Cadmium in Rice_2013

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Cadmium in Rice_2013

  1. 1. 1 Cadmium in Rice 18/9/2013
  2. 2. 2 Background  In May 2013, it was reported that  certain rice and rice products  collected by Guangdong authorities, containing cadmium at levels which did not comply with the Mainland standard  Mainland GB standard for cadmium in rice is ≦ 0.2 mg/kg
  3. 3. 3 Cadmium  Nature of Cadmium  a metallic element that occurs naturally in the Earth’s crust  can be released to the environment by human activities  industrial applications e.g. electroplating, nickel- cadmium batteries and electronics, etc.  fertilisers produced from phosphate ores and  industrial operations such as mining Cadmium does not break down in the environment
  4. 4. 4 Cadmium  Occurrence in Food  plants, animals, fish and shellfish take up cadmium when it is in their growth environment (e.g. soil, air, water, etc)  use of cadmium-containing fertilisers and feeding stuffs Cadmium can go up the food chain when contaminated crops and plants are ingested by animals
  5. 5. 5 Cadmium  Occurrence in Food Cadmium, which originates from natural sources or from human activities such as mining, can enter rice plant through soil and water.
  6. 6. 6 Cadmium  How are People Exposed to Cadmium  Inhale cadmium from work environment containing cadmium fumes and dust,  from the smelting and refining of metals, and  from the air in plants where cadmium products are made.  For the general population, food is the main source of cadmium exposure.
  7. 7. 7 Cadmium  Health Effects of Cadmium  acute toxicity of cadmium due to dietary exposure is very unlikely  prolonged intake of excessive cadmium may have adverse effects on kidney
  8. 8. 8 Cadmium  Health Effects of Cadmium  The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) of the World Health Organization considered that  sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity of cadmium and cadmium compounds in humans due to occupational exposure through inhalation, and classified them as “carcinogenic to human” (Group 1 agents)  However, available evidence suggests that cadmium does not appear to have significant genotoxic and carcinogenic potential via the oral route
  9. 9. 9 Safety reference value of cadmium  The Joint Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA)  established a provisional tolerable monthly intake (PTMI) of 25 mcg/kg bw to cadmium in 2010
  10. 10. 10 Dietary exposure to cadmium  A risk assessment on dietary exposure to cadmium using the total diet study (TDS) methodology was conducted  The results indicated that the general population was unlikely to experience major undesirable health effects of cadmium from dietary exposure http://www.cfs.gov.hk/english/programme/programme_firm/programme_tds_1st_H KTDS_report5_Metallic_Contaminants.html
  11. 11. 11 Dietary exposure to cadmium 26% 36% 21% 4% 3% 1% 3%1% 5% Vegetables and their products Fish and seafood and their products Cereals and their products Mixed dishes Beverages, non-alcoholic Legumes, nuts and seeds and their products Meat, poultry and game and their products Fruits Others
  12. 12. 12  Mainland China and the European Union have set standards for cadmium in rice at 0.2 mg/kg.  In Hong Kong, the Food Adulteration (Metallic Contamination) Regulations Cap. 132 V  the maximum permitted concentration for cadmium in cereals is at 0.1 mg/kg. Regulatory Standards of Cadmium in Rice
  13. 13. 13  Observe Good Agricultural Practice to minimise cadmium contamination in food crops  Obtain food supplies from reliable sources  Ensure foods imported or for sale are fit for human consumption and comply with legal standards Advice to trade
  14. 14. 14 End

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