Harvesting 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Time after harvest, days Temperature,oC Surrounding temperatures, oC Produce temperatures, oC RetailingRetailingRetailingRetailing WarehouseWarehouseWarehouseWarehouse TransportationTransportationTransportationTransportation StorageStorageStorageStorage PackinghousePackinghousePackinghousePackinghouse HarvestingHarvestingHarvestingHarvesting
  16. 16. TEMPERATURE RISK ASSESSMENT Washing, air ventilationWashing, air ventilation2525--2828PackinghousePackinghouse operationoperation 1 day1 day Inefficient air ventilationInefficient air ventilation2525--3030Storage/delayStorage/delay1 days1 days Open lorry and hot dayOpen lorry and hot day2828--3535TransportationTransportation (land/air)(land/air) 11--2 days2 days Good ventilationGood ventilation2525--2828WarehouseWarehouse storagestorage 11--2 days2 days AirAir--condition in supermarket/hypercondition in supermarket/hyper-- marketmarket 2020--2525RetailingRetailing11--3 days3 days Respiration, heat evolutionRespiration, heat evolution3030--3333Temp. storageTemp. storage8 hrs8 hrs Shaded packinghouseShaded packinghouse2828--3030PackinghousePackinghouse10 hrs10 hrs Field heat and respiration activityField heat and respiration activity3333--3535Infield handlingInfield handling4 hrs4 hrs Expose to sun light / high temperatureExpose to sun light / high temperature2828--3030HarvestingHarvesting2 hrs2 hrs Temperature risksTemperature risksProduceProduce temperatures (temperatures (ooCC)) Handling stagesHandling stagesDurationDuration (hrs or days)(hrs or days)
  17. 17. FruitsFruits Temp (Temp (°°C)C) RH (%)RH (%) PeriodPeriod CarambolaCarambola 55 8585--9090 55--9 wks9 wks PapayaPapaya 1010--1313 8585--9090 22--4 wks4 wks CikuCiku 1313 8585--9090 11--3 wks3 wks DurianDurian 1010 8585--9090 11--3 wks3 wks GuavaGuava 55 8585--9090 33--7 wks7 wks PummeloPummelo 77--99 8585--9090 12 wks12 wks MangoMango 1515 8585--9090 22--3 wks3 wks BananaBanana 1414 8585--9090 22--3 wks3 wks RambutanRambutan 1010 9090--9595 11--2 wks2 wks WatermelonWatermelon 1010 8585--9090 22--4 wks4 wks Extending Storage Life withExtending Storage Life with Low TemperatureLow Temperature ConditionCondition
  18. 18. LOW TEMPERATURE FACILITIES Packhouse cold room Pre-cooler Warehouse cold room Cold truck Refer sea-container
  19. 19. COLD CHAIN HANDLINGCOLD CHAIN HANDLING LOCATION HANDLING OPERATION CONDITION Harvesting In-field packaging In-field transportation Receiving at packinghouse Temporary storage Packinghouse operation Transportation Packaging Wholesale market Retail market Storage/delay Local Export Sea-freight F A R M P A C K I N G H O U S E D I S T R I B U T I O N Warehouse Air-freight P R E C O O L I N G C O L D A R E A O R R O O M C O L D V E H I C L E
  21. 21. Harvesting &Harvesting &Harvesting &Harvesting & infield handlinginfield handlinginfield handlinginfield handling PackinghousePackinghousePackinghousePackinghouse operationoperationoperationoperation Grading &Grading &Grading &Grading & standardizationstandardizationstandardizationstandardization PackagingPackagingPackagingPackaging StorageStorageStorageStorage TransportationTransportationTransportationTransportation PostharvestPostharvestPostharvestPostharvest treatmentstreatmentstreatmentstreatments Handling ChainHandling Chain
  22. 22. Harvesting & InHarvesting & In--field Handlingfield Handling
  23. 23. • To remove dirt, foreign matters & pesticide residues • Wash with clean, 200 ppm chlorinated water WashingWashing
  24. 24. P&D TreatmentP&D Treatment 2.5% benzoid acid 1000 ppm thiabendazole • Control disease contamination • Dip stalk into solution:
  25. 25. Hot water treatmentHot water treatment
  26. 26. Pre-cooling • To reduce temperature rapidly before storage
  27. 27. PackagingPackaging • To pack produce according to market’s need • Corrugated fibreboard box (CFB), 10 kg, 15 kg or 5 kg capacity
  28. 28. Packed Produce
  29. 29. Cold room Refer container Malaysia’s climate > 30oC Without refrigeration 1 week Low temperature 2-3 weeks Longer storage life carambola, guava, pummelo Delay ripening banana, papaya, mango Problem chilling injury at < 10oC Overcome storage at 10-15oC StorageStorage
  30. 30. DomesticDomestic RegionalRegional Long distanceLong distance TransportationTransportation
  31. 31. Air shipmentAir shipment Travel less than 24 hrsTravel less than 24 hrs But more expensiveBut more expensive
  32. 32. Sea shipmentSea shipment Use refrigeratedUse refrigerated containercontainer Longer shippingLonger shipping periodperiod Cheaper costCheaper cost
  34. 34. Fruits in sealed LDPE bagsFruits in sealed LDPE bags Optimum levels:Optimum levels: OO22 22--5%5% COCO22 55--10%10% CC22HH44 <0.35<0.35 ppmppm Effective for bananas,Effective for bananas, carambolacarambola, guava,, guava, ppapayaapaya and pineappleand pineapple MAP
  35. 35. Precise MAP To extend storage life and fresher fruit Approach: 1. Modelling package designs Derive mathematical equations Decision Support System )1()( t V ia e WR CC Γ − − Γ ±=− Γ ±=− WR CC ia )( 2. Aperture system Small holes/perforations incorporated in parallel with package Assure optimum atmosphere in the package
  36. 36. • Optimum : 2-5% O2: 5-10% CO2 • Banana, carambola, guava, sapota, mango, papaya, pineapple • Limitation: expensive facility & maintenance CA Storage
  37. 37. To propose precise cold chain systemTo propose precise cold chain system for specific producefor specific produce To predict optimum shelf life ofTo predict optimum shelf life of produce under a complete cold chainproduce under a complete cold chain systemsystem To estimate achievable shelf life ifTo estimate achievable shelf life if broken cold chain system occurredbroken cold chain system occurred Modelling Cold Chain System
  38. 38. 1.1. Develop mathematical modelsDevelop mathematical models Rate of respirationRate of respiration Rate of ethylene productionRate of ethylene production Rate of moisture lossRate of moisture loss 2. Develop predictive shelf life models under2. Develop predictive shelf life models under static and dynamic handling conditionsstatic and dynamic handling conditions 3. Simulate predictive shelf life models3. Simulate predictive shelf life models Under complete cold chain systemUnder complete cold chain system Under broken cold chain systemUnder broken cold chain system R&D Approach
  39. 39. Preparation Storage Distribution Precise Cold Chain System
  40. 40. Simulation Trials
  41. 41. 66 –– 88 66 –– 88 66 –– 88 33 –– 44 66 –– 88 STORAGE LIFESTORAGE LIFE WeeksWeeks Hong Kong, Middle East,Hong Kong, Middle East, EuropeEurope Hong Kong, Middle East,Hong Kong, Middle East, EuropeEurope Middle East, EuropeMiddle East, Europe Hong Kong, Middle EastHong Kong, Middle East Hong Kong, Middle East,Hong Kong, Middle East, EuropeEurope EXPORT DESTINATIONEXPORT DESTINATION MixedMixed LoadsLoads StarfruitStarfruit PineapplePineapple PapayaPapaya BananaBanana PRODUCEPRODUCE Simulated Technology
  43. 43. Export Technology UAE, NetherlandsUAE, Netherlands Hong Kong, BelgiumHong Kong, Belgium Saudi Arabia, UK, GermanySaudi Arabia, UK, Germany Hong Kong, Saudi Arabia,Hong Kong, Saudi Arabia, UAEUAE Hong Kong, Japan, UAE,Hong Kong, Japan, UAE, DenmarkDenmark COUNTRYCOUNTRY Mixed LoadsMixed Loads StarfruitStarfruit PineapplePineapple PapayaPapaya BananaBanana PRODUCEPRODUCE
  44. 44. StarfruitStarfruit
  45. 45. PineapplePineapple
  46. 46. Export Trial to Netherlands
  47. 47. Quality ObservationQuality Observation
  48. 48. Quality Maturity 2 Maturity 4 N36 Josapine
  49. 49. CONCLUSION Precision cold chain system has beenPrecision cold chain system has been developed for banana, papaya,developed for banana, papaya, pineapple andpineapple and starfruitstarfruit Commercial trials were conducted toCommercial trials were conducted to Hong Kong, Middle East and Europe toHong Kong, Middle East and Europe to verify the systemverify the system The system has contributed to theThe system has contributed to the successful marketing of Malaysiansuccessful marketing of Malaysian tropical fruits to distance marketstropical fruits to distance markets
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