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Cold Chain and Perishable Innovation - Case Study


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The use of thermal covers to reduce refrigerated transport cost and improved environmental impact

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Cold Chain and Perishable Innovation - Case Study

  1. 1. 1 FreshPort Asia Cold Chain & Perishable Innovation Case Study The Use of Thermal Covers to reduce refrigerated transport cost& improved environmental impact
  2. 2. Pack Ship SellPick The “Simple” Fresh Produce Supply Chain
  3. 3. 3 Lower logistics cost per kg: Increased Shelf Life on arrival Reduction in Damage Claims / Shrink Reduction in Transportation costs Load Optimization & Consolidation Value that Retailers support: Pre-conditioning / Pre-cooling of produce prior to Shipping Thermal Protection & Monitoring (Every Step) Compliance with General Food Laws Improved Transport Handling & Thermal protection (2-8°C, 8-15°C) Environmental Benefits: Lower Carbon Footprint (elimination of gel pack & Foam packaging landfill) Lower energy consumed at each stage of handling Reduction in single use packaging / A pallet sized solution that can be returned folded and flat Product Freshness & Food safety Driving Change: Cost vs Quality in a Responsible Manner
  4. 4. 4 Shipper Packing Staging Current Method 35°C 60 Mins 35°C 120 Mins 15°C 60 Mins 10°C 60 Mins 35°C 60 Mins 24°C 20 Mins 28°C 10 Mins Just in Time Staging Dry Ice added to hot container Hand unloading Product hot on tarmac No protection airborne Perishable Packing (Data logging) Warm build- up product temp 17C Pallets kept on truck Hand loading Broken cold- chain Product hot on arrival What started the project – broken cold / huge wastage Thai Fresh Produce exporters had become logistically uncompetitive Loading Temperature 24ºC 25% wastage Unknown Post- Harvest care
  5. 5. 5 Immediate Improvement 2°C 10 Mins 2°C 20 Mins 2°C 90 Mins 2°C 60 Mins 2°C 90 Mins 2°C 10 Mins 2°C 10 Mins Shipper Packing Pre-cooling Pallet return to packhouse Pre- Cooling 2°C (or as reqd) Rapid Dock Receiving using trolley jack or tail gate unloading Thermal Protection at Ramp <17°C ULD Protection airborne Perishable Packing Using liner plate on base Of pallet – lift side ETV Cold Storage 10-12°C All through pallet usage Rapid Dock Loading using forklift or tailgate PMC Build & Weight Pallet cover Development of Thermal Covers to cover the breaks Good Post-Harvest Intervention, Pre-cooling & Shelf ready packaging Loading Temperature 1ºC ZERO claims or wastage
  6. 6. Fish & Seafood (to reduce wet ice usage, reduce truck weight and substitute use of polystyrene) Fresh cut produce (improved temperature control / gaseous contamination with both refrigerated & ambient vehicles) Dairy & Frozen (improve handling quality for certain products for shorter deliveries <18C <24hrs with Eutectic for longer periods) Chilled Meat (improved cold chain control and reduced food safety risk) Dry Goods sensitive to temperature (Chocolate & Confectionary, Wines, Some cosmetics) Temporary Cold storage in store on receiving – reduced dependency on fixed cold rooms. Thermal Covers – The airfreight solution was good enough to provide cold chain integrity for road transportation The target usage for thermal covers includes both the transportation and storage of temperature sensitive products such as:
  7. 7. Improve cold chain integrity Low cost alternate to refrigerated transport / dedicated cold chain boxes Allows multi temperature deliveries with one truck Pre-cooled product for short to medium duration deliveries (< 24-36 hours) Target temperatures are between -18C, 2C and 15C, depending on product requirements. Covers are being used successfully for wet ice transportation of fresh fish & frozen with Eutectics Successfully tested for metro delivery of ice-cream i& chilled dairy n ambient trucks Protects products from extremes of temperature during loading transportation / unloading. Final Beta trials for Dairy and ice cream ambient transportation in Thailand Thermal covers can eliminate the need for polystyrene packaging. Thermal Covers – offering a low cost cold chain solution
  8. 8. Thermal cover placed on top before taking out of cold room Product palletized inside cold room Optional cooling bricks precooled Saves energy cost, as an alternate to refrigerated transport, turning off refrigeration during transport Cover removed at store and returned to truck Optional cooling bricks removed at same time Thermal cover removed and ice tray returned to driver to go back to Distribution Centre for next journey. Distribution Centre Store Replacing refrigerated with ambient transport typical savings 30-50% vehicle cost Turning off refrigeration during transportation – typical savings 5-10 % in fuel cost Using collapsible thermal covers in lieu of Olivo Box typical return savings 35USD / pallet position* (dependent on implementing a new thermal blanket for frozen – in process) Thermal Covers – ensure cold chain integrity
  9. 9. 9 Refrigerated Delivery Vehicles (minus 20ºC – 5ºC) Problematic temperature control Ambient Delivery Vehicles can be run at 20- 35ºC Cream tests successful with truck temp at 48C No cold chain breaks during loading Trip Cost ~30-50% lower Fuel & Energy ~5-10% less Replacing Refrigerated Transport with Ambient Transport with lower cost / less fuel usage
  10. 10. Insulated Ambient truck temp 27c Pallet starting temp 5-7c Pallet arrival temp 6-7c Chiller truck temp average 8c Pallet starting temp 4-5c Pallet arrival temp 5.5-6c using normal chilled truck - 7 hours Cream Transport using Ambient Truck & Thermal Covers - 6 hours Cream Transport using Normal Chilled Truck – 7 hours
  11. 11. 11 Polystyrene waste is a huge environmental problem in Asia resulting in significant pollution of waterways & energy waste – it cannot be recycled – but often un-hygienically reused. South East Asia’s Retail Logistics Curse
  12. 12. 12 Expanded polystyrene is an irresponsible packaging material that cannot be recycled and which is often discarded or thrown away Example of expanded polystyrene foam cartons – not popular with consignees Objective to remove polystyrene from the Fish Supply Chain
  13. 13. 13 Elimination of single use polystyrene cartons A solution was developed for reusable / returnable / foldable thermal eco-friendly packaging Eco box
  14. 14. Eco Box (Dairy, Fresh Cut Produce, Frozen) Design Concept Foldable / washable / re-useable 100cm long x 60cm wide x 30cm high Avoids use of oversize polystyrene cartons / reduced wet ice Reduces requirement for refrigerated transport (<36 hours) Prevents damaging oversize products in standard size crates Target Performance: Target produce weight 30-50kg, including wet ice / eutectics Light weight chilled produce Pre-cooled 2-5C / Fish transport in minimal wet ice 0-2C, Whipping Cream 2-5C Stackable 4 layers high / 2 boxes per pallet layer - folds flat for return Additional insulated transportation inside thermal pallet cover
  15. 15. Eco-Box (Loose Load or pre-packed less than Palletized Product) Collapsible, nestable, returnable. Supports Chilled (Frozen version in development) Two sizes developed Oversize Pallet Box 100/107cm x 60cm x 30cm Delivery Box (frozen) 60cm x 40cm x 20cm Can be used in conjunction with Eutectic cold bricks or stand- alone. Uses an inner plastic liner to contain wet ice. Vacuum insulated panels to be used for frozen box
  16. 16. Project Benefits: Maintains cold chain integrity for multi modal and long distance transport (2- 3 days) Lower energy cost using ambient transportation in lieu of refrigerated transport. 80% reduction of wet ice used in transportation of fish (reducing product damage) Improved quality / shelf life and reduced waste for chilled & highly perishable products Prevention of chilling injury during transportation for certain products Lower environmental impact by using reusable thermal packaging in lieu of polystyrene Lower in-store infrastructure costs (reduction in use of back room refrigeration) Cover folds up for lower cost return transportation, must be washed on each cycle of use Thermal Covers – Benefits
  17. 17. Dependencies Thermal Covers can only perform properly if part of an overall end to end cold chain solution Selected products must be tested & correctly pre-cooled to ensure stable temperature Crates & cartons need to be compatible with standard pallets & allow optimal stacking Staff require training in the use of covers and in cold chain handling of fresh produce Reusable Thermal covers require the use of standard pallets (120cm x 100cm base) Pallet heights need to be standardized for particular categories (i.e. fish 140cm high) Thermal Covers – Dependencies
  18. 18. Thermal Covers – Test Results Testing A number of tests were carried out to confirm that thermal covers could perform with the different products / handling requirements of Metro, they involved Fish and F&V. These tests met or exceeded expectations. Test Summaries are as follows: Fish Maintained 2 – 5 kg wet ice in plastic crates for a period of 3 days @ 1- 2C Improved quality of fish received in store (less damage) Dairy & Cream Transportation from manufacturer to distributor warehouse 5 hours 2-5C Ice Cream Transport from manufacturer to retail DC 5 hours <18C F&V Maintained temperature of pre-chilled apples at 4C for 3 days at 8 -15C Maintained pre-chilled apples <8C exposed to 30C ambient for 3 days Prevented chilling injury with sensitive produce for 3 days in 2-5C environment
  19. 19. Page 20 Trial 1: Chilled Apples in low Ambient for 3 days Pallet 3: 20mm thermal cover No eutectics Pallet 1: 10mm Thermal cover No eutectic blocks Pallet 2:10mm Thermal cover 3 eutectic blocks <18C Result: Maintained exactly 4.5C for 52 hours. Result: Maintained between 4 & 5C for 52 hours Result: Maintained b/w 4.5C and 2.5Cfor 52 hours
  20. 20. Page 21 Average temperature differential 25C over 24 hours 25 cases of chilled apples. Exposed to extreme temperature / direct sunlight Product core temperature increased 3C / 24 hours.. Which is equivalent to normal heat given out during oxidation (senescence) . Temperature increase: 1C temperature rise / 8 hours. Ambient temperature Logger inside centre of pallet Trial 1: Chilled Apples in High Ambient (Apples) 24 hours
  21. 21. Ambient Ambient Ambient Temperature 10mm cover & No cooling block 10mm cover & 3 Cooling blocks 10mm cover & 3 Cooling blocks Result: 3 pallets of apples, with temperature maintained <5C for 52 hours Trial 1: Chilled Apples in Low Ambient temperatures 3 days
  22. 22. Whipping Cream between 2 & 5C to maintain efficacy Average ambient temperature inside the truck. 32c Under thermal cover temperature readings Average temp 5c Temperature Inside 1 gallon cream tub Product temperature increased 1 degree in 5 hours 2-5ºC Trial 2: Chilled whipping Cream – Ambient Truck Transportation 6 hours
  23. 23. Palletized Ice-cream <minus 18C, Average ambient temperature inside the truck. 17C Product temperature increased 2 degrees in 6 hours Under thermal cover temperature readings Average temp 5c Trial 3: Ice Cream – Ambient Truck Transportation 6 hours Metro Delivery
  24. 24. Normal transportation method of Mackerel: Using undersized plastic crates No standard polystyrene box was available- so traditional method is to use second hand (not clean) poly boxes or recut standard boxes with contamination from cut polystyrene. Trial 4: Mackerel Shipment with Wet Ice
  25. 25. Redline extrapolated Control Test: Delay in Wet-Ice melt for Fish Transportation Ambient Temperature 2 kg Ice in in plastic crate @ 5C 8 kg Ice @ 5C Insulated crate 8 kg Ice in in plastic crate @ 5C 8 kg Ice x 35 crates in thermal cover 2 kg Ice in in plastic crate @ 5C
  26. 26. Test 4: Fresh Mackerel Shipment with Wet Ice Testing using 25kg of fresh mackerel - average length 90cm 48 hours – delivery from CanTho fish platform to Anh Phu Store Result: all wet ice intact Maintained temperature
  27. 27. Test 4: Mackerel Shipment with Wet Ice 48 hours transit time: Ice intact at destination
  28. 28. Trial 4: Showing the same test with refrigerated transport Ambient Truck & Platform Temperature Logger inside body of fish Temperature Logger on top of fish
  29. 29. Trial 5: Protection from Chilling Injury (Herbs, Bananas, Tropical Fruits) Page 30 Average temperature differential 15C 18 hours Ambient Pomelos. Exposed to potential chilling injury Product core temperature decreased 5C / 15 hours. 1C temperature decrease / 3hours. The thermal cover showed it can provide protection for sensitive produce from chilling injury during transportation. Cold room temperature Logger inside centre of pallet
  30. 30. Transit timeStaging & Loading Destination Temperature inside Stable temperatures from packhouse to end destination Temperature outside cover Temperature inside cover Test 6: Use of Thermal Cover for Multi Modal transport 24 hrs
  31. 31. integrity Blue line = Outside cover, Green line = Outside skid under cover, Black line = Attached to carton, Red line = inside carton Ambient temperature in direct sun was 51c for 2 hours Temperature taken inside cover – no ice, no gel pack Remained stable at 10C Temperature inside carton went up 4 degrees in 22 hours Trial was to test effectiveness of frozen products with no additional cooling / eutectics. Normally a 5kg eutectic brick would be used to stabilize the temperature Test 7: Thermal Covers – Frozen Shipments without Eutectics
  32. 32. 33 Exterior logger recording ambient temperature Under thermal cover Inside carton logger recording product temperature Trial was to test effectiveness of frozen product from manufacturing site to retail DC Result: 28 hours with temperature rise of 8C, Product trials using frozen pastry dough – shipped from Bangkok to Narita by air. Thermal Covers – Frozen Shipments with Eutectics Additional successful Trials using ambient truck for palletized Frozen Ice Cream from manufacturer in Lat Kra-bang to distributor in BangPoo < minus 18ºC for 12 hours
  33. 33. 34 New Product Offering – Low temp frozen in situ cold room 1. Frozen, deep-frozen and refrigerated commodities. 2. Inner temperature can be kept to -20C even in a midsummer. 4. Various types of cooling containers are available Thermal Engine from Japan
  34. 34. 35 The inner temperature can be set at 3 levels: 1 Refrigeration Mode (plus 3°C), 2 Freeze Mode (minus 20°C), 3 Strong Freeze Mode (minus 35°C). The Freezer Unit can maintain a 60-65C temperature differential.
  35. 35. 36 A company can only generate profitable growth over the long term if it acts responsibly towards society and the environment. That is why METRO GROUP had declared sustainability to be an integral component of the Company’s strategy in developing these cold chain solutions. This project was successful in that social and environmental needs were considered essential business case inputs. With sustainability considered at an early stage in project business decisions and processes. Sustainability & Environmental Responsibility
  36. 36. 37 Chris Catto-Smith + 66 81 735 7617
  37. 37. AFRIS. AsianFoodRegulationInformationService. We have the largest database of Asian food regulations in the world and it’s FREE to use. We publish a range of communication services, list a very large number of food events and online educational webinars and continue to grow our Digital Library. We look forward to hearing from you soon!