Dairy Industry & Quality Measures in Supply Chain 2013
Dairy Industry & QualityMeasures in Supply Chain Dr.Harsev Singh CEO Reliance Dairy Foods Ltd. 1
Indian Dairy Industry Overview Milk Production – 127 Million MT Dairy & Livestock sector contributes 4.7 % of GDP India has 577 million small holders of which 350 million (70 million rural households) keep dairy animals. Marginal & Small famers together constitute 61 % of all holdings and 71 % of in milk stock. Size of the herds range from 1-3 2
Market Dynamics Consumers Society Food ManufacturersPrice Conscious / Value for Shelf Life Increased Focus on Food Safety QualityMoneyLess Loyalty • Fresh Environment CompetitivenessConvenience • Extended Guidelines Product InnovationChoice • Long Life New Worldwide Milk Trading • Taste Panels RulesAroma Channel Retailers • New RecipesNovelties Composition Consolidated Buying Power • R&D / Labs• Functional Food Reduced Foods Private Labels • Fast Time Market• Healthy Foods • Low Fat Audit Marketing• Neutraceuticals • Low Lactose Outlet ProcessingPackaging Format • Low Sugar • Point of Sales • Small Batches• Family • Low Salt • Shop Layout • Many Changeovers• On the Go Biological • Shelf Management • Differentiated Milk Streams• Ready to Eat Extreme Pressure on Pricing • Demand DrivenContainer Sustainability• Carton Value Chain• Glass Producer / Farmer• Plastic• Can 3
Quality Concerns in Dairy ProcessingProcessors must contend with the following problems on adaily basis : High bacterial loads in raw m ilk are reducing product shelf life; High bacterial counts in raw m ilk are a direct cause of reduced quality in dairy products Antibiotic residues prevent efficient yogurt and cheese production Antibiotic and pesticide residues do not m eet regional trade standards and thereby restrict ex port trade A lack of cold chain in collection system s reduces quality A lack of cold chain at retail reduces distribution efficiency and causes products to spoil quick ly Consum ers have inaccurate perceptions about poor m ilk quality, even w ith processed products. 4
Clean Milk Production at Farm levelClean milk production results in milk that : I s safe for hum an consum ption and free from disease producing m icroorganism s; Has a high k eeping quality; Has a high com m ercial value; Can be transported over long distances; I s a high quality base product for processing, resulting in high quality products.
Contamination and Control Measures at Farm Level Contamination of milk can occur at the following levels: Anim al shed and environm ent The Anim al , its health and m anagem ent M ilk er and m ilk ing routine M ilk ing equipm ent Storage and transport
Quality Measures In Milk Collection SystemsAnimal Shed The anim al shed is one of the m ain sources of contam ination. M ud, urine and feed residues should regularly be rem oved from the shed. The shed should have proper drainage, sufficient light and ventilation. I n very w et areas, sprink ling slak ed lim e over the surface w ill help to dry it out quick ly. The m ilk ing area of the shed needs special hygienic attention. The floor of the m ilk shed should be sw ept w ith clean w ater, and disinfected w ith one-percent bleaching pow der solution.
Animal Health Care Milk from diseased animals should be kept separate and disposed of safely. Animals suffering from any contagious disease, including mastitis, should be segregated from the healthy ones. The skin of the animal provides a large surface for possible contamination. Long hairs on the flanks, hind legs, tail and udder should be clipped at frequent intervals. If washing of animals is not practiced regularly as is observed in most cases, at least grooming of the animals should be done to keep the hair and dust away from milk. The udder is the part of the animal nearest to the milk and needs to be washed before each milking, and dried with a clean cloth or towel.
Somatic Cells to Counter Infection These germs make it to colonize the teat end and enter the udderGerms Blood with Nutrients & WBCCows are exposed to mastitiscausing bacteria in pens or in themilking parlour WBC sent to fight the germs WBC (somatic cells) are sent to the Germs ascend to the healthy infected tissue to fight the germs alveolus of the gland to thereby, they become a component establish infection in the milk of mastitic cows
Milking In the case of hand milking, the danger Dirty milking equipment is one of of contamination coming from the the main sources of infection of milker is higher as compared with milk. machine milking. About 15 minutes before milking, Feeding roughage at the time of milking milking equipment should be rinsed should be avoided. with a sanitizing solution. In this way, dust and contamination will be removed. If the calves are suckling, the calf should be allowed to suckle at the beginning of the milking. Milking equipment should also be thoroughly cleaned after use because any milk residues in the The udders and teats should be washed equipment will allow and massaged for at least 30 seconds microorganisms to grow rapidly. and dried prior to milking. The utensils and equipment used The milk should be drawn directly into during milking should be of the pail as fast as possible. standard quality. The utensils and equipment should not have any After milking, the teats can be dipped or joints or open seams and should be sprayed with a gentle antiseptic free from dents, rust etc. solution. Should be stored in such a manner Care should taken that traces of and location to prevent chemicals used for cleaning should not contamination from flies, insects be present. dust, dirt, rodents etc. 10
Quality Measures in Production Systems Intensive Animal Management Practices Vaccination against notifiable diseases Veterinary care to control m astitis and other diseases P roper breeding to im prove/ m aintain genetics P roper feeds that are free of pesticide residues Anim al holding areas and m ilk ing parlors that do not prom ote the spread of diseases P roper m ilk ing procedures
Quality Measures at Collection Point Creating a record k eeping system that docum ents each m em ber/ supplier Testing each batch received (no m atter how sm all) and recording the results by m em ber Using m ultiple tests, such as cryoscopy and/ or lactom eter for adulteration, titratable acidity test for bacteria load, and m astitis detection Rejecting m ilk that falls below specified standards Tak ing corrective action w hen a m em ber repeatedly delivers m ilk below quality standards. 12
Quality Management Systems Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP) ISO 9000 & ISO 22000 Enable organizations to Dem onstrates ability to control food safety hazards Dem onstrates com pliance to statutory & regulatory requirem ents Evaluate assess and m eet custom ers requirem ents Com m unicates food safety inform ation throughout food chain Enables evaluation and updation of the system I ncludes outsourced processes Ensures food is safe at the tim e for hum an consum ption
Storage and Transport Before storage, it is best to filter the milk with a clean cloth in order to remove large particles that might have entered the milk. The cloth should be thoroughly cleaned after use and left to dry in the sun. Heat, light and violent movement can all cause breakdown of certain components in the milk. Milk should therefore be cooled as quickly as possible. In case chilling is not feasible, preservatives like lactoperoxidase can be added to prolong the time before the milk gets spoiled. Milk should be stored in clean containers with a lid and kept in a cool and shady place where the danger of contamination is minimal. Milk should be transported in clean containers, transport time should be kept to an absolute minimum and violent movement of the milk should be avoided as milk fat can soon turn rancid in the presence of oxygen.
Food Safety Society requires food safety which calls for integrated product traceability from farmer to consumer As a consequence, data driven challenges arise: Sufficient granularity in traceability data requires batches as sm all as possible in order to recall them in case of quality problem s. Ever-growing consumer choice resulting from food manufacturers expanding their product offering leads to strong SKU proliferation This sets new standards for system capabilities. In the area of outlets, retailers’ shop layouts are determining the method to deliver the goods, asking, for example, for sequencing during loading This adds to the com plex ity of m aterial handling. To comply with global standards, retailers are auditing their food producers frequently on many aspects These include respecting HACCP and general hygienic rules, am ong other things. Obviously, this doesn’t m ake the processes landscape any sim pler.
Support Services Milk Producers Organisations (MPOs) should provide “Support- Services” to increase clean milk production. An effective and well trained animal health service should be available at all times to look after the health of animals, arrangements should be made for regular vaccination and checking against contagious diseases by the qualified veterinarians. Veterinary first aid should be readily available around the clock at village level. To avoid spoilage, milk collection centres should be set up at locations that are easily accessible to the producers. Since such programmes benefit all and sundry - may it be manufacturer, employee, supplier, custom packer, distributor, retailer, consumer, regulatory authorities and the nation as a whole, they deserve a national generic promotion campaign to create an awareness amongst the public at large.
ConclusionRaw milk quality control at the village level is a verychallenging task and has to be taken up considering thelong term perspective for making Indian Dairy productsacceptable in the international arena.Providing a safe, high-quality and nutritious dairyproduct to the consumer is need of the hour althoughchallenging because all aspects of the production chain,from the farm to the consumer, must be considered.