DETECTION OF NON-HALAL INGREDIENTS
Halal Products Research Institute (IPPH), UPM
3-4 SEPTEMBER 2014
AsiaWorld-Expo, Hong Kong
Current issues in halal products
Halal analysis and authentication
حلالاً طيبا Halal – permissible by Shariah Law. Haram – prohibited by Shariah Law. Thoyyib – Good and wholesome (quality, safe, nutritious, pure).
Muslims cannot consume the following:
•pork or pork by products,
•animals that were dead prior to slaughtering,
•animals not slaughtered properly or not slaughtered in the name of Allah,
•blood and blood by products,
•birds of prey,
•land animals without external ears
The needs for analysis
Laidan (2011) stated that a particular Halal-certified product cannot be genuinely guaranteed halal without being tested in halal laboratory.
The following examples justify the need for analysis:
From 902 meat products tested; 15.9% cases for raw product containing undeclared animal species and 22.9% cases for cooked products containing undeclared animal species.
~50% animal feeds contain undeclared animal species.
Status of some food additives/ingredients
Haram if from pork liver/kidney
Doubtful, may be mixed with gelatin
Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA)
Doubtful, if animal fat is used as carrier
Doubtful, if it is from animal
Mono-and diglycerides of fatty acids
Doubtful, if it is from animal
Challenges in halal analyses
No pressure/requirement by relevant authorities.
Industry wants faster halal certification process
Complex analytical techniques.
Lack of competent analysts.
Undeclared ingredients and processing aids.
Lack of biomarkers:
Dalmasso et al. (2004)
Taqman Real-time PCR
Cai et al. (2012)
Molecular Beacon real time PCR
Mitochondrial cytochrome b
Mohd Yusop et al. (2012)
Commercial Real-time PCR Kit
Demirhan et al. (2012)
Syahariza et al. (2005)
Hashim et al. (2010)
FTIR + PLS
Rohman et al. (2011)
FTIR + chemometrics
Xu et al.(2012)
Cooking oils + lard
Mansor et al. (2012)
Zhang et al. (2009)
Garcia-Martin et al. (2010)
Indrasti et al. (2010)
Nurjuliana et al. (2011)
Some methods developed specifically for halal analysis
Halal Products Analyses MS ISO/IEC 17025:2005 Accredited
Scope of Accreditation
Type of test
Collagen, gelatin capsule
Amino acid profiling
DNA (meat and meat- based products)
Porcine specific DNA marker
HaFYSTM: 1 step, 1 button, ~ 1 hour
Insert into Analyzer
Red line: Internal control; blue line: beef sample (Negative Result)
Red line: Internal control; blue line:
Cat food containing pork (Positive Result)
Red line: Internal control; blue line: no- template control
Amino acid analysis of gelatin using HPLC and Chemometric approaches
Stages in analysis
hydrochloric acid is the most widely used agent for hydrolyzing proteins.
the hydrolysis process occurred in 110OC within 24hrs
(Using AccQ tag Fluor reagent )
using 6-aminoquinolyl-N- hydroxysuccinimidyl carbamate derivatives
Quantification separations by HPLC-FD
All amino acid derivative separations required a gradient chromatography due to the wide hydrophobicity range of the amino acid side chains
use fluorescence detection with excitation at 248nm and emission at 395nm.
Calculation of Ethanol Content
By taking the equation y = 0.0001x - 0.0019, the amount of ethanol present in sample (ex : Sushi dipping sauce) can be calculated.
Y = Peak area of Ethanol / Peak area of Acetonitrile
x = Ethanol Concentration (ppm)
When y = 0.6204, x = 0.6204 + 0.0019/0.0001
= 6222.916 ppm or 0.6223%
Multiply by 10 (1 gm of original sample was diluted with deionized water up to 10 ml )
So, original sample contains 6.223% w/v ethanol (considered as HARAM).
Alcohol content in beverages
Fortified wines (16-22%)
Fruit juices (<0.1%)
Halal should take into account beyond just trust, social, spiritual, environmental, and sustainability issues through document audit-based and site visit approaches as practiced by almost all halal certification bodies, but must also be verified through laboratory analysis.